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Disambiguation: Many common Dutch words have more than one meaning.

Disambiguation Home - Aan - Achter - Af - Al - Als - Binnen/Buiten - Daar - Dan - Dat - Door - Eens - Er - Erg - Even - Haast - Het - In - Laat - Maar - Na - Naar - Net - Nog - Of - Om - Onder/Boven - Op - Over - Toen - Uit - Van - Voor - Vroeg - Waar - Wat - Weg - Zo - more

'Af' = Off, Away From, Finished, and Much More

Dutch 'af' click to hear can mean 'off, away from,' or 'finished' and more, but it is most often found (in a variety of meanings) in combination with verbs or in compound verbs.
'Af' = Off
'Af' = Finished
Verbs with 'Af'
Words with 'Af'

'Af' = Off

De bal rolde van de tafel af click to hear The ball rolled off [from] the table Though you could as well say (both in Dutch as in English)
De bal rolde van de tafel click to hear The ball rolled from the table

van me af click to hear 2 3 away from me naar me toe click to hear 2 3 towards me

van nu af aan click to hear 2 from now on, starting now, in the future ... also:  voortaan click to hear from now on, in the future Doe voortaan de deur op slot click to hear 2 3 4 From now on, lock the door

The Dutch phrase at the start of races is:
Klaar ... af! click to hear ~ Ready ... set ... go!
Maybe it's related to, somewhat like 'We're off'

As I've mentioned before, 'to cut' is said in Dutch as different verbs depending on the tools - 2 used:
snijden click to hear 2 'to cut (with a knife)' ‑>>
(het) mes click to hear 2 3 knife
knippen click to hear 'to cut (with scissors)' ‑>>
(de) schaar click to hear scissors
zagen click to hear 2 3 'to saw, cut (with a saw)' ‑>>
(de) zaag click to hear 2 saw
afsnijden click to hear 2 to cut off (with a knife) - and also figuratively afknippen click to hear 2 3 to cut off (with scissors) afzagen click to hear 2 3 to saw off, cut off (with a saw) afgezaagd click to hear 2 3 4 1. (past participle) cut off, sawed off
2. stale, boring, not new, 'annoyingly unoriginal'
Ik heb de plank te kort afgezaagd click to hear 2 I cut (off) the board too short

Zetten click to hear 'to put, place, move to' (and other)
afzetten click to hear 2 1. to drop off
2. overcharge, rip off (have customers pay too much)
3. to depose (king, president etc.)
Kun je me bij 't station afzetten? click to hear 2 3 Could you please drop me off at the station? (de) afzetter click to hear 2 3 swindler, shopkeeper who ask too much for his goods We zijn afgezet click to hear 2 3 We have paid way too much, we were cheated

zetten to 'put'
ik zet I'm putting
wij zetten we're putting
ik zette I put
wij zetten we put
ik heb gezet I have put
click to hear 2 3
(English uses the same form for the present and the past tense; in Dutch the plurals of the present and past tense sound  the same)
thee zetten click to hear 2 to make tea water opzetten click to hear 2 'to put the kettle on,' bring water to a boil (usually for tea or coffee)

stoom afblazen click to hear 2 to blow off steam (relieve pressure, also figuratively)

Vallen click to hear 'to fall' ‑>>
laten vallen click to hear 2 '[to let fall] to drop' ‑>>
afvallen click to hear 2 to lose, drop weight Ik wil drie kilo afvallen click to hear I want to drop 3 kilos (6 pounds) Ik ben vijf kilo afgevallen click to hear 2 I dropped 5 kilos (11 pounds) Je bent goed afgevallen click to hear 2 Your weight loss is going well but: (het) afval click to hear 2 waste, refuse, trash, scraps, garbage (de) afvalbak click to hear garbage can, trashcan aankomen click to hear 2 1. to arrive ‑>>
2. to gain weight
Ik ben met de Kerst vijf pond aangekomen click to hear 2 I gained 5 pounds over the Christmas holiday

'Af' = 'finished'

In combination with some verbs and other words, af click to hear means 'finished'
onaf click to hear 2 3 unfinished (colloquial)
more formal words:
onvoltooid click to hear 2 3 4 5 unfinished - German: 'unvollendet' onafgemaakt click to hear 2 3 unfinished - more below

Zijn click to hear 'to be' ‑>>
af zijn click to hear 2 to be ready, finished with, be done with Is 't af? click to hear 2 3 4 Is it finished? Is it ready? Are you done with it? Mijn werk is nooit af click to hear 2 3 4 My work is never done, never finished

ergens vanaf zijn click to hear 2 3 be done with something, be rid of something, no longer bothered by something ‑>> Om van 't gezeur af te zijn click to hear 2 To put an end to, to be done with the nagging, to get rid of the hassle, the pointless, annoying comments Dan zijn we van de problemen af click to hear 2 3 4 5 slow Then we'll be done with the problems (that will solve the problems, then the problems will be solved) Als ik ergens vanaf zou willen zijn zijn het die migraines click to hear 2 3 4 If there is [something] one thing I'd like to be rid of it's those migraines
- it's a bit formal.

More colloquial is: Als ik ergens vanaf zou willen zijn het die migraines click to hear 2 3 If there is [something] one thing I'd like to be rid of it's those migraines af willen van click to hear 2 wanting, desiring to be rid of Ik wil er vanaf click to hear 2 3 I want to be rid of it, I want it gone

Hebben click to hear 'to have' ‑>>
af hebben click to hear 2 3 to be finished with, have something ready Heb je 't af? click to hear 2 3 Are you finished with it? Is it done? Is it ready?

lopen click to hear 2 'to walk' and other ‑>>
For the coming to an end of sequences of events like stories or reporting, Dutch often uses the noun (de) afloop click to hear 2 and the verb aflopen click to hear
't Is een aflopende zaak click to hear 2 a business or an endeavor heading downhill, on its last legs Hoe zal 't aflopen? click to hear How is it going to end? Hoe is 't afgelopen? click to hear How did it end? 't Loopt niet goed af click to hear 2 It's not going to end well Ik wil weten hoe 't afloopt click to hear 2 I want to know how it (usually a story) will end Ik ben benieuwd hoe 't afloopt click to hear 2 3 I'm curious how it's going to end Ik ben blij dat het goed is afgelopen click to hear I'm glad it ended well Ik had kunnen weten dat 't slecht zou aflopen click to hear 2 3 I could have known that it would end badly Lang nadat de oorlog was afgelopen click to hear 2 3 Long after the war had ended 't Moet afgelopen zijn! click to hear 2 3 It has to stop! It can't go on 'Afgelopen' click to hear 2 - the the past participle of 'aflopen' click to hear is usually translated as 'last' or 'past.'
afgelopen woensdag click to hear 2 last wednesday in de afgelopen dagen click to hear 2 3 in the past days (de) aflopende rand click to hear 2 sloping edge, a 'bevel'

maken click to hear 'to make' and other ‑>>
afmaken click to hear 2 1. to finish (a job, work, a creation)
2. to murder (in a gruesome way) - to 'off'?
Maak eerst je huiswerk af click to hear First, finish your homework onafgemaakt click to hear 2 3 unfinished - German: 'unvollendet' voltooien click to hear 2 3 4 to finish, comlplete (something big) onvoltooid click to hear 2 3 4 5 unfinished - German: 'unvollendet' (De) Onvoltooid Tegenwoordige Tijd click to hear 2 The Simple Present Tense
(De) Onvoltooid Verleden Tijd click to hear 2 The Simple Past Tense
(De) Voltooide Tijd click to hear 2 3 The Perfect Tense
(De) Voltooid Tegenwoordige Tijd click to hear 2 The Perfect Present Tense
(De) Voltooid Verleden Tijd click to hear 2 The Perfect Past Tense
All about the Verb Tenses

afgelasten to cancel
ik gelast af I'm canceling
ik gelastte af I canceled
ik heb afgelast I have canceled
click to hear 2 3
afgelasten click to hear 2 3 to cancel (an event or a match) Als het regent wordt de wedstrijd afgelast click to hear If it rains the match will be canceled Note the perfect tense:
ik heb afgelast click to hear 2 3
('I have canceled') - there is no second ge- inserted. This past participle makes some Dutch people think the verb is 'aflasten,' but that is not entirely correct.

Zeggen click to hear 2 3 'to say' ‑>>
afzeggen click to hear 2 to cancel (an appointment or a trip) Ik heb de reis moeten afzeggen click to hear 2 3 I had to cancel the trip

Leren click to hear 'to learn // to teach' ‑>> - 2
afleren click to hear 2 to unlearn, 'break the habit'
Om 't af te leren click to hear 2 3 'to unlearn it' - said in jest when taking one more drink or unwholesome snack - 'to break the habit'

'Afzien' click to hear 2 3 by itself means making a great and exhausting effort, like in sports or exercise
The more common afzien click to hear van click to hear 2 means 'to give up, abandon, renounce, forego'
Dat was afzien! click to hear 2 3 That was quite an effort! I'm exhausted afzien van vlees click to hear 2 3 4 giving up meat, become a vegetarian We zagen af van betaling click to hear 2 3 4 We decided not to ask for payment -or- we decided not to pay (for a very bad job) Ik zie er vanaf click to hear 2 3 I'm dropping this, I'll abandon it, I'm not pursuing it further

Other Verbs with 'Af'

Vragen click to hear 2 'to ask' ‑>>
zich afvragen click to hear to wonder, to ask yourself Ik vraag me af of ... click to hear 2 I wonder if ... Ik vraag me wel eens af ... click to hear 2 (3 4) Sometimes I wonder ... Ik vraag me wel eens af of ... click to hear Sometimes I wonder if ... Ik vraag me af hoe 't komt click to hear 2 I wonder [how it comes] what's causing it, why it is Ik vraag me af waar dat goed voor is click to hear 2 3 4 I wonder what that [is good for] what the use of that is, why that is, what the point of it is Vraag niet wat Nederland voor jou kan doen, maar vraag je af wat jij voor Nederland kunt doen click to hear 2 3 Do not ask what Holland can do for you, but ask yourself what you can do for Holland (naar president Kennedy click to hear 2 after president Kennedy) Vraag niet wat Nederland voor je kan doen, maar vraag je af wat je voor Nederland kunt doen click to hear 2 3
The 'various forms' line is better Dutch, but the 'all-je'  line is not wrong

leiden click to hear 2 3 'to lead' ‑>>
afleiden click to hear 2 3 4 1. [to lead away] - to distract
2. [to reason from] - to deduce, draw conclusions by reasoning from
Ik werd afgeleid click to hear 2 I was distracted Daaruit leid ik af ... click to hear 2 3 From that I deduce, draw the conclusion ... (logically) also:  Daaruit maak ik op ... click to hear From that [I make out ...] I conclude ... (it gives me the impression) (de) bliksemafleider click to hear 2 3 4 lightning rod, lightning conductor (de) afleiding click to hear 2 3 distraction
Je hebt afleiding nodig click to hear 2 You need distraction, you need a break

afruimen click to hear 2 to clear, clear away (usually said about stuff on tables) de tafel afruimen click to hear 2 to clear the table Kun je de tafel afruimen? click to hear 2 Could you please clear the table? Wie ruimt de tafel af? click to hear 2 Who'll clear the table?

halen click to hear 2 'to get, collect, obtain, acquire' ‑>>
afhalen click to hear 2 1. to pick up, collect
2. to strip off, remove covers (beds, vegetables)
Kun je je bed afhalen? click to hear 2 3 4 Could you please remove the sheets from your bed?
Ik ga vandaag lakens wassen click to hear 2 I'm going to wash bedsheets today

afhalen to pick up
ik haalde af I collected
ik heb afgehaald I have collected
click to hear

Hangen click to hear 'to hang up, to hang'
ophangen click to hear 'to hang' (stuff) / 'to hang up' (criminals)
afhangen van click to hear 2 3 to depend (on) 't Hangt er vanaf click to hear 2 3 It depends ... 't Hangt van de temperatuur af click to hear 2 3
't Hangt af van de temperatuur click to hear 2 3 It depends on the temperature also: 't Heeft met de temperatuur te maken click to hear 2 It has to do with the temperature ('has to do' - the temperature is just one of the factors) Laat 't daarvan afhangen click to hear 2 3 Let it depend on that, take a decision, proceed based on that afhankelijk click to hear ( afhankelijke click to hear) dependent onafhankelijk click to hear independent
onafhankelijkheid click to hear independence
onafhankelijkheidsverklaring click to hear 2 declaration of independence

Wachten click to hear 'to wait' ‑>>
afwachten click to hear 2 3 to wait for, ~'wait and see'

afwachten to wait for
ik wachtte af I waited for
ik heb afgewacht I have waited for
click to hear

afronden click to hear 2 3 to 'round' a number - replacing a complicated number by a nearby more convenient number ‑>>
naar boven afronden click to hear 2 3 4 to round up (a number) naar beneden afronden click to hear 2 3 4 to round down (a number)

afdingen click to hear 2 3 to bargain (for a lower price or for concessions, compromise)

afdingen to bargain
ik ding af I'm bargaining
ik dong af I bargained
ik heb afgedongen I have bargained
click to hear 2

even afkloppen! click to hear 2 3 ['taking a moment to'] knock on wood! ‑>>

afblijven click to hear 2 3 4 stay away from, do not touch, do not take Blijf eraf! click to hear 2 3
Blijf er vanaf! click to hear 2 3 Stay away from it, do not touch it Je moet er afblijven click to hear 2 3
Je moet er vanaf blijven click to hear 2 3 You have to stay away from it, do not touch it (Opinions differ on what should be written as one word above, 'er vanaf'  or 'ervan af'  - I put the space where I pause a moment, at the 'vocal stop.')

More Words with 'Af'

af en toe click to hear slow from time to time, occasionally Je moet er af en toe in roeren click to hear 2 3 4 You need to stir [in] it occasionally, from time to time Je moet er af en toe naar kijken click to hear You need to look into it occasionally, check it from time to time Het lijkt wel alsof iemand (heel) ver weg af en toe op een trommel slaat - dat zal m'n hartslag zijn click to hear slow 2 3 It's like someone far in the distance from time to time hits a drum - that's probably my heartbeat - Slow Dutch

af en aan click to hear 2 on and on, a continuous stream Vrachtwagens reden af en aan click to hear 2 3 On and on, trucks kept driving up (there was a continuous stream of trucks delivering stuff)

vanaf click to hear 2 3 off, away from; from, starting ...
also split up as:  van ... af click to hear 2 3
vanaf morgen click to hear 2 3 from tomorrow, starting tomorrow, as of tomorrow Er kan geen lachje vanaf click to hear 2 3 ['There is no room for even a [small laugh] smile' - 'They can't even spare a [little laugh] smile'] - They are extremely serious and very focused raken click to hear 2 to touch; to hit a target
af raken van:  (3 words)
af click to hear raken click to hear 2 van click to hear 2 to move away from, get off, to stray from (also figuratively) De auto raakte van de weg af click to hear 2 3 4 The car got off the road, drifted off the road Van 't rechte pad af raken click to hear 2 3 Straying from [the straight path] the straight and narrow (the morally upstanding life - Dutch 'recht' click to hear 2 is both 'straight' and (slightly old-fashioned) 'right, correct' ‑>>)
op de slechte weg brengen click to hear 2 3 [to bring to the bad way, put on the wrong track] - Making you stray from the straight and narrow En Kees Ploeger praat van die rare kerels die 'm op de slechte weg brachten click to hear And Kees Ploeger talks of those peculiar guys that put him on the wrong track - Nescio

Sla linksaf op 't kruispunt click to hear 2 Go left on the intersection slaan click to hear to hit, slap ‑>>
afslaan click to hear 2 3 1. to turn, change direction
2. to turn down, decline
3. to repulse, drive back (by force)
Kijk even achterom voordat je afslaat click to hear 2 [Look back for a moment ...] Quickly look backward before you make a turn Sla 't niet af! click to hear 2 3 Don't turn it down! (Take up the offer)

(de) berg click to hear mountain ‑>>
bergaf click to hear 2 downhill

(het) baken click to hear beacon
De bakens verzetten click to hear 2 (saying) '[moving the beacons] - setting a new course' - figuratively: change to a new policy (de) afbakenening click to hear 2 demarcation, outlining of an area, ~staking out

(de) afstand click to hear distance
(de) afstandsbediening click to hear remote control
op loopafstand click to hear within walking distance
lopen click to hear 2 'to walk' ‑>>
Houd afstand click to hear 2 keep distance, don't come too close

(de) afwas click to hear dishes etc. to be washed afwasborstels click to hear dish brushes, dishwashing brushes
(de) afwasteil click to hear dishwashing tub ‑>>
afwassen click to hear 2 3 1. to 'do' (clean) the dishes
2. to wash off (remove by washing or wet-rubbing)
(de) afwasmachine click to hear 2 dishwasher (machine)
Zet je je bord in de afwasmachine? click to hear 2 3 4 [Will you ...] Please put your plate in the dishwasher de afwasmachine leeghalen click to hear 2 to [empty] unpack the dishwasher Kun je de afwasmachine leeghalen? click to hear 2 3 4 Could you please unpack the dishwasher?

op de rand van de afgrond click to hear 2 on the edge of the precipice

(het) afscheid click to hear [leave-taking] goodbye
afscheid nemen click to hear 2 taking leave, saying goodbye Hij nam afscheid click to hear 2 3 1. he said goodbye, he took leave
2. he retired (with some ceremony)
Hij nam afscheid van ons click to hear 2 3 he said goodbye to us, he took leave of us
Tot ziens! click to hear 2 See you!
Vaarwel! click to hear Farewell!
scheiden click to hear 2 to separate; to divorce
t Kaf van 't koren scheiden click to hear ['Separating the chaff from the wheat'] - Separating the useful from the useless, the men from the boys, the sheep from the goats (de) scheiding click to hear 2 separation; divorce ‑>>
de afscheiding click to hear 2 3 4 1. separation, secession, schism
2. dividing line, fence, fencing
3. secretion, discharge
scheikunde click to hear chemistry ‑>>

(de) spraak click to hear 2 speech, the speaking
(de) toespraak click to hear 2 speech, address, presentation
spreken click to hear to speak ‑>>
(de) afspraak click to hear appointment - also: agreement Ik heb een afspraak om acht uur click to hear 2 3 I have an 8 o'clock appointment Kan ik de afspraak verzetten? click to hear 2 Can I (move) reschedule the appointment? Ik herinnerde hem aan de afspraak click to hear I reminded him that there was an agreement (het) afspraakje click to hear 2 (romantic) date

afleveren click to hear 2 3 to deliver
(de) aflevering click to hear 2 3 episode of a TV show or installment of a serial de volgende aflevering click to hear 2 3 the next episode

komen click to hear 'to come' ‑>>
(de) afkomst click to hear 2 / (de) komaf click to hear 2 descent, origin, parentage, heritage afstammelingen click to hear descendants ‑>>

afbreken click to hear 2 3 1. to break down, take down, demolish, destroy
2. to break off, interrupt
(de) afbraak click to hear 2 demolition

nemen click to hear 'to take' ‑>>
afnemen click to hear 2 1. to take away
2. to decrease, become less
(de) afname click to hear 2 3 decrease, lessening (de) toename click to hear 2 increase, growth
toenemen click to hear 2 to increase, grow, become larger or more numerous

Van uitstel komt afstel click to hear 2 3 'Postponement leads to cancellation'

Laat 't afkoelen click to hear 2 Let it cool down

(de) afgevaardigde click to hear 2 representative, delegate, elected official plural: afgevaardigden click to hear 2 ‑>>

(de) afkeer click to hear 2 (strong) dislike, distaste
(de) afschuw click to hear 2 loathing, horror, (strong) disgust afschuwelijk click to hear 2 horrible, horrifying, shocking, awful

wisselen click to hear to exchange
afwisselen click to hear 2 to alternate, take turns, vary (de) afwisseling click to hear 2 3 change, variety
voor de afwisseling click to hear 2 3 for change, to have some variety

afzonderlijk click to hear (afzonderlijke click to hear 2) separate, special, apart

(de) afvoer click to hear 2 drain, water outlet in sink (het) afdruiprek click to hear dishes rack (water dripping off)

trekken click to hear 2 3 to pull ('drag') ‑>> aftrekken click to hear 2 to subtract ‑>>

meten click to hear to measure, take measurements ‑>>
afmetingen click to hear 2 measurements, dimensions, 'size'

wegen click to hear 2 to weigh ‑>>
(de) afweging click to hear consideration (weighing, comparing options)

zenden click to hear 2 to send
(de) afzender click to hear sender (mail)

gaan click to hear 'to go' ‑>>
(de) afgang click to hear 2 embarrassing failure

(de) afdeling click to hear 2 department, division, section (de) afdruk click to hear 2 print
afgepeigerd click to hear exhausted, dead-tired ‑>>
afwijken click to hear to deviate, diverge, differ
de Afsluitdijk click to hear 2 'the Closing Dike' ‑>>

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2