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Dutch Verbs Lijden ('to Suffer') and Leiden ('to Lead') - Smartphones Page


Dutch EI and IJ represent the same 'diphthong' sound: click to hear
Not many languages have a sound like Dutch EI/IJ, but French has it in words like soleil click to hear 2 ('sun') and the city of Marseille click to hear
It's sometimes said the sound is "somewhere between the A in FATE and the I in FIGHT" - hear Dutch: feit click to hear ('fact') and compare the three sounds in Dutch:
click to hear 2
'a bird'
click to hear 2 3
click to hear 2
'(Indian) corn'

To differentiate between the spellings in spoken Dutch, 'ei'   is called 'korte ei' click to hear 2 ('short ei') and 'ij'   is called 'lange ij' click to hear 2 ('long ij')
- more EI - more IJ

When reciting the Dutch alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z click to hear
the Y is said as EI/IJ click to hear - and also in math:
x + y = z (x plus y is z) click to hear 2 3
but otherwise the letter "Y" is called by its French name: i-Grèc click to hear 2 ('Greek i')
In Dutch words, the Y is usually pronounced as 'short i' click to hear or 'long i' click to
 hear according to the Dutch pronunciation rules
symptoom click to hear ('symptom')
hygiëne click to hear 2 3 ('hygiene')
Occasionally, especially before a vowel, the Y is pronounced as consonant-Y (Dutch J)
yoghurt click to hear 2 'yogurt'
loyaal click to hear 2 'loyal'
- more Y

In the simple present tense, 'leiden'   sounds exactly the same as 'lijden' - but 'lijden' is a strong verb and 'leiden' is a weak verb, so the simple past tenses sound and look different. - weak and strong verbs
(In English it's the other way around: 'to lead' is a strong verb and 'to suffer' is a weak verb)
Also note that D at the end of a word is pronounced as T in Dutch, and DT at the end of a word is also pronounced as T. And double consonants are not pronounced 'longer' than single consonants or with a pause in-between.

About EI and IJ (above)

Related Words and Sample Sentences

Related Words and Sample Sentences
The City of Leiden

'Lijden' - to Suffer

'Lijden'   click to hear 2 'to suffer' is a strong verb:
to suffer
- leed
- geleden
click to hear 2

lijden to suffer
ik lijd I'm suffering
wij lijden we're suffering
ik leed I suffered
wij leden we suffered
ik heb geleden I have suffered
click to hear 2

simple present tense
lijden to suffer
ik lijd I suffer
jij lijdt you suffer (singular, informal you)
hij lijdt he suffers
wij lijden we suffer
jullie lijden you suffer (plural, informal you)
zij lijden they suffer
U lijdt you suffer (polite you)
click to hear 2

simple past tense
(lijden) to suffer
ik leed I suffered
jij leed you suffered
hij leed he suffered
wij leden we suffered
jullie leden y'all suffered
zij leden they suffered
U leed you suffered
click to hear 2

present perfect tense
ik heb geleden click to hear 2 I have suffered
auxiliary verb hebben

Sample Sentences and Related Words

Hij lijdt in stilte click to hear 2 [He is suffering in silence] - He is quiet about his suffering

Ze lijden aan geheugenverlies click to hear 2 'They are suffering from memory loss' - usually said when people ignore inconvenient history

De mens lijdt 't meest van 't lijden dat-ie vreest click to hear 'Man suffers most from the suffering he fears' - a sentiment somewhat similar to President Roosevelt's 'The only thing we have to fear is fear itself' - FDR

uit z'n lijden verlossen click to hear 2 3 4 'release from his suffering,' i.e. euthanize. Occasionally, 'saving him from an unpleasant situation'

(het) lijdend voorwerp click to hear 2 ['suffering item'] - (direct) object, accusative (grammar) ‑>>

(de) lijdende vorm click to hear ['suffering mode'] - the passive voice ‑>>

overlijden click to hear 2 3 to pass away, decease, die ‑>>
M'n vader is veertig jaar geleden overleden click to hear 2 My Dad passed away 40 years ago

(het) medelijden click to hear [co-suffering] - pity, compassion medelijden hebben met click to hear 2 to pity, have pity on Heb medelijden met de dieren! click to hear 2 3 Have pity on the animals! Ik heb medelijden met 'm click to hear 2 I pity him

zielig click to hear 2 pitiable, miserable // pathetic
Ik vind 't zo zielig click to hear 2 3 I think it's so sad, I pity the people involved

jammer! click to hear 2 a pity! too bad! It's a pity
Wat jammer! click to hear Such a pity! Wat jammer nou! click to hear 2 3 Such a pity! (I feel your pain) Wat jammer nou van die ijskast click to hear Such bad luck [of] that refrigerator (turning on, its noise ruining a recording) - Such a pity that the refrigerator turned on

(het) leed click to hear suffering
Elke dag heeft genoeg aan z'n eigen leed click to hear Each day has enough suffering of its own Het leed is geleden click to hear 2 The suffering [has been suffered] is over lief en leed click to hear ['the sweet and the suffering'] - good and bad times, 'for better or worse' (het) leedvermaak click to hear 'schadenfreude,' finding pleasure or entertainment in the misfortunes of other people

Like in English, suffering from illnesses is often said as 'having' illnesses:
Hij heeft kanker click to hear 2 3 He has cancer ‑>>

belijden click to hear to profess a religion

'Geleden' click to hear is not only the past participle of lijden - but it can also mean 'ago' ‑>>
een paar jaar geleden click to hear 2 a [couple of] few years ago Dat is al een tijd geleden click to hear 2 3 That's [already] quite a while ago

'(Het) verleden' click to hear 2 is 'the past' and the adjective 'verleden' is 'past' ‑>>
in 'n ver verleden click to hear in a [far] distant past Dat is verleden tijd click to hear 2 3 'That's past, that's over' - "That's history"

See also: Medical and Life

'Leiden' - to Lead

'Leiden'   click to hear 'to lead' is a weak verb of the non-kofschip class, so the simple past tense has -DE and -DEN endings. The verb stem already ends in D so no D is added for the past participle

leiden to lead
ik leid I'm leading
wij leiden we're leading
ik leidde I led
wij leidden we led
ik heb geleid I have led
click to hear 2 3
The plurals of the simple present and the simple past are spelled differently but have the same pronunciation

simple present tense
leiden to lead
ik leid I lead
jij leidt you lead (singular, informal you)
hij leidt he leads
wij leiden we lead
jullie leiden you lead (plural, informal you)
zij leiden they lead
U leidt you lead (polite you)
click to hear

ik leid click to hear I'm leading

simple past tense
(leiden) to lead
ik leidde I led
jij leidde you led
hij leidde he led
wij leidden we led
jullie leidden y'all led
zij leidden they led
U leidde you led
click to hear

present perfect tense
ik heb geleid click to hear 2 I have led
auxiliary verb hebben

Sample Sentences and Related Words

'Leiden' and 'to lead' do not only mean to be at the head of or to direct, but as for instance in 'leiden tot' / 'lead to' it can also mean 'to cause' and there are other meanings.

from   The Lord's Prayer:
... En leid ons niet in bekoring,
maar verlos ons van het kwade. Amen. click to hear And lead us not in temptation,
but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Hij leidde een terreurgroep click to hear 2 He led a terror group, he was the head of a terror group

't Leidde tot veel vertraging click to hear 2 3 It led to much delay, it caused much delay

't Leidt alleen maar tot meer ellende click to hear 2 3 It only leads to more misery, all it does is cause more trouble

Ze leidt een teruggetrokken bestaan click to hear 2 3 She leads a withdrawn, retiring [existence] life, she keeps to herself

Het leidt nergens toe click to hear 2 3 4 5 [It leads nowhere] Nothing comes of it, it's useless

(de) leiding click to hear 1. 'leadership' - direction, command 2. pipe or tube for transport, usually of liquid Wie heeft hier de leiding? click to hear Who's in charge here? Wie heeft er hier de leiding? click to hear Who's in charge here? Ze had de leiding over een groot bedrijf click to hear 2 She was at the head of a large company onder leiding van ... click to hear 2 3 under the leadership of ..., led by ...

(de) waterleiding click to hear 1. water pipe 2. municipal drinking water system (het) leidingwater click to hear tap water
(de) kraan click to hear 2 faucet
(het) kraanwater click to hear 2 tap water

(de) leider click to hear leader
Hij is de leider van de oppositie click to hear 2 3 He is the leader of the opposition (de) oppositie click to hear 2 3 the political parties in parliament opposed to the government ‑>> (de) bedrijfsleider click to hear manager (or use the English word)
(het) hoofd click to hear is 'head' (human and horse) - but like in English it can also be 'leading person, person in charge.' For instance, rayonhoofden click to hear ('area heads')

(de) leidster click to hear 2 3 ['female leader'] is an old-fashioned word for '(female) preschool teacher.' It is not used for women in other leadership positions.
De lieve leidsters liepen langzaam langs de Lindenlaan click to hear The kind (female Kindergarten) teachers walked slowly along the Linden Lane

(de) verleiding click to hear 2 3 [away-, astray-leading] - temptation in verleiding brengen click to hear 2 3 4 'to [bring] lead into temptation'

The verb 'afleiden' can mean 'to distract, lead away from' - but it can also mean 'drawing conclusions, deduce, infer.'
(de) afleiding click to hear 2 3 distraction
Ik werd afgeleid click to hear 2 I was distracted Je hebt afleiding nodig click to hear 2 [You need distraction] - You need a break (from hard work or intense emotions) (de) bliksemafleider click to hear 2 3 4 lightning rod

(de) aanleiding click to hear 'occasion,' 'reason,' 'trigger event'
naar aanleiding van click to hear 2 3 in reaction to, in response to 'De aanleiding' can also be the 'trigger event,' 'the catalyst.' The classic example is the First World War, which had been brewing for years and for many reasons, but started in the Summer of 1914 because of the assassination in Sarajewo. It could have started after another event at another time - or maybe not at all or in a different form.
De aanleiding tot de Eerste Wereldoorlog click to hear 2 3 4 The trigger event [of] that set off the First World War

begeleiden click to hear 2 to accompany - as a friend - as a counsel ('to guide, counsel, support') - or as a musician (de) begeleider click to hear 2 companion / counselor, supervisor / accompanist (de) begeleiding click to hear supervision, coaching / accompaniment (de) blindengeleidehond click to hear 2 [steering-the-blind dog] seeing-eye dog

(de) inleiding click to hear 2 introduction (usually in a book) (de) opleiding click to hear 1. education, training 2. academy ‑>>

The City of Leiden

I don't think the name of the city of Leiden click to hear (sometimes written as 'Leyden' in English) has anything to do with the verbs on this page. The city famously withstood a siege by the Spanish army early in the Dutch Revolt and in honor of that Leyden University was established.
Leidens Ontzet click to hear The Relief of Leyden, the lifting of the siege Leidse Fles click to hear 2 3 Leyden [bottle] Jar - an early battery, condenser actually Leidse kaas click to hear 2 Leyden Cheese (with cumin)
'het Wapen van Leiden' click to hear 'Leyden Arms' - the city emblem, the city's coat of arms 'Leiden in last' click to hear 'Leyden in trouble' - said when people exaggerate the seriousness of their difficulties

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Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'