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Lesson 12 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Verbs: The Past Tense and The Perfect Tense - Your Desk - Cups and Gallons to Liters - Wageningen

Listen
Verbs: Past and Perfect Tenses
Words at A Desk
Metric and Imperial: Volume
My Home Town: Wageningen

More from Multatuli: Max Havelaar - see also Lesson 7 and Lesson 10
The dour narrator of the first chapters further introduces himself, and is not entirely wrong in debunking romantic love.

And then, other lies turn up later. A girl is an angel. The person who first discovered that never had any sisters. En dan komen later weer andere leugens. Een meisje is een engel. Wie dit voor het eerst ontdekte, heeft nooit zusters gehad. click to hear
Love is bliss. One flees with one or another object to the end of the earth. The earth has no ends, and Love like that is crazy too. Liefde is een zaligheid. Men vlucht met het een of ander voorwerp naar het einde der aarde. De aarde heeft geen einden, en die Liefde is ook gekheid. click to hear
Nobody can say my married life is not good - my wife is a daughter of Last & Co, coffee brokers - nobody will be able to find fault with our marriage. Niemand kan zeggen dat ik niet goed leef met myn vrouw - zy is een dochter van Last & Co, makelaars in koffi - niemand kan iets op ons huwelyk aanmerken. click to hear
I am a member of Artis, she has a long shawl that cost 92 guilders, and the silly love that absolutely wants to live at the end of the world has never occurred between us. Ik ben lid van Artis, zy heeft een sjaallong van twee-en-negentig gulden, en van zulk een malle liefde die volstrekt aan het einde der aarde wil wonen, is toch tussen ons nooit spraak geweest. click to hear 2
After our wedding we made a little trip to The Hague - she bought flannel there for undershirts I'm still wearing - and beyond that love has never pushed us into the wide world. So: all silliness and lies! Toen we getrouwd zyn, hebben wy een toertje naar Den Haag gemaakt - ze heeft daar flanel gekocht, waarvan ik nog borstrokken draag - en verder heeft ons de liefde nooit de wereld ingejaagd. Dus: alles gekheid en leugens! click to hear

And would my marriage be less happy than that of people who [got TB or lost their hair] risked (health and hair) life and limb for love? En zou myn huwelyk nu minder gelukkig wezen, dan van de mensen die zich uit liefde de tering op de hals haalden, of de haren uit het hoofd? click to hear
Or do you think my household is a little less well organized than it would have been, had I 17 years ago told my girl in poetry that I wanted to marry her? Of denkt ge dat myn huishouden iets minder wel geregeld is, dan het wezen zou als ik voor zeventien jaar myn meisje in verzen gezegd had dat ik haar trouwen wilde? click to hear
Madness! Yet I could have done this as well as any other, for writing poetry is a craft, certainly less difficult than turning ivory. Gekheid! Ik had dit toch even goed kunnen doen als ieder ander, want verzenmaken is een ambacht, zeker minder moeielyk dan ivoordraaien. click to hear
How else could ulevellen (a type of candy) with poetry wrappers be so cheap? Frits calls them 'Uhlefeldjes' I don't know why - And do inquire about the price of a set of billiard balls! Hoe zouden anders de ulevellen met deviezen zo goedkoop wezen? Frits zegt: 'Uhlefeldjes' ik weet niet, waarom? - En vraag eens naar de prys van een stel biljardballen! click to hear 2
(continued - previous: 2 - 1)
Notes
'Artis' is (or was) a club that also runs the Amsterdam zoo.
(De) borstrok click to hear is actually a second undershirt. I still wore them in Winter as a child, but it already felt old-fashioned then.
Multatuli writes biljard with D, but the usual spelling is with T: biljart.

Verbs: The Past Tense and The Perfect Tense

The Simple Past Tense
The Perfect Tense
Compound Verbs
The Most Common Verbs
A Collection of Strong Verbs
- Smartphone Verbs Pages
Simple Past Model
strong verbs weak verbs
"'t kofschip" type other weak verbs
(I )

(you [singular])

(he )

(we )

(you [plural])

(they )

(you [polite])

ik STRONG-PAST-STEM

jij STRONG-PAST-STEM

hij STRONG-PAST-STEM

wij STRONG-PAST-STEM+en

jullie STRONG-PAST-STEM+en

zij STRONG-PAST-STEM+en

U STRONG-PAST-STEM

ik STEM+te

jij STEM+te

hij STEM+te

wij STEM+ten

jullie STEM+ten

zij STEM+ten

U STEM+te

ik STEM+de

jij STEM+de

hij STEM+de

wij STEM+den

jullie STEM+den

zij STEM+den

U STEM+de

Strong Verbs Simple Past Examples Compare with simple present tense
vragento ask
rijdento drive or to ride vragenrijden
ik vroeg
jij vroeg
hij vroeg
wij vroegen
jullie vroegen
zij vroegen
U vroeg
click to hear
(I asked)
(you asked)
(he asked)
(we asked)
(you asked)
(they asked)
(you asked)

ik reed
jij reed
hij reed
wij reden
jullie reden
zij reden
U reed
click to hear
(I drove)
(you drove)
(he drove)
(we drove)
(you drove)
(they drove)
(you drove)

ik vraag
jij vraagt
hij vraagt
wij vragen
jullie vragen
zij vragen
U vraagt
click to hear

ik rijd
jij rijdt
hij rijdt
wij rijden
jullie rijden
zij rijden
U rijdt
click to hear


(you - singular, informal)


(you - plural, informal)

(you - polite)
vroeg jij?(did you ask?) reed jij?(did you drive?) click to
    hear vraag jij? click to hear
rijd jij? click to hear
Weak Verbs Examples
"'t kofschip" type 'non-kofschip' type Compare with simple present tense
danken to thank stemmento vote dankenstemmen
ik dankte
jij dankte
hij dankte
wij dankten
jullie dankten
zij dankten
U dankte
click to hear
(I thanked)
(you thanked)
(he thanked)
(we thanked)
(you thanked)
(they thanked)
(you thanked)

ik stemde
jij stemde
hij stemde
wij stemden
jullie stemden
zij stemden
U stemde
click to hear
(I voted)
(you voted)
(he voted)
(we voted)
(you voted)
(they voted)
(you voted)
ik dank
jij dankt
hij dankt
wij danken
jullie danken
zij danken
U dankt
click to hear
ik stem
jij stemt
hij stemt
wij stemmen
jullie stemmen
zij stemmen
U stemt
click to hear
dankte jij? (did you thank?) stemde jij?(did you vote?) click to hear dank jij? click to hear stem jij? click to hear
ga jij stemmen? click to hear
Many strong verbs with a short A in the strong-past-stem change
to a long A in the plural, for instance:
geven to give (komen)to come
ik gaf
jij gaf
hij gaf
wij gaven
jullie gaven
zij gaven
U gaf
click to hear
(I gave)
(you gave)
(he gave)
(we gave)
(you gave)
(they gave)
(you gave)

ik kwam
jij kwam
hij kwam
wij kwamen
jullie kwamen
zij kwamen
U kwam
click to hear
(I came)
(you came)
(he came)
(we came)
(you came)
(they came)
(you came)

Eten (to eat) provides nice examples of the spelling of
short and long vowels:
etento eat
ik eet
jij eet
hij eet
wij eten
jullie eten
zij eten
U eet
click to hear
(I eat)
(you eat)
(he eats)
(we eat)
(you eat)
(they eat)
(you eat)

ik at
jij at
hij at
wij aten
jullie aten
zij aten
U at
click to hear
(I ate)
(you ate)
(he ate)
(we ate)
(you ate)
(they ate)
(you ate)

The Perfect Tense

The Auxiliary Verbs hebben and zijn Reprised

hebben (to have)
zijn(to be)
hebben
ik heb
jij hebt
hij heeft
wij hebben
jullie hebben
zij hebben
U heeft
click to hear
to have
I have
you have
he has
we have
you have
they have
you have


ik had
jij had
hij had
wij hadden
jullie hadden
zij hadden
U had
click to hear

I had
you had
he had
we had
you had
they had
you had

zijn
ik ben
jij bent
hij is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn
U bent
click to hear
to be
I am
you are
he is
we are
you are
they are
you are


ik was
jij was
hij was
wij waren
jullie waren
zij waren
U was
click to hear

I was
you were
he was
we were
you were
they were
you were
'U hebt' click to hear is also said.
ik heb gehad click to hear I have had
ik had gehad click to hear 2 I had had
ik ben geweest click to
 hear I have been
ik was geweest click to hear 2 I had been

A Few Examples

English Dutch
infinitive
simple past perfect tense
to have hebben ik had ik heb gehad click to
      hear
to be zijn ik was/wij waren ik ben geweest click to
      hear
to know (people) kennen ik kende ik heb gekend click to
      hear
to know (things) weten ik wist ik heb geweten click to hear
to thank danken ik dankte ik heb gedankt click to hear
to vote stemmen ik stemde ik heb gestemd click to hear
to ask vragen ik vroeg ik heb gevraagd click to hear
to drive, to ride rijden ik reed ik heb/ben gereden click to
    hear
to give geven ik gaf/wij gaven ik heb gegeven click to hear
to come komen ik kwam/wij kwamen ik ben gekomen click to hear
to walk lopen ik liep ik heb/ben gelopen click to
    hear
to go gaan ik ging ik ben gegaan click to hear
to get halen ik haalde ik heb gehaald click to hear
to pray bidden ik bad/wij baden ik heb gebeden click to hear
to take nemen ik nam/wij namen ik heb genomen click to hear
to bring brengen ik bracht ik heb gebracht click to hear
to think denken ik dacht ik heb gedacht click to hear
to eat eten ik at/wij aten ik heb gegeten click to
      hear
to honor eren ik eerde ik heb geëerd click to hear
Most verbs of motion take 'zijn' when a destination is mentioned, but 'hebben' when it's about the motion itself:
Ik ben naar Amsterdam gefietst - Ik heb een uur gefietst. I biked to Amsterdam - I biked for an hour.
Ik heb een uur gefietst click to hear 2 (I rode a bike for an hour)
Ik ben naar Veenendaal gefietst click to hear 2 (I rode a bike to Veenendaal)
English uses 'to be' with a past participle for the passive form; Dutch uses 'zijn' for the perfect tense of the passive - this can be confusing. I will return to the passive form in a later lesson. >>
Notice also that Dutch and English perfect tense are not used exactly in the same manner.

Compound Verbs

Dutch has many compound words, and some of those compound words are verbs; some split up in the simple tenses.

'Inseparable Prefixes'

Verbs that feature the so-called 'inseparable prefixes' BE-, ER-, GE-, HER-, ONT- and VER- do not split up in the simple present and simple past tenses, and will not add ge- for their past participle.
English Dutch
infinitive
simple past perfect tense
to promise beloven ik beloofde ik heb beloofd click to hear
to pay betalen ik betaalde ik heb betaald click to
    hear
to acknowledge erkennen ik erkende ik heb erkend click to
    hear
to believe geloven ik geloofde ik heb geloofd click to
    hear
to repeat herhalen ik herhaalde ik heb herhaald click to
    hear
to discover ontdekken ik ontdekte ik heb ontdekt click to
    hear
to forget vergeten ik vergat ik ben vergeten click to
    hear
to move (house) verhuizen ik verhuisde ik ben verhuisd click to
    hear

Other Compound Verbs

Compound verbs with other prefixes and prepositions often (but not always) split up in the simple tenses.
English Dutch
infinitive
simple present simple past perfect tense
to leave behind achterlaten ik laat achter ik liet achter ik heb achtergelaten click to hear
to retrieve, find out achterhalen ik achterhaal ik achterhaalde ik heb achterhaald click to hear
~ to pursue achtervolgen ik achtervolg ik achtervolgde ik heb achtervolgd click to hear
to collect, pick up afhalen (ik haal af) ik haalde af ik heb afgehaald click to hear
to await afwachten (ik wacht af) ik wachtte af ik heb afgewacht click to hear
to take along meenemen ik neem mee ik nam mee ik heb meegenomen click to hear
to go into hiding onderduiken ik duik onder ik dook onder ik ben ondergedoken click to hear - Anne Frank
to maintain onderhouden (ik onderhoud) ik onderhield ik heb onderhouden click to hear
to persuade overhalen ik haal over ik haalde over ik heb overgehaald click to hear
to convince overtuigen ik overtuig ik overtuigde ik heb overtuigd click to hear
to advance (money) voorschieten (ik schiet voor) ik schoot voor ik heb voorgeschoten click to hear
to show, demonstrate voordoen ik doe voor ik deed voor ik heb voorgedaan click to hear
to leave weggaan ik ga weg ik ging weg ik ben weggegaan click to hear
Notice that most of the English verbs in this list are of French and Latin origin, while Dutch uses basic (Germanic) verbs with (Germanic) prepositions.
English example to say I say we say I said we said I have said
to clean schoonmaken ik maak schoon wij maken schoon ik maakte schoon wij maakten schoon ik heb schoongemaakt click to hear >>
to tidy up, clear opruimen ik ruim op wij ruimen op ik ruimde op wij ruimden op ik heb opgeruimd click to hear

The Most Common Verbs

Study and memorize the most common verbs. The strong verbs patterns will be repeated in the next paragraph.

EnglishDutch
infinitive
simple
present
singular
simple
present
plural
simple
past
singular
simple
past
plural
perfect
tense
English
example:
to come I come we come I came we came I have come
to come komen ik kom wij komen ik kwam wij kwamen ik ben gekomen click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to go gaan ik ga wij gaan ik ging wij gingen ik ben gegaan click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to stay blijven ik blijf wij blijven ik bleef wij bleven ik ben gebleven click to hear - ‑>>
to become,
~to be
worden ik word wij worden ik werd wij werden ik ben geworden click to hear - ‑>> 2
to start, begin beginnen ik begin wij beginnen ik begon wij begonnen ik ben begonnen click to hear 2 3 ‑>>
to get krijgen ik krijg wij krijgen ik kreeg wij kregen ik heb gekregen click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to give geven ik geef wij geven ik gaf wij gaven ik heb gegeven click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to take nemen ik neem wij nemen ik nam wij namen ik heb genomen click to hear 2 3 - ‑>>
to get, collect halen ik haal wij halen ik haalde wij haalden ik heb gehaald click to hear 2 ‑>>
to bring brengen ik breng wij brengen ik bracht wij brachten ik heb gebracht click to hear 2 ‑>>
to keep, hold houden ik houd wij houden ik hield wij hielden ik heb gehouden click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to allow, let laten ik laat wij laten ik liet wij lieten ik heb gelaten click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to make maken ik maak wij maken ik maakte wij maakten ik heb gemaakt click to hear 2 3 - ‑>>
to put, set zetten ik zet wij zetten ik zette wij zetten * ik heb gezet click to hear 2 3 ‑>>
to send sturen ik stuur wij sturen ik stuurde wij stuurden ik heb gestuurd click to hear 2
seem, to
look like
lijken het lijkt ze lijken het leek ze leken het heeft geleken click to hear 2 3 - ‑>>
to 'appear,'
'turn out'
blijken het blijkt ze blijken het bleek ze bleken het is gebleken click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to be zijn ik ben wij zijn ik was wij waren ik ben geweest click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to do doen ik doe wij doen ik deed wij deden ik heb gedaan click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to have hebben ik heb wij hebben ik had wij hadden ik heb gehad click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to say zeggen ik zeg wij zeggen ik zei wij zeiden ik heb gezegd click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to speak spreken ik spreek wij spreken ik sprak wij spraken ik heb gesproken click to hear - ‑>>
to talk praten ik praat wij praten ik praatte wij praatten * ik heb gepraat click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to tell vertellen ik vertel ik vertelde ik heb verteld click to hear 2 3 - ‑>>
to show laten zien ik laat zien wij laten zien ik liet zien wij lieten zien ik heb laten zien click to hear - ‑>>
to see zien ik zie wij zien ik zag wij zagen ik heb gezien click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to look kijken ik kijk wij kijken ik keek wij keken ik heb gekeken click to hear - ‑>>
to hear horen ik hoor wij horen ik hoorde wij hoorden ik heb gehoord click to hear - ‑>>
to listen luisteren ik luister wij luisteren ik luisterde wij luisterden ik heb geluisterd click to hear - ‑>>
to know
(things)
weten ik weet wij weten ik wist wij wisten ik heb geweten click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to know
(people)
kennen ik ken wij kennen ik kende wij kenden ik heb gekend click to hear - ‑>>
'may,' to be
allowed to
mogen ik mag wij mogen ik mocht wij mochten ik heb gemogen click to hear 2 - ‑>>
'must,' have to moeten ik moet wij moeten ik moest wij moesten ik heb gemoeten click to hear 2 - ‑>>
'will, shall'
(future)
zullen ik zal wij zullen ik zou wij zouden - click to hear 2 3 - ‑>>

to want willen ik wil wij willen ik wilde wij wilden ik heb gewild click to hear 2 - ‑>>
'can,' to be
able to
kunnen ik kan wij kunnen ik kon wij konden ik heb gekund click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to like, love houden van ik houd van wij houden van ik hield van wij hielden van ik heb gehouden van click to hear - ‑>>
to search,
look for
zoeken ik zoek wij zoeken ik zocht wij zochten ik heb gezocht click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to find vinden ik vind wij vinden ik vond wij vonden ik heb gevonden click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to understand
(ideas)
begrijpen ik begrijp wij begrijpen ik begreep wij begrepen ik heb begrepen click to hear - ‑>>
to understand
(speech)
verstaan ik versta wij verstaan ik verstond wij verstonden ik heb verstaan click to hear 2 - ‑>>

to eat eten ik eet wij eten ik at wij aten ik heb gegeten click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to drink drinken ik drink wij drinken ik dronk wij dronken ik heb gedronken click to hear - ‑>> - 2
to read lezen ik lees wij lezen ik las wij lazen ik heb gelezen click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to write schrijven ik schrijf wij schrijven ik schreef wij schreven ik heb geschreven click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to pray bidden ik bid wij bidden ik bad wij baden ik heb gebeden click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to hope hopen ik hoop wij hopen ik hoopte wij hoopten ik heb gehoopt click to hear 2 ‑>>

to cry (tears) huilen ik huil wij huilen ik huilde wij huilden ik heb gehuild click to hear
to cry (shout) schreeuwen ik schreeuw wij schreeuwen ik schreeuwde wij schreeuwden ik heb geschreeuwd click to hear
to buy kopen ik koop wij kopen ik kocht wij kochten ik heb gekocht click to hear ‑>>
to rent huren ik huur wij huren ik huurde wij huurden ik heb gehuurd click to hear ‑>>
to pay betalen ik betaal wij betalen ik betaalde wij betaalden ik heb betaald click to hear 2 ‑>>
to sell verkopen ik verkoop wij verkopen ik verkocht wij verkochten ik heb verkocht click to hear ‑>>
to borrow;
to lend
lenen ik leen wij lenen ik leende wij leenden ik heb geleend click to hear 2 ‑>>
to divide;
to distribute
verdelen ik verdeel wij verdelen ik verdeelde wij verdeelden ik heb verdeeld click to hear 2
EnglishDutch
infinitive
simple
present
singular
simple
present
plural
simple
past
singular
simple
past
plural
perfect
tense
to walk (example) I walk we walk I walked we walked I have walked
to walk lopen ik loop wij lopen ik liep wij liepen ik ben/heb gelopen click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to ride
a bicycle
fietsen ik fiets wij fietsen ik fietste wij fietsten ik ben/heb gefietst click to hear - ‑>>
to walk,
to hike
wandelen ik wandel wij wandelen ik wandelde wij wandelden ik heb/ben gewandeld click to hear - ‑>>
to run rennen ik ren wij rennen ik rende wij renden ik heb/ben gerend click to hear - ‑>>
to jump springen ik spring wij springen ik sprong wij sprongen ik heb/ben gesprongen click to hear
to swim zwemmen ik zwem wij zwemmen ik zwom wij zwommen ik heb/ben gezwommen click to hear
to drive;
to ride
rijden ik rijd wij rijden ik reed wij reden ik heb/ben gereden click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to fly vliegen ik vlieg wij vliegen ik vloog wij vlogen ik heb/ben gevlogen click to hear 2
to flee,
escape
vluchten ik vlucht wij vluchten ik vluchtte wij vluchtten * ik ben gevlucht click to hear

to move bewegen ik beweeg wij bewegen ik bewoog wij bewogen ik heb bewogen click to hear ‑>>
to sit, to
be sitting
zitten ik zit wij zitten ik zat wij zaten ik heb gezeten click to hear 2 - ‑>>
'to live,'
reside
wonen ik woon wij wonen ik woonde wij woonden ik heb gewoond click to hear - ‑>>
to lie down liggen ik lig wij liggen ik lag wij lagen ik heb gelegen click to hear - ‑>>
to lay down leggen ik leg wij leggen ik legde wij legden ik heb gelegd click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to push duwen ik duw wij duwen ik duwde wij duwden ik heb geduwd click to hear - ‑>>
to pull trekken ik trek wij trekken ik trok wij trokken ik heb getrokken click to hear - ‑>>
to lift optillen ik til op wij tillen op ik tilde op wij tilden op ik heb opgetild click to hear - ‑>>
to throw gooien ik gooi wij gooien ik gooide wij gooiden ik heb gegooid click to hear
to grab grijpen ik grijp wij grijpen ik greep wij grepen ik heb gegrepen click to hear - ‑>>
to fall vallen ik val wij vallen ik viel wij vielen ik ben gevallen click to hear - ‑>>
to drop laten vallen ik laat vallen wij laten vallen ik liet vallen wij lieten vallen ik heb laten vallen click to hear - ‑>>
to shake schudden ik schud wij schudden ik schudde wij schudden * ik heb geschud click to hear

to hit, slap slaan ik sla wij slaan ik sloeg wij sloegen ik heb geslagen click to hear - ‑>>
to kick schoppen ik schop wij schoppen ik schopte wij schopten ik heb geschopt click to hear - ‑>>

to crack breken ik breek wij breken ik brak wij braken ik heb gebroken click to hear
to cut
(w/ knife)
snijden ik snijd wij snijden ik sneed wij sneden ik heb gesneden click to hear - ‑>>
to cut
(w/ scissors)
knippen ik knip wij knippen ik knipte wij knipten ik heb geknipt click to hear - ‑>>
to paste plakken ik plak wij plakken ik plakte wij plakten ik heb geplakt click to hear

to wash wassen ik was wij wassen ik waste wij wasten ik heb gewassen click to hear - ‑>>
to polish poetsen ik poets wij poetsen ik poetste wij poetsten ik heb gepoetst click to hear - ‑>>
to rub wrijven ik wrijf wij wrijven ik wreef wij wreven ik heb gewreven click to hear
to cover bedekken ik bedek wij bedekken ik bedekte wij bedekten ik heb bedekt click to hear

to work werken ik werk wij werken ik werkte wij werkten ik heb gewerkt click to hear - ‑>>
to play spelen ik speel wij spelen ik speelde wij speeelden ik heb gespeeld click to hear 2 - ‑>>
to rest rusten ik rust wij rusten ik rustte wij rustten * ik heb gerust click to hear - ‑>>

Verbs Flashcards Vocabulary Test

The infinitives and simple present tense of lijden ('to suffer') and leiden ('to lead') sound exactly the same,
but the simple past and past participle are different.
Also note that the plural forms of simple present and simple past for leiden ('to lead') sound identical.

to suffer lijden ik lijd wij lijden ik leed wij leden ik heb geleden click to hear 2 ‑>>
to lead leiden ik leid wij leiden ik leidde wij leidden ik heb geleid click to hear 2 ‑>>

Even to some Dutchmen the verbs slaan click to hear 2 ('to slap, to hit') and slagen click to hear 2 3 4 ('to succeed, pass a test') are confusing.
Maybe because of words like (de) slag click to hear 2 3 4 ('historical battle') - (de) veldslag click to hear 2 3 ('historical land battle') and slaag click to hear 2 ('blows') - een pak slaag click to hear ([a bunch of blows] 'a beating.')

to hit, slap slaan ik sla wij slaan ik sloeg wij sloegen ik heb geslagen click to hear 2 3 4
to succeed,
pass a test
slagen ik slaag wij slagen ik slaagde wij slaagden ik ben geslaagd click to hear 2 3 4
hij slaat click to hear 2 3 he hits, slaps (compare proniunciation with:  hij is laat click to hear 2 3 4 5 'he is late,' not in time) ik heb geslagen click to hear 2 I have hit, slapped
ik ben geslagen geworden click to hear 2 3 I [have been] was hit
Ik ben geslaagd click to hear 2 1. I have succeeded, I was successful
2. I passed the exam (or test)
Ben je geslaagd? click to hear 2 3 1. Did you pass the exam (or test)
usually: 2. Did you get what you wanted?
We slaagden er niet in click to hear 2 We did not succeed (in it) - we were not successful

(de) tegenslag click to hear 2 setback
(de) slaggitaar click to hear rhythm guitar
(het) slagwerk click to hear drums
but (de) slager click to hear butcher
(de) klap click to hear 2 slap // blow // setback

Sla je slag click to hear 2 3 4 Seize the opportunity, grab your chance Ergens een slaatje uit slaan click to hear 2 3 Taking advantage of an opportunity, making good use of something 't Slaat nergens op click to hear 2 3 [It hits nothing] - It's a (usually unpleasant) pointless remark, it has nothing to do with the matter at hand Hij sloeg een arm om haar heen click to hear 2 3 He threw an arm around her (de) sla click to hear lettuce // a simple salad
(het) slaatje click to hear 2 3 a simple salad
(de) salade click to hear an elaborate salad

'Verslaan' click to hear 2 3 usually means 'to defeat,' but it can also mean 'to report' (do the reporter's thing.)
(De) verslagenheid click to hear 2 [~acknowledging defeat] is 'dismay, dejection, despondency'
(Het) verslag click to hear is 'report,' like an account by an eyewitness and (de) verslagever click to hear 2 is a somewhat old-fashioned word for reporter, journalist.
'Overslaan' click to hear 2 is 'to skip, pass over'

In Dutch, the umlaut-like two dots on top of a vowel ((het) trema click to hear) mean there is a syllable break before that vowel.

to create
(somewhat pompous)
creëren ik creëer
ik creëerde
ik heb gecreëerd click to hear
to honor eren

ik eerde
ik heb geëerd click to hear

The V/F and S/Z shifts are explained on the page about plurals. >>

A Strong Verbs Collection

Study and memorize the patterns of the common strong verbs.
I tried to make a more or less complete list of strong verbs, but I did not add all compound strong verbs, and I left out the obsolete - as always, feel free to skip any words that you think are not useful to you, just learn what you think you need or may need.
Note the similarity between some of the Dutch and English strong verbs.

In my first year of English at secondary school, one of the most important tests was about strong verbs. The teacher gave us a list of 25 or 30 verbs, and we had to write down the different forms in English. He said there was going to be one weak verb in the list, and if we made up 'strong' forms for that verb our grade would be a "6-" (barely pass) even if we got all real strong verbs right.

English infinitive simple
past
singular
past
participle /
past plural
notes, related words
English example to be was (I have) been
we were
being
to go gaan ging gegaan   click to hear 2 '(de) gang' click to hear corridor, hallway - "ga je gang" click to hear 2 'go ahead, do it your way' ‑>>>
to stand staan stond gestaan   click to hear '(de) staande bas' click to hear [standing] upright bass - '(het) standpunt' click to hear stance, viewpoint ‑>>>
to understand,
hear what is said
verstaan verstond verstaan  click to hear 2 'ik versta niet wat je zegt' click to hear 2 I can't hear (don't understand) what you're saying. ‑>>
to exist bestaan bestond bestaan  click to hear
to originate,
come into being
ontstaan ontstond ontstaan  click to hear
to carry // to wear dragen droeg gedragen  click to hear '(de) draagstoel' click to hear chair with poles to carry important people around
to behave gedragen gedroeg gedragen  click to hear '(het) gedrag' click to hear 2 behavior - '(het) wangedrag' click to hear very bad behavior
to ask vragen vroeg gevraag  click to hear '(de) vraag' click to hear 2 question - but 'vroeg' click to hear also means 'early' (next to 'asked') and 'vroeger' click to hear means before, in the past - 'vroeger was alles beter' click to hear everything was better in the past ‑>>>
to hunt // to hurry //
to send, drive
jagen joeg gejaagd  click to hear 2 alternate simple past: jaagde click to hear 2 - (de) jager click to hear 'hunter' (de) straaljager click to hear 2 'jet fighter' - (de) jacht click to hear 'hunt' / (het) jacht click to hear 'yacht'
to slap, hit slaan sloeg geslagen  click to hear '(de) slag' click to hear battle - '(de) tegenslag' click to hear 2 setback - '(de) slaggitaar' click to hear rhythm guitar - '(het) slagwerk' click to hear drums - but '(de) slager' click to hear butcher - '(de) klap' click to hear 2 slap // setback
to dig graven groef gegraven  click to hear
wij groeven click to hear
'(het) graf' click to hear (the) grave - 'begraven' click to hear to bury - '(de) begrafenis' click to hear funeral - '(de) steengroeve' click to hear stone quarry
to sail,
move by ship
varen voer gevaren  click to hear '(het) vaartuig' click to hear 'vessel'
wind blowing waaien woei gewaaid  click to hear alternative simple past: waaide click to hear - '(de) wind' click to hear 2 wind
to sleep slapen sliep geslapen  click to hear '(de) slaap' click to hear 'sleep' - '(de) slaapkamer' click to hear 2 bedroom ‑>>
to let, allow laten liet gelaten  click to hear but: 'laat' click to hear also means 'late, not in time,' and 'laatste' click to hear 2 means 'last' ‑>>>
to guess //
to counsel
raden ried geraden  click to hear alternative simple past: raadde click to hear - '(het) raadsel' click to hear riddle
to betray verraden verried verraden  click to hear alternative simple past: verraadde click to hear - '(de) verrader' click to hear traitor
to blow blazen blies geblazen  click to hear
wij bliezen click to hear 2
'(de) blazers' click to hear 2 players of wind instruments - '(de) blaasbalg' click to hear bellows
to fall vallen viel gevallen  click to hear '(de) val' click to hear fall // trap - but: '(het) geval' click to hear the case, the matter of ‑>>>
to catch vangen ving gevangen  click to hear '(de) gevangenis' click to hear prison - '(de) vangst' click to hear 2 'catch' - '(de) visvangst' click to hear 'fish caught'
to replace vervangen verving vervangen  click to hear 2 '(de) vervanger' click to hear 2 temporary replacement
to hang (things) hangen hing gehangen  click to hear '(de) hangmat' click to hear 2 hammock - 'ophangen' click to hear to hang // execution by hanging
to give geven gaf gegeven  click to hear
wij gaven click to hear
'(de) gave' click to hear 2 gift // talent - '(het) gegeven' click to hear 2 'given,' fact, information ‑>>>
to forgive vergeven vergaf vergeven  click to hear 2
wij vergaven click to hear
'(de) vergeving' click to hear - forgiveness - '(de) vergiffenis' click to hear 2 absolution
to eat eten at gegeten  click to hear
wij aten click to hear
Note the G inserted in the past participle - '(de) eetkamer' click to hear 2 dining room ‑>>>
to eat like a beast
(slang)
vreten vrat gevroten  click to hear
wij vraten click to hear 2
(de) vraatzucht click to hear 'an animal appetite' - in the Gothic of ca 350AD 'fraitan' was still the common word for 'to eat' - maybe people were still closer to animals at the time
to measure meten mat gemeten  click to hear
wij maten click to hear
'(de) meter' click to hear meter >>
to forget vergeten vergat vergeten  click to hear
wij vergaten click to hear
'vergeetachtig' click to hear forgetful
to read lezen las gelezen  click to hear
wij lazen click to hear
'(de) leesbril' click to hear reading glasses - '(de) lezing' click to hear 2 lecture ‑>>>
to speak spreken sprak gesproken  click to hear
wij spraken click to hear
'(het) gesprek' click to hear 2 conversation - '(de) taal' click to hear language - '(de) uitspraak' click to hear 1. pronunciation 2. statement, verdict, pronouncement - '(het) spreekwoord' click to hear 2 saying, proverb ‑>> - '(de) spreuk' click to hear maxim, aphorism ‑>>>
to take nemen nam genomen  click to hear
wij namen click to hear
‑>>>
to break, crack,
rupture
breken brak gebroken click to hear
wij braken click to hear
'wij braken' may also mean 'we are vomiting' - '(de) doorbraak' click to hear breakthrough - '(de) inbraak' click to hear break-in, burglary - '(de) uitbraak' click to hear break-out - 'breekbaar' click to hear [breakable] fragile - '(de) breuk' click to hear 2 rupture, fracture, crack // fraction
to avenge wreken wreekte gewroken   click to hear '(de) wraak' click to hear revenge - do note that W before R is pronounced as Dutch V. The strong simple past has disappeared; and 'wreken' is not a common word or practice anymore
to stab, to sting steken stak gestoken   click to hear
wij staken click to hear
'wij staken' may also mean: 'we are on strike'
to steal stelen stal gestolen   click to hear 2
wij stalen click to hear
'(de) diefstal' click to hear theft - '(de) dief' click to hear 2 thief - but: '(de) stal' click to hear 2 stable, animal housing
to order,
command
bevelen beval bevolen   click to hear
wij bevalen click to hear
'(het) bevel' click to hear (the) order, command
to weigh wegen (woog) gewogen   click to hear
(wij wogen click to hear)
the woog/wogen simple past is not often used. I would rather say: Ik was toen 52 kilo click to hear ik was 52 kilos at the time - '(de) weegschaal' click to hear scale
to move bewegen bewoog bewogen   click to hear
wij bewogen click to hear
'(de) beweging' click to hear 2 movement (of body // a group or organisation) "Beweeg je niet!" click to hear Don't move! ‑>>
to shave scheren schoor geschoren   click to hear
wij schoren click to hear
alternate simple past: 'scheerde' click to hear - '(de) schaapscheerder' click to hear sheep shearer
to know
(things)
weten wist geweten   click to hear 2 '(de) wetenschap' click to hear science - '(de) wijsheid' click to hear wisdom - '(het) geweten' click to hear conscience ‑>>>
to swear
(take an oath)
zweren zwoer gezworen   click to hear 'Wij zwoeren een dure eed' click to hear We swore a solemn oath
'(de) samenzwering' click to hear conspiracy
to have hebben had gehad   click to hear
wij hadden click to hear
'(het) hebbeding' click to hear a must-have ‑>>>
to say zeggen zei gezegd   click to hear
wij zeiden click to hear
Note D inserted for past plural - '(het) gezegde' click to hear stock expression ‑>> // the predicate ‑>>>
to think denken dacht gedacht   click to hear '(de) gedachte' click to hear thought ‑>>>
to bring brengen bracht gebracht   click to hear 'terugbrengen' click to hear 2 to bring back, to return ‑>>>
to pull trekken trok getrokken   click to hear
wij trokken click to hear
'(de) trekschuit' click to hear a horse-drawn canal barge
to swim zwemmen zwom gezwommen   click to hear
wij zwommen click to hear
'(het) zwembad' click to hear 2 swimming pool
to fight, struggle vechten vocht gevochten   click to hear '(het) gevecht' click to hear 2 (the) fight, battle - but '(het) vocht' click to
 hear 2 'moisture' '(de) vechtpartij' click to hear 2 [bout of fighting] 'brawl'
to send zenden zond gezonden   click to hear '(de) zending' click to hear shipment // protestant missionary activites
to salvage (ships) bergen borg geborgen   click to hear
to hide verbergen verborg verborgen   click to hear 2
to put away, store opbergen borg op opgeborgen   click to hear 2
to donate //
to pour drinks
schenken schonk geschonken   click to hear 2 '(de) schenking' click to hear donation - '(de) schenker' click to hear servant pouring drinks at medieval or antique courts
to braid vlechten vlocht gevlochten   click to hear '(de) vlecht' click to hear 2 braid
to dig, to mine delven dolf gedolven   click to hear 2
wij dolven click to hear 2
'delfstoffen' click to hear 2 minerals, mineral resources - also:  - 'bodemschatten' click to hear 2 soil treasures, mineral wealth
to melt smelten smolt gesmolten   click to hear '(het) smeltpunt' click to hear melting point (= freezing point)
to count, weigh;
to be applicable
gelden gold gegolden   click to hear 2 "het gold niet" click to hear 2 it didn't count, it wasn't valid - 'geldig' click to hear 2 valid - 'hij gold als' click to hear 'he ranked, was seen as' - maybe unrelated: - '(het) geld' click to hear money
to swell zwellen zwol gezwollen  click to hear 2
to help helpen hielp geholpen   click to hear '(de) hulp' click to hear help (assistance//helper) - 'help!' click to hear 2 help me! - 'behulpzaam' click to hear 2 helpful (said of a person) - 'ik heb hulp nodig' click to hear 2 I need help, assistance
to throw, cast werpen wierp geworpen   click to hear 'de teerling is geworpen' click to hear 2 'the die is cast,' a risky venture has started
to die sterven stierf gestorven   click to hear
wij stierven click to hear
'to starve' is from the same root - '(de) sterveling' click to hear (a) mortal ‑>>
to enlist, canvass werven wierf geworven   click to hear
wij wierven click to hear
'(de) ledenwerfcampagne' click to hear membership drive
to roam zwerven zwierf gezworven   click to hear
wij zwierven click to hear
'(de) zwerver' click to hear hobo, transient - '(de) zwerftocht' click to hear 2 trek
to spoil
(active and passive)
bederven bedierf bedorven   click to hear 2
wij bedierven click to hear 2
to create (like God) scheppen schiep geschapen   click to hear '(de) Schepping' click to hear 2 Creation - 'De Schepper' click to hear 2 God, the Maker ‑>>
to climb klimmen klom geklommen   click to hear 2
wij klommen click to hear
'klimboom' click to hear 2 a good tree for climbing
to win winnen won gewonnen   click to hear
wij wonnen click to hear
'(de) winst' click to hear game victory // business profit
to start, begin beginnen begon begonnen   click to hear 2
wij begonnen click to hear
'(het) begin' click to hear beginning, start - 'het is begonnen' click to hear it has begun ‑>>
to be startled, to be
frightened, to be
unpleasantly surprised
schrikken schrok geschrokken   click to hear 2
wij schrokken click to hear
ik schrok van het lawaai click to hear 2 I was startled by the loud noise - ik schrok van de prijs click to hear 2 I was taken aback by the price - (de) schrik click to hear fright - (het) schrikbewind click to hear 2 reign of terror - (het) schrikdraad click to hear 'electric fence'
to find vinden vond gevonden   click to hear '(de) vondst' click to hear finding, something found - '(de) vondeling' click to hear foundling - '(de) uitvinding' click to hear invention ‑>>>
to jump springen sprong gesprongen   click to hear '(de) sprong' click to hear the jump
to sing zingen zong gezongen   click to hear '(de) zangeres' click to hear 2 lady singer
to force, compel dwingen dwong gedwongen   click to hear 2 Prince Frederik Hendrik click to hear (1584-1647) was nicknamed 'de Stedendwinger' click to hear 2 'subjugator of cities' - (de) dwang click to hear coercion - (de) dwangbuis click to hear 2 straitjacket - (de) dwingeland click to hear a persistent, strong-willed child
to sound klinken klonk geklonken   click to hear '(de) klank' click to hear a good or interesting sound - '(de) klankkast' click to hear 2 body of acoustic string instrument
to shine, glitter blinken blonk geblonken   click to hear
to tie, to bind binden bond gebonden   click to hear bondgenoten click to hear 2 'allies'
to connect //
to dress a wound
verbinden verbond verbonden   click to hear '(het) verband' click to hear 1. connection, "gestalt" 2. wound dressing - (het) verbandje click to hear small bandage, band-aid - '(het) verbond' click to hear 2 alliance - '(de) verbinding' click to hear 2 3 connection - "Verkeerd verbonden" click to hear 2 ['wrong connection'] "wrong number" (telephone)
to wind winden wond gewonden   click to hear 'opgewonden' click to hear 2 [wound up, tightly wound] excited, agitated
to drink drinken dronk gedronken   click to hear 'dronken' click to hear drunk - '(de) drank' click to hear something to drink, usually: liquor - 'sterke drank' click to hear liquor ‑>>
to sink zinken zonk gezonken   click to hear only passively sinking - 'het zinkende schip' click to hear the sinking ship
to stink, smell bad stinken stonk gestonken   click to hear '(de) stank' click to hear 2 bad smell
to shrink slinken slonk geslonken   click to hear 2 'spinazie slinkt' click to hear 2 3 spinach shrinks - 'psychiater' click to hear psychiatrist, shrink
to shrink krimpen kromp gekrompen   click to hear 'kleren krimpen' click to hear clothes shrink
to wring wringen wrong gewrongen   click to hear 'verwrongen' click to hear twisted, distorted
to devour verslinden verslond verslonden   click to hear 2
to sit zitten zat gezeten   click to hear
wij zaten click to hear
'(de) zitkamer' click to hear [sitting] living room - '(de) zetel' click to hear seat in elected assembly // (old-fashioned) chair ‑>>>
to lie down liggen lag gelegen   click to hear
wij lagen click to hear
'(de) laag' click to hear 2 layer - 'laag/lage' click to hear 2 low - but: 'leeg/lege' click to hear empty - '(het) leger' click to hear army ‑>>>
to pray bidden bad gebeden   click to hear
wij baden click to hear
'wij baden' could also mean 'we're taking a bath' - '(het) gebed' click to hear prayer >>
to see zien zag gezien   click to hear
wij zagen click to hear
'wij zagen' might also mean 'we're cutting wood' - '(het) gezicht' click to hear 2 view // face ‑>>>
to freeze vriezen vroor gevroren   click to hear
(wij vroren click to hear)
'(het) vriespunt' click to hear freezing point - 't vroor dat 't kraakte click to hear 2 it was a crackling freeze
to lose verliezen verloor verloren   click to hear
wij verloren click to hear
'(het) verlies' click to hear loss
to lie (to say
what is not)
liegen loog gelogen   click to hear
wij logen click to hear
'(de) leugen' click to hear the lie, untruth - '(de) leugenaar' click to hear 2 liar
to fly vliegen vloog gevlogen   click to hear
wij vlogen click to hear
'(de) vlieg' click to hear the fly (insect) - '(de) vlieger' click to hear 2 kite - '(de) vliegenier' click to hear pilot (old-fashioned) - '(de) vogel' click to hear 2 bird - '(de) vleugel' click to hear wing // grand piano - '(het) vliegtuig' click to hear 2 airplane
to cheat, deceive bedriegen bedroog bedrogen   click to hear 2
wij bedrogen click to hear 2
'(het) bedrog' click to hear 2 fraud, trickery - '(de) bedrieger' click to hear swindler do not confuse 'bedriegen' and 'bedreigen' click to hear to threaten
to choose kiezen koos gekozen   click to hear
wij kozen click to hear
'(de) verkiezingen' click to hear elections >> - but '(de) kiezen' click to hear means '(back) teeth, molars'
to offer //
to bid (auction)
bieden bood geboden   click to hear
wij boden click to hear
'(het) bod' click to hear offer, the price you're asking or willing to pay
to forbid, disallow verbieden verbood verboden   click to hear
wij verboden click to hear
'(het) verbod' click to hear something is not allowed - 'verboden toegang' click to hear do not enter, entry not allowed, stay out!
to shoot schieten schoot geschoten   click to hear
wij schoten click to hear
'(het) schot' click to hear 2 shot - but '(de) schoot' click to hear lap - '(het) geweer' click to hear 2 rifle
to pour gieten goot gegoten   click to hear 2
wij goten click to hear
'(de) gieter' click to hear watering can - 'gietijzer' click to hear cast iron - "'t Zit als gegoten" click to hear It fits like a T
to enjoy genieten genoot genoten   click to hear 2
wij genoten click to hear 2
'(de) genotsmiddelen' click to hear 2 non-vital consumption items like tobacco and alcoholic drinks, 'only for pleasure'
to come komen kwam gekomen   click to hear
wij kwamen click to hear
'(de) komst' click to hear the coming, arrival ‑>>>
to walk lopen liep gelopen   click to hear '(de) loopfiets' click to hear early bicycle without pedals - 'op loopafstand' click to hear within walking distance - '(de) zandloper' click to hear hourglass - '(de) koploper' click to hear 2 front runner ‑>>>
to be allowed to,
'may'
mogen mocht (gemogen)   click to hear 'mogelijk' click to hear 2 possible - '(de) mogelijkheid' click to hear 2 possibility ‑>>>
to buy kopen kocht gekocht   click to hear 'te koop' click to hear for sale (house) - '(de) winkel' click to hear 2 (the) shop - 'winkelen' click to hear to shop ‑>>
to 'become' worden werd geworden   click to hear also the verb for the passive voice:  'hij werd gemarteld' click to hear 2 he was tortured - 'de bal wordt geschopt' click to hear the ball is kicked - 'de bal werd geschopt' click to hear 2 the ball was kicked ‑>>>
to be able to,
'can'
kunnen kon (gekund)   click to hear
wij konden click to hear
Note D inserted in the past plural - '(de) kunde' click to hear 2 3 (learned) skill - '(de) deskundige' click to hear 2 expert - '(de) scheikunde' click to hear chemistry - '(de) natuurkunde' click to hear physics ‑>>>
'shall, will' - for
the
future tense
zullen zou - click to hear 2
wij zouden click to hear 2
Note D inserted in the past plural ‑>>>
to be zijn was geweest   click to hear
wij waren click to hear
for the passive, Dutch uses 'worden' (see 2 lines above) ‑>>>
to look kijken keek gekeken   click to hear
wij keken click to hear
'(de) verrekijker' click to hear binoculars ‑>>>
to appear, look
like, 'seem'
lijken leek geleken   click to hear
wij leken click to hear
" 't lijkt wel zomer" click to hear it feels like it's summer - 'ze leken wel gek' click to hear 2 it looked like they were crazy ‑>>
to appear
('it turned out')
blijken bleek gebleken   click to hear
wij bleken click to hear
it is a bit far-fetched, but 'wij bleken' could also mean 'we bleach' - 'ze bleken oplichters te zijn' click to hear 2 it turned out they were swindlers ‑>>
to get krijgen kreeg gekregen   click to hear
wij kregen click to hear
‑>>> - Dutch also has a few words with 'krijg' click to hear 2 3 meaning 'war' (German 'Krieg') like krijgsgevangene click to hear 2 ('prisoner-of-war')
to grab grijpen greep gegrepen click to hear
wij grepen click to hear
'(de) greep' click to hear 2 grip, grab
to understand begrijpen begreep begrepen   click to hear
wij begrepen click to hear
'ik begrijp niet wat je bedoelt' click to hear 2 I do not understand what you mean - '(het) begrip' click to hear 2 understanding // well-known thing or person ‑>>
to stay, remain blijven bleef gebleven   click to hear
wij bleven click to hear
'blijven zitten' click to hear 2 [to stay seated] repeating a grade in school ‑>>>
to write schrijven schreef geschreven   click to hear
wij schreven click to hear
'(het) schrift' click to hear notebook - 'De Schrift' click to hear the Bible (old-fashioned) - '(de) schrijver' click to hear writer, author - note that CH in SCHR is not pronounced ‑>>>
to float //
to drive (cattle etc.)
drijven dreef gedreven   click to hear 2
wij dreven click to hear
een gedreven man click to hear a passionate man, focused on his mission
to drive, to ride rijden reed gereden   click to hear
wij reden click to hear
'(het) rijbewijs' click to hear 2 driver's license - '(het) rijtuig' click to hear the old horse-drawn carriage
to suffer lijden leed geleden   click to hear 2
wij leden click to hear
'(het) leed' click to hear suffering - '(het) leedvermaak' click to hear 'Schadenfreude' ‑>>>
to fight, battle strijden streed gestreden   click to hear 2
wij streden click to hear
'(de) strijdkreet' click to hear 2 battle-cry - 'moegestreden' click to hear tired by fighting
to glide, slide glijden gleed gegleden   click to hear
wij gleden click to hear
'(de) glijbaan' click to hear (the) slide (playground) - 'uitglijden' click to hear to slip
to praise prijzen prees geprezen   click to hear
wij prezen click to hear
'(de) prijs' click to hear price (cost) // prize (award)
to rise (dough) rijzen rees gerezen   click to hear het brood is niet goed gerezen click to hear 2 the bread didn't rise properly
to disappear verdwijnen verdween verdwenen   click to hear 2
wij verdwenen click to hear 2
to avoid vermijden vermeed vermeden   click to hear
wij vermeden click to hear
to wear out //
to sell //
to pass the time
slijten sleet gesleten   click to hear 2
wij sleten click to hear
'(de) slijter' click to hear liquor seller, liquor store - '(de) slijterij' click to hear liquor store - 'zij sleten hun dagen met sigaren ' click to hear they spent their days smoking cigars
to wear out verslijten versleet versleten   click to hear
wij versleten click to hear
'versleten' click to hear worn out - 'een versleten jas' click to hear a worn-out coat
to be silent,
not speak
zwijgen zweeg gezwegen   click to hear
wij zwegen click to hear
William of Orange, nicknamed 'Willem de Zwijger' click to hear 2 'William the Silent' was the Dutch George Washington ‑>>
to rise stijgen steeg gestegen   click to hear 2
wij stegen click to hear
'(de) stijgbeugel' click to hear 2 stirrup (horse riding)
to cut (with a knife) snijden sneed gesneden   click to hear
wij sneden click to hear
'snijbonen snijden' click to hear cutting Italian beans
to rub wrijven wreef gewreven   click to hear
wij wreven click to hear
note that W before R is pronounced as Dutch V
to squeeze, pinch knijpen kneep geknepen   click to hear
wij knepen click to hear
note that K before N is pronounced - '(de) knijpkat' click to hear flashlight with generator to be squeezed
to bite bijten beet gebeten   click to hear 2
wij beten click to hear
to point wijzen wees gewezen   click to hear 2
wij wezen click to hear
'(de) wijsvinger' click to hear [pointing] index finger
to teach onderwijzen onderwees onderwezen   click to hear 2
wij onderwezen click to hear
'(het) onderwijs' click to hear education, teaching ->> - '(de) onderwijzeres' click to hear elementary school teacher (female)
to split splijten spleet gespleten   click to hear
wij spleten click to hear 2
'(de) splijtstof' click to hear 2 fissionable material, nuclear fuel - '(de) scheiding' click to hear separation, divorce
to iron (clothes) //
to brush // to smooth
strijken streek gestreken   click to hear
wij streken click to hear
'viool met strijkstok' click to hear 2 violin with bow - '(het) strijkkwartet' click to hear string quartet - '(de) strijkplank' click to hear ironing board - '(het) strijkijzer' click to hear (ironing) iron
to shine // to appear,
'it looks like ...'
schijnen scheen geschenen   click to hear
wij schenen click to hear
'De zon scheen de hele dag.' click to hear The sun was shining all day. ‑>>
to blame wijten weet geweten   click to hear
wij weten click to hear 2
'wij weten' also means 'we know' (see above) - 'wij weten 't aan 't weer' click to hear we blamed the weather (for it)
to reproach verwijten verweet verweten   click to hear
wij verweten click to hear
'(het) verwijt' click to hear reproach
to regret spijten speet gespeten   click to hear 'het spijt me' click to hear I'm sorry - '(de) spijt' click to hear remorse
to grind, sharpen slijpen sleep geslepen   click to hear
wij slepen click to hear
'wij slepen' also may mean 'we drag' - '(de) slijpstenen' click to hear whetstones - '(de) scharensliep' click to hear 2 person sharpening knives and scissors
to throw angrily smijten smeet gesmeten   click to hear
wij smeten click to hear
'to smite' is from the same root
to do doen deed gedaan   click to hear
wij deden click to hear
(de) 'daad' click to hear '(the) act' ('deed') - 'geen woorden maar daden!' click to hear 2 we want action, not words - '(de) dader' click to hear 2 perpetrator, offender - '(de) misdaad' click to hear crime - '(de) misdadiger' click to hear criminal ‑>>>
to search,
look for
zoeken zocht gezocht   click to hear (het) onderzoek click to hear 2 investigation, research ‑>>>
to call, shout roepen riep geroepen   click to hear '(de) stadsomroeper' click to hear town crier - '(de) omroepverenigingen' click to hear 'broadcasting organisations' >> - 'een roepende in de woestijn' click to hear a voice crying out in the wilderness (Mark1:3, John the Baptist) - in modern Dutch, (de) woestijn click to hear means 'desert' - 'bellen' click to hear to call (telephone)
to have to, 'must' moeten moest gemoeten   click to hear but: '(de) moed' click to hear 'courage' - actually only a consonant change ‑>>>
to hold houden hield gehouden   click to hear 'houden van' is 'to love, to like' ‑>>>
to dive duiken dook gedoken   click to hear
wij doken click to hear
'(de) duikplank' click to hear 2 diving board - '(de) duikboot' click to hear submarine - also '(de) onderzeeër' click to hear
to bow buigen boog gebogen   click to hear
wij bogen click to hear
'(de) buiging' click to hear 2 human bow - '(de) boog' click to hear bow (for arrows) // arch
to close sluiten sloot gesloten   click to hear
wij sloten click to hear
'(het) slot' click to hear 2 lock // end // castle
to decide besluiten besloot besloten   click to hear 2
wij besloten click to hear 2
'(het) besluit' click to hear decision - '(de) beslissing' click to hear decision
to whistle fluiten floot gefloten   click to hear 2
wij floten click to hear
'(de) fluit' click to hear (the) whistle - '(de) blokfluit' click to hear recorder - '(de) dwarsfluit' click to hear 2 flute
to suck zuigen zoog gezogen   click to hear
wij zogen click to hear
'(de) zuigeling' click to hear baby - '(de) zuignap' click to hear suction cup
to smell ruiken rook geroken   click to hear
wij roken click to hear
'wij roken' might also mean 'we are smoking' - '(de) ruiker' click to hear 'bouquet of flowers' (a bit old-fashioned)
to sneak sluipen sloop geslopen   click to hear
wij slopen click to hear
'wij slopen' might also mean 'we wreck' (like, cars)
to crawl kruipen kroop gekropen   click to hear
wij kropen click to hear
'(de) kruipruimte' click to hear crawl space (under a house) - '(de) kruipolie' click to hear 2 WD40
to drip druipen droop gedropen   click to hear 2
wij dropen click to hear
'(de) druppel' click to hear drop
to shove,
make slide
schuiven schoof geschoven   click to hear
wij schoven click to hear
'(de) schuiftrompet' click to hear [sliding trumpet] trombone - '(de) schuifdeuren' click to hear sliding doors
dust blowing //
to speedily go
stuiven stoof gestoven   click to hear
wij stoven click to hear
'(het) stuifmeel' click to hear pollen
to blow (your nose) snuiten snoot gesnoten   click to hear 2
wij snoten click to hear 2
'neus snuiten' click to hear 2 blowing your nose - 'hij snoot z'n neus' click to hear 2 3 he blew his nose
to drink heavily
(slang)
zuipen zoop gezopen   click to hear
wij zopen click to hear
'bezopen' click to hear crazy, drunk - 'koek en zopie' click to hear 2 simple snacks and drinks from a hole-in-the-wall place

Consonant Changes in Strong Verbs

The list above focuses on the vowel changes, but do note that about twenty of the strong verbs also have a consonant change in the past tenses. Some of the most common verbs are the most irregular.
English infinitive simple
past
singular
past
participle
past plural
(if vowel length
or spelling change)
English example to be was (I have) been we were
to be zijn was geweest click to hear wij waren click to hear for the passive, Dutch uses 'worden'
to have hebben had gehad click to hear wij hadden click to hear
to come komen kwam gekomen click to hear wij kwamen click to hear
to hold houden hield gehouden click to hear 'houden van' is 'to love, to like' ‑>>>
to go gaan ging gegaan click to hear 2
to stand staan stond gestaan click to hear
to slap, hit slaan sloeg geslagen click to hear
to know (things) weten wist geweten click to hear 2
to say zeggen zei gezegd click to hear wij zeiden click to hear Note D inserted for past plural
to see zien zag gezien click to hear wij zagen click to hear
to lose verliezen verloor verloren click to hear wij verloren click to hear
to freeze vriezen vroor gevroren click to hear (wij vroren click to hear)
to be able to,'can' kunnen kon (gekund) click to hear wij konden click to hear Note D inserted in the past plural
'shall, will'
(for the future tense)
zullen zou - click to hear 2 wij zouden click to hear 2 Note D inserted in the past plural
to do doen deed gedaan click to hear wij deden click to hear
to have to, 'must' moeten moest gemoeten click to hear actually only a consonant change
to think denken dacht gedacht click to hear
to bring brengen bracht gebracht click to hear
to be allowed to, 'may' mogen mocht gemogen click to hear
to buy kopen kocht gekocht click to hear
to search, look for zoeken zocht gezocht click to hear

As the two examples below show, the quite common F/V and S/Z shifts are not an indication of a past tense. When a verb stem ends in V or Z, it is replaced by an F or S if no ending is added to the stem. Dutch words cannot end in V or Z. The Dutch mouth has trouble producing those sounds at word's end. more.

English
example
to write I write we write I wrote we wrote I have written
to write schrijven ik schrijf wij schrijven ik schreef wij schreven ik heb geschreven click to hear 2 >>
to read lezen ik lees wij lezen ik las wij lazen ik heb gelezen click to hear 2 >>

<< previous - verbs central - next >>

Desk Vocabulary

Study the words and then name what you see and do on and around your desk.
a [bookcase]
boekenkast click to hear
[a desk]
bureau click to hear
[desk lamp]
bureaulamp click to hear
[a small cabinet, two drawers, a few shelves]
kastje click to hear
[pencils]
potloden click to hear
[mechanical pencils]
vulpotloden click to hear
[ballpoint pens]
balpennen click to hear
[a fountain pen]
vulpen click to hear
[ink, inkwell]
inkt click to hear 2 - inktpot click to hear
[paper]
papier click to hear 2
[felt-tip pens]
viltstiften click to hear
[pencil and small paintbrush]
potlood en penseel click to hear
[compasses, tool for drawing circles]
passers click to hear
[erasers]
gummetjes click to hear
[pencil sharpeners]
puntenslijpers click to hear
[rulers]
linialen click to hear
[triangles]
driehoeken click to hear
[staples]
nietjes click to hear
[staplers]
nietmachines click to hear
[Scotch tape]
plakband click to hear
[dictionary]
woordenboek click to hear 2
[book, small book]
boek click to hear 2 - boekje click to hear 2
[computer]
computer click to hear
[mouse]
muis click to hear
[notebook]
schrift click to hear
[small notebooks]
opschrijfboekjes click to hear 2
[notepad]
bloknoot click to hear
[keyboard]
toetsenbord click to hear 2
[hands on a keyboard]
ik typ click to hear
[Scripture, the Bible]
De Schrift click to hear >>
[I am writing]
ik schrijf click to hear - >>
[I am drawing]
ik teken click to hear
[me thinking]
ik denk click to hear
[I am reading]
ik lees click to hear
[I'm speaking]
ik spreek click to hear 2
[I'm smiling]
ik glimlach click to hear
BuyCD_CDs
to write schrijven ik schrijf ik schreef ik heb geschreven click to hear - >>
to type typen ik typ ik typte ik heb getypt click to hear
to draw tekenen ik teken ik tekende ik heb getekend click to hear
to read lezen ik lees ik las ik heb gelezen click to hear - >>
to think denken ik denk ik dacht ik heb gedacht click to hear 2 - >>
to speak spreken ik spreek ik sprak ik heb gesproken click to hear - >>
to smile glimlachen ik glimlach ik glimlachte ik heb geglimlacht click to hear
to laugh lachen ik lach ik lachte ik heb gelachen click to hear - >>
[I'm laughing]
ik lach click to hear
(het) potlood
(de) puntenslijper
(het) gummetje
click to hear
pencil
pencil sharpener
eraser
(het) vulpotlood
(de) vulpen
(de) balpen
click to hear
mechanical pencil
fountain pen
ballpoint pen
(de) inkt
(de) blocnote (bloknoot)
click to hear
ink
notepad
(de) viltstift
(de) penseel
click to hear
felt-tip pen
small paintbrush
(het) potlood
(de) werktekening
click to hear
pencil
construction diagram
(de) liniaal
(de) driehoek
click to hear
ruler
triangle
(het) papier
(het) schrift
(het) opschrijfboekje
(de) bureaulamp
click to hear
paper
notebook
small notebook
desk lamp
(het) boek
(het) boekje
(de) boekenkast
(het) bureau
click to hear
book
small book
bookcase
desk // office
(het) nietje
(de) nietmachine
(het) plakband
click to hear
staple
stapler
Scotch tape
(de) computer
(de) muis
(het) toetsenbord
click to hear 2
computer
mouse
keyboard
(het) kladblaadje click to hear 2
(het) elastiekje click to hear 2
piece of scrap paper (for temporary notes)
'rubber band'

Metric and Imperial Measurements: Volume

fluid ounces (fl. oz.) to milliliters (ml)

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 fluid ounce = 29.573 milliliter
1 ml = 0.0338 fl. oz.
8 fl. oz = 1 cup = 236.6 ml
1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons = 15 ml
1 teaspoon = 5 ml
½ tsp = 2.5 ml
¼ tsp = 1.25 ml
1/8 tsp = .6 ml
1 cup = 235 ml
½ cup = 120 ml
1/3 cup = 80 ml
¼ cup = 60 ml
a dash ('a few drops') = 1/8 teaspoon = .6 ml   a pinch = 1/16 teaspoon = .3 ml
a smidgen = ½ pinch = .15 ml   a drop = ½ smidgen = .075 ml
(het) mespuntje click to hear 2 ('knifetip') is a very small amount, something like a pinch, maybe less
- een mespuntje cayennepeper click to hear
A Dutch Tablespoon is 15 ml, like the American Tablespoon, but a Dutch teaspoon is 3 ml.
U.S.BritishDutch
teaspoon 5 ml 6 ml 3 ml - (de) theelepel click to hear
dessert spoon 12 ml
Tablespoon 15 ml 18 ml 15 ml - (de) eetlepel click to hear

cups to liters (L)

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 pint = 2 cups = 0.473 liters
1 quart = 4 cups = 0.946 liters
1 gallon = 16 cups = 4 quarts = 3.785 liters
(The old English fluid ounce was 28.4 ml and the UK gallon was 4.54 liters)

gallons to liters

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
more dimensions
1 gallon = 3.785 liters
1 liter = 0.264 gallon
(het) volume click to hear ('volume') (de) inhoud click to hear ('volume;' also: 'contents')
(de) liter click to hear
(de) milliliter click to hear = cc click to hear = (de) kubieke centimeter (cm3) click to hear = 1/1000 of a liter
In Dutch, the units of measure are rarely used in the plural (except in time.)
1 liter, 2 liter click to hear 2
<< - numbers, simple math and dimensions - >>

My Home Town: Wageningen

In the Ice Ages ((de) ijstijd click to hear 2 - 'ice age') glaciers came down to Holland from the Scandinavian mountains, pushing rocks and rubble that were left at the farthest point as hills called 'Moraines.' My home town of Wageningen click to hear is partly built on hills like that, the Wageningse Berg click to hear and the Hinkelseberg click to hear and one or two more that I don't know the names of. Now as we all know, there are no mountains in Holland (er zijn geen bergen in Nederland click to hear) - the highest point in the country is in the extreme South-East, and it's only about 1000 feet (300 meters) above sea level. The hills of my home town are just about 100 feet (30 meters) high. Still, the names say berg click to hear ('mountain') and there's a forest path at the edge called 'de Bergrand' click to hear ('Mountain's Edge,') just one block from the house where I was born. Dutch bergaf click to hear 2 is 'downhill.'

Between the hills is an abandoned, sunken road called 'de Holleweg' click to hear ('Hollow Road') that was good for sleighriding in cold Winters. Local legend has it that priests (or maybe even priestesses) of the Germanic tribes would roll burning wheels down this road to foretell the future. The wheel is in the city's coat of arms.
The river Rhine (de Rijn click to hear 2) used to flow just South of the Wageningen hills, and there was a place where it could be crossed on foot, which may explain settlement in the area. When the Romans came to Holland about 50 BC, they found the Germanic tribe of the Batavians (Batavieren click to hear) in the area. The Batavians had probably been there for one to two hundred years, but traces have been found of an older settlement by another people. Roman histories mention a settlement at a ford called Vada, where Claudius Civilis, the leader of the Batavian Uprising of 69 AD met his Roman counterpart Cerialis for negotiations. Wageningen proudly uses the Latin name, but historians doubt that this Roman settlement was near Wageningen.
Some people think this Latin Vada is the root of the Dutch verb waden click to hear ('to wade') - but that is unlikely because of the similar English word. It's probably from an older Indo-European word that may also be the source of the Latin word. The main local ferry is called 'het Lexkesveer' click to hear which may have to do with Latin lux ('light' - a beacon?) but probably not.
In 1263, the duke of Gelre granted Wageningen city rights. A moat was dug and city walls constructed. Parts of these have been restored. Of course many things happened, local struggles, the fight against Spain, several wars with France, but it looks like nothing of historical importance happened in my home town until the 20th Century. The town seems to have been rather poor, and not developing. It may be the largest town in Holland without a railway station (the major railways were laid before 1875.) Local humor blames orthodox protestants who didn't want the Sunday quiet disturbed by trains, but I've also seen a military explanation.

In the late 19th Century, the government saw a need for agricultural research and educating farmers, and because of its wide variety of soil types Wageningen was chosen as the location for a school of agriculture, that was made into the (de) Landbouwhogeschool click to hear 2 in 1918. '(De) landbouw' click to hear 2 is 'agriculture;' a Dutch hogeschool click to hear 2 is a university (college and grad school) dedicated to one subject. In 1970, the Landbouwhogeschool had about 1500 students and 50 professors on a town of 25.000 inhabitants. Later it was made into a university of general life sciences. De Dreijen click to hear - one of the University areas.
Holland was neutral in the First World War, and the German attack of May 1940 came as a shock to many people. The Dutch army was going to make a stand at a range of hills a few miles West of Wageningen, so the population had to be moved out quickly to create a free-fire zone. Police went door-to-door and sent the citizenry to the harbour, where ships were boarded that had just unloaded coal and concrete, and the people were brought to the West of the country. The Dutch army surrendered after five days when the Germans threatened to bomb Rotterdam click to hear and other main cities. Rotterdam was bombed after all, it was said because of miscommunication, but probably for intimidation.
When in September 1944 the last leg of Operation Market Garden failed to capture the Bridge Too Far at Arnhem, the River Rhine became the front line in the East of Holland. (maps) The German authorities ordered the population to move out, and most inhabitants were taken in by the people of the towns and villages a few miles to the North.
In May 1945 the formal surrender of the remaining German forces in Holland took place in ghost-town Wageningen. The Canadian general Charles Foulkes and his staff, accompanied by Prince Bernhard (husband of then Dutch crown princess, later queen Juliana click to hear) met with German generals in Hotel 'De Wereld' click to hear 2.
De Eng click to hear 2 - the area between the town of Wageningen and the forest to the North-East
As a last point I'd like to mention that some people in Wageningen like to think that the Dutch word fiets click to hear 2 ('bicycle') is after the local blacksmith Viets click to hear who ran one of the first bike shops in the country >>, but the word is generally thought to be a corruption of the French vélocipède click to hear.
main source: 'Wageningen 700 Jaar Stad,' Veenman, Wageningen 1963

In Dutch, I would say De plaats waar ik vandaan kom click to hear 2 ('the place/town where I'm from') for 'My Home Town.' I could say mijn geboorteplaats click to hear ('my birthplace') but that sounds a bit official, like in documentation.
Plaats click to hear can be 'a place, a spot' but it often means 'town.'
<< - essays - >>

[Map showing Wageningen in The Netherlands]
Wageningen click to hear in The Netherlands
[a picture of a building] [a picture of a building]
Wageningen School of Agriculture buildings: (left) botany; (right) microbiology (to be demolished); (below left) chemistry (soil analysis and plant nutrition) - and houses in wageningen
[a picture of a building] [a picture of a Dutch house]
[a picture of a Dutch house] [a painting of a Dutch house]
Gerard Carbo, 1977 (watercolor) Private Collection
[me little boy, laying 'cornerstone']

[trowel and brick]

[trowel with inscription] [my mother] [my father]
A plaque commemorating my laying of the cornerstone disappeared in a 1980s or 1990s remodeling.

The 'owner' of the English-language Wikipedia page about Wageningen removed the link to my little essay, calling it 'irrelevant'
Likewise, the owneress of the Dutch 'Alliterations' page removed the link to my Dutch alliterations page, and right away threatened me with a wikipedia ban if I dared put it back (I think it's under new ownership now)
Wikipedia is nice, but occasionally it gives too much power to people

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2