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Basic Dutch 3: Prepositions etc. (pictorial)

Basic Dutch: Nouns - Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs - Prepositions (etc.): pictorial / list - Supplement

Master Lists of Dutch Words
with pronunciation, translation and links to explanation, samples of usage and/or related words: Dutch Listing - English Listing

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Old pages: Old Basic Home 9 10 11 12 13 14

Prepositions are a difficult part of learning a modern foreign language. Prepositions may have several meanings, which may translate into different words in the other language, and verbs may not use the same prepositions.
Learn the words and the basic, physical meaning first, study the examples to understand the context of their use, and then continue to the next page for the extended meaning of the words.
Click the more links to see and hear more examples of usage

[a wrapped present with the name 'Els'] [Bob's hand holding the present, dropping it in Els's hand]
voor click to hear for - more
aan click to hear to - more
van click to hear of, from - more
een cadeau voor Els click to hear 2 a present for Alice
Bob geeft het aan Els click to hear Bob gives it to Alice
het cadeau van Bob click to hear 2 Bob's present
'cadeau' is sometimes spelled as 'kado'
de vrienden van m'n vader click to hear the friends of my father's
[a ball on a table, and a ball falling off the table;
  a foot on the floor, and a foot off the floor]
voetjes van de vloer click to hear 'feet off the floor' - i.e. dancing
De bal rolde van de tafel af click to hear The ball rolled off the table
op click to hear on - more
van click to hear off - more
aan click to hear on - more
op de tafel click to hear on the table
van de tafel click to hear off the table
op de vloer click to hear on the floor
van de vloer click to hear off the floor - more
[a crucifix and a lizard on a wall]
aan de muur click to hear on the wall (fixed)
op de muur click to hear on the wall (temporarily)
[in front of, between, behind: 3 balls in a row]
voor click to hear in front of, before - more
achter click to hear behind - more
tussen click to hear between -and- among - more
[3 balls (A,B,C) in a row, another ball (D) next to them]
naast click to hear next to, beside - more
A is voor B en C click to hear A is in front of B and C
B is tussen A en C click to hear B is between A and C
C is achter A en B click to hear C is behind A and B
D is naast A click to hear D is next to A
Dutch 'tussen' is both 'between' (two)
and 'among' (more than two.)
[a person sitting on a chair at a table, a bottle on the table, 
 a bottle under the table, a bottle under the chair]
op click to hear on - more
onder click to hear under - more
aan click to hear at - more
op de tafel click to hear on the table
onder de tafel click to hear under the table
aan de tafel click to hear at the table
op de stoel click to hear on the chair
onder de stoel click to hear under the chair
aan tafel! click to hear 2 come to the table!
(food is served)
[on top of, below, with]
boven click to hear over, on top of, above - more
onder click to hear under, below - more
bij click to hear with, at - more
[over/above, in, under:
  an air balloon, in the air over the water,
  a ship on the water,
  a swimmer in the water, a submarine under water]
boven click to hear over, above - more
in click to hear in - more
op click to hear on - more
onder click to hear under - more
over click to hear over, across - more
boven het water click to hear over, above the water
in de lucht click to hear in the air
op het water click to hear on the water
in het water click to hear in the water
onder water click to hear under water
een brug over de gracht click to hear a bridge across the city canal
[a bridge across a city canal]
[front, back and sides] [top, sides and front]
(de) voorkant click to hear front
(de) zijkant click to hear 2 side
(de) achterkant click to hear 2 back
(de) bovenkant click to hear top
(de) onderkant click to hear 2 bottom
(de) kant click to hear side
[bottom, sides and front]
terzijde click to hear on the side, aside
Dutch (de) zijde click to hear for 'side' is a little old-fashioned. It also means 'silk.' Kant also means 'lace.'
Zij- click to hear 2 can also be used as a prefix, meaning 'side-' - more
Aan de ene kant click to hear 2 3
'on the one [side] hand'
Aan de andere kant click to hear 2 3
'on the other hand'
[stairs, an elevator, floors]
boven click to hear upstairs, above - more
naar boven click to hear up - more
omhoog click to hear up - more
beneden click to hear downstairs ('beneath') - more
naar beneden click to hear down
omlaag click to hear down - more
(de) trap click to hear stairs
(de) lift click to hear elevator
[the floors of a house; around a house]
voor click to hear in front of more
achter click to hear behind - more
naast click to hear next to - more
voor het huis click to hear in front of the house
achter het huis click to hear behind the house
naast het huis click to hear next to the house
(het) huis click to hear house - more 'house'
(de) zolder click to hear attic
(de) eerste verdieping click to hear the second floor ‑>>
(de) begane grond click to hear the first (ground) floor
(de) kelder click to hear cellar
[an air balloon over a house, a person on top of a house]
boven click to hear over, above - more
op click to hear on, on top of - more
in click to hear in, inside - more
binnen click to hear inside - more
buiten click to hear outside - more
onder click to hear under, below - more
boven het huis click to hear above the house
op het huis click to hear on top of the house
op het dak click to hear on the roof
in het huis click to hear inside the house
buiten het huis click to hear outside the house
onder het huis click to hear under the house
[a tree in front of a house]
een boom voor het huis click to hear
a tree in front of the house
[between and among houses]
tussen click to hear among -and- between - more
tussen de huizen click to hear among the houses
between the houses
om click to hear about - more
rond click to hear around more
bomen om het huis click to hear trees about the house
bomen rond het huis click to hear trees around the house
[trees around/about a house]
[to the house, into the house, away from the house]

[into the room, through the door, out of the room]

naar click to hear to -
naar ... toe click to hear to, towards - more
van click to hear from, away from - more
van ... weg click to hear away from
in click to hear in, into - more
binnen click to hear inside - more
naar binnen click to hear into - more
buiten click to hear outside - more
naar buiten click to hear out - more
[through the house]
door click to hear through - more
door het huis click to hear through the house

naar het huis click to hear to the house
naar het huis toe click to hear towards the house
van het huis click to hear from the house
van het huis weg click to hear away from the house
van me af click to hear 2 3 away from me
naar me toe click to hear 2 3 towards me
het huis in click to hear into the house
het huis binnen click to hear into the house
het huis uit click to hear out of the house
ze liep naar het huis toe click to hear she walked towards the house
hij ging het huis in click to hear he went into the house
hij ging het huis binnen click to hear he went inside the house
hij liep het huis uit click to hear he walked out of the house
door de deur click to hear through the door
de kamer in click to hear into the room
in de kamer click to hear in the room
de kamer uit click to hear out of the room
[a road sign pointing to Amsterdam]
naar click to hear to - more
uit click to hear - more from
naar Amsterdam click to hear to Amsterdam
uit Amsterdam click to hear from Amsterdam
ik kom uit Amerika click to hear I'm from the US
ik kom uit Engeland click to hear I'm from England
[arrows pointing left, straight, right and back]
links click to hear left - more
rechts click to hear right - more
rechtdoor click to hear straight ‑>>
terug click to hear back - more

neem de tweede weg links
en dan de derde weg rechts click to hear
take the second road to the left
and then the third road to the right

- more Traffic and Transportation

vooruit click to hear forward - more
achteruit click to hear backward - more
[arrows along a road pointing forward and back]
See also: Travel - Foreign Lands
tegen click to hear against - more
en click to hear and - more
op click to hear on, in - more
[a car smashed against a tree]
tegen een boom click to hear against a tree
[a triangle and a square]
driehoek en vierkant click to hear
triangle and square
[an arrow pointing at a spot] op deze plaats click to hear
at this point,
in this spot
met click to hear with - more
zonder click to hear without - more
en click to hear and - more
bij click to hear with, at - more
van click to hear of - more
[a coffee mug, sugar and cream being added
       - the mug says 'Piet' - and 
       a cup of tea with a cookie]
koffie met melk en suiker click to hear coffee with cream and sugar
een koekje bij de thee click to hear a cookie with the tea
de mok van Piet click to hear Peet's mug
[a box with a number, a box without a number]
met click to hear with - more
zonder click to hear without - more
doos met nummer click to hear box with a number
doos zonder nummer click to hear box without a number
patat met mayonaise click to hear french fries with mayo
patat-met click to hear french fries with (mayo)
patat zonder mayonaise click to hear french fries without mayo
patat-zonder click to hear french fries without (mayo)
tegenover click to hear opposite
ertegenover click to hear 2 opposite it
(het) tegenovergestelde click to hear 2 (the) opposite
tegenovergesteld click to hear (tegenovergestelde click to hear 2) opposite
[houses_opposite_behind]
't huis ertegenover click to hear 2 3 4 the house opposite it, on the other side of the street
't huis schuin ertegenover click to hear 2 the house diagonally across (from it)
't huis erachter click to hear 2 the house behind it
't huis schuin erachter click to hear 2 3 the house diagonally behind it (kitty-corner)
[house_in_between]

't huis ertussenin click to hear 2 3 the house in between (them)

ondersteboven click to hear 2 [downside-up] upside down
op de kop click to hear 2 on its head, upside-down
achterstevoren click to hear 2 backward
binnenstebuiten click to hear 2 inside-out
achterom click to hear 2 around the back,
through the back door
andersom click to hear the other way 'round
verkeerdom click to hear the wrong way 'round
omgekeerd click to hear 'turned around,' upside-down
de omgekeerde wereld click to hear 2 3 the world turned upside-down
[a tree, a house and two cars - near by and far away]
dit click to hear
this
deze click to hear
this, these
hier click to hear 2
here
dat click to hear
that
die click to hear
that, those
daar click to hear
there

'Deze' and 'die' are used for 'de' words (including plurals)
'dit' and 'dat' are used for 'het' words.
'Deze' and 'dit' indicate nearby items;
'die' and 'dat' indicate distant items.

hier click to hear 2 here daar click to hear there
de boom click to hear the tree deze boom click to hear this tree die boom click to hear that tree
het huis click to hear the house dit huis click to hear this house dat huis click to hear that house
de auto's click to hear the cars deze auto's click to hear these cars die auto's click to hear those cars

'Dat' and 'that' also have other meanings. See: Disambiguation: 'Dat'
See also: more 'hier' and 'daar'

2018
tweeduizendachttien
click to hear
2019
tweeduizendnegentien
click to hear 2
2020
tweeduizendtwintig
click to hear 2 3
2021
tweeduizendéénentwintig
click to hear 2
2022
tweeduizendtweeëntwintig
click to hear 2

last year
vorig jaar
click to hear
this year
dit jaar
click to hear 2
next year
volgend jaar
click to hear 2

- more



the past
het verleden
click to hear
the present
het heden
click to hear
the future
de toekomst
click to hear


then
toen
click to hear
now
nu
click to hear
then
dan
click to hear

the day before yesterday
eergisteren
click to hear
yesterday
gisteren
click to hear
today
vandaag
click to hear
tomorrow
morgen
click to hear 2
the day after tomorrow
overmorgen
click to hear 2
voor click to hear before
na click to hear after - more
tijdens click to hear during
van click to hear from
tot click to hear to, till
tussen click to hear between
en click to hear and
[war years]
de oorlog click to hear the War
voor de oorlog click to hear before the War
tijdens de oorlog click to hear during the War
na de oorlog click to hear after the war
van 1940 tot 1945 click to hear from 1940 to 1945
tussen 1940 en 1945 click to hear between 1940 and 1945
de Tweede Wereldoorlog begon in 1939 click to hear 2
the Second World War started in 1939
[eight o'clock]
om click to hear at
om acht uur click to hear at eight o'clock
voor acht uur click to hear before eight
na acht uur click to hear after eight
om acht uur precies click to hear at eight sharp
op tijd click to hear on time, in time
precies op tijd click to hear exactly on time
te laat click to hear too late
[an arrow pointing to '8:00'] Dutch time
['pharmacy' with signs 'hours' and 'days']
(de) apotheek click to hear pharmacy
(de) openingstijden click to hear business hours
van acht tot zes click to hear from eight to six
maandag tot en met zaterdag click to hear Monday through Saturday
tot en met click to hear up to and including
op zondag gesloten click to hear closed Sundays
Dutch 'tot' click to hear ('to, till') is a little ambiguous: is the second date included or not? To avoid confusion, we sometimes say 'tot en met' click to hear ('up to and including.')

Comparative and Superlative Degree
Very similar to English, Dutch in general adds -er to the basic form for the comparative degree, and -st is added for the superlative degree; but 'meer' click to hear ('more') and meest click to hear ('most') are less common in Dutch than in English. But for you, students, it's alright to more often use 'meer' and 'meest'  while you're learning.
(de) vergrotende trap click to hear 2 3 comparative degree
(de) overtreffende trap click to hear 2 superlative degree ->>
(de) 'trap' click to hear usually either means 'stairs' or 'kick'

lang
langer
langst
click to hear 2
long; tall
longer; taller
longest; tallest

klein
kleiner
kleinst
click to hear 2
small, little
smaller
smallest

groot
groter
grootst
click to hear 2
big, large
bigger, larger
biggest, largest

smal
smaller
smalst
click to hear 2
narrow
more narrow
most narrow
[two stick figures, Wim and Henk]
Henk is klein click to hear Henk is short
Wim is groot click to hear Wim is tall
Wim is groter dan Henk click to hear Wim is taller than Henk
Henk is kleiner dan Wim click to hear Henk is shorter than Wim
Henk is niet zo groot als Wim click to hear Henk is not as tall as Wim
[Jan, Piet, Klaas and Wim.
    Jan is taller than Piet,
    Piet and Klaas are the same height,
    Wim is the tallest.]
dan click to hear than - more
even ... als click to hear just as ... as, as ... as
Jan is groter dan Piet click to hear John is taller than Pete
Piet is even groot als Klaas click to hear 2 Pete is as tall as Charles
Piet en Klaas zijn even groot click to hear 2 Pete and Charles are the same height
Wim is het grootst click to hear 2 Bill is the tallest

Many Dutchmen say "groter (etc.) als," for the comparative degree, but that is not correct. Use dan click to hear - groter dan click to hear ('bigger than')

't Is veel moeilijker dan ik dacht click to hear 2 3
It's much more difficult than I thought

There are of course a few exceptions, like in English with very common adjectives and adverbs, and often in a similar way:

goed click to hear good, well
beter click to hear better
best click to hear best
hear 3

weinig click to hear little, few
minder click to hear less, fewer
minst click to hear least
een beetje click to hear a little
minstens click to hear at least

veel click to hear much, many, a lot of
meer click to hear more
meest click to hear most
hoogstens click to hear at most

Next: Systematic List (ordered by word type) - recommended
or: Alphabetic List

Basic Dutch: Nouns - Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs - Prepositions (etc.): pictorial / list - Supplement

- Verbs and Their Prepositions

Master Lists of Common Dutch Words - with pronunciation and links to explanation, examples of usage, pictures and/or related words: Dutch to English - English to Dutch

The words selection is mostly based on Ogden and Richards' Basic English - the drawings are all my own.

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2011-2020. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2