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- New Page: September 2014

Words of Time, Lines of Time (Dutch)

The most important Dutch words and phrases about Time, with many examples of usage - a Dutch Thesaurus page. Probably all the Dutch words and phrases about time that you'll ever need.
This page will remain a work in progress. As my wife said, 'like Time itself, it's never finished.' I will keep adding words and phrases to the page.
I brought together words and lines about time from various pages of my website, and added much new material. Because many of the sample lines contain more than one relevant word they may be found more than once on the page.
It's a long page, best for relaxed reading and gradual exposure.

For a quick introduction to time words go to Basic Dutch: Time, Lesson 6 or Vocabulary: Numbers - or go to the smartphone page
Companion (though smaller) Dutch Thesaurus pages: - Life and Change

Ik hoop dat je d'r (er) tijd voor hebt click to hear 2 3 4 'I hope you'll have time for it'
Niemand heeft genoeg tijd click to hear 'Nobody has enough time'
Er is niet genoeg tijd click to hear 'There is not enough time'
Ze zeggen dat er niet genoeg tijd is click to hear [The say that ...] It is said that there is not enough time

Quick Links Table of Contents

Basic Time
Units
Timepieces
Telling Time and The Hours of The Day
The Day - and Morning, Afternoon, Evening and Night
Meals and Breaks
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
The Week and The Days of The Week
Special Days
The Months and The Seasons
Years
Prepositions and Other Little Words
Event Placement:
At Hours
On Days
On Special Days
On Dates
In Years
More Placement Phrases
Query Words and Short Answers
In and Within
Before and After
From, Till and From ... Till
While / In The Meantime / Since
Always, Usually, Often and Sometimes
Always (2) - Dutch Steeds - Continually
Ever, Never and Rarely
Once
Early, Late and In Time
(For) A Moment - Dutch 'Even'
In A Moment - Dutch 'Zo'
A Moment Ago / Just, Barely - Dutch 'Net'
Then - Dutch 'Toen' or 'Dan'
When - Introduction
When - 'At The Time That' - Dutch 'Toen'
'When' and 'If' - Dutch 'Als'
When?
Still, Yet
Already
Changes in Word Order
By Subject
The Tides
Time
Age and Era
Time Ago
The Past
First and Last, Previous and Next
The First Time, The Last Time
Now
The Present
Immediately, Right Away
Hurry, Haste, Urgency
Quick and Slow, Speed
Fashion, Modern
The Future
Waiting, Expecting ... and Patience
Long and Short
To Last
How Long?
To Remain, To Stay, Keep On
Miscellaneous
Remaining Words and Phrases
'Times' in Multiplication
The Use of The Plural
Verb Tenses
Final Words

Time Units

de / het / 't click to hear - de click to hear het click to hear 't click to hear (the)
een, 'n click to hear (a)
één click to hear (one)
>> >>
de tijd click to hear 'the time'
(De) tijd click to hear 2 3 time
(de) seconde click to hear 'second' * 60 (zestig) seconden in een minuut click to hear '60 seconds in a minute' - numbers
(de) minuut click to hear 'minute' 60 (zestig) minuten in een uur click to hear '60 minutes in an hour'
(het) uur click to hear 'hour' 24 (vierentwintig) uren in een dag click to hear '24 hours in a day'
(de) dag click to hear 'day' 7 (zeven) dagen in een week click to hear
28 (achtentwintig) tot 31 (éénendertig) dagen
in een maand click to hear
365 (driehonderdvijfenzestig) dagen in een jaar click to hear
'7 days in a week'
'28 to 31 days in a month'

'365 days in a year'
(de) week click to hear 'week' 52 (tweeënvijftig) weken in een jaar click to hear '52 weeks in a year'
(de) maand click to hear 'month' 12 (twaalf) maanden in een jaar click to hear '12 months in a year'
(het) jaar click to hear
(de) eeuw click to hear
'year'
'century'
100 (honderd) jaren in een eeuw click to hear '100 years in a century'

Do note that dag click to hear ('day') has a vowel lengthening in the plural: dagen click to hear 2 ('days') - dag/dagen click to hear
Dag click to hear can also be a short 'goodbye' - "Bye!"
Dutch (de) seconde click to hear is only the time unit 'second.' - 'Number 2' is '(de) tweede' click to hear in Dutch - ordinal numbers
(Het) kwartier click to hear '15 minutes, quarter of an hour'
- (het) halfuur click to hear 2 '30 minutes, half an hour'
- drie kwartier click to hear '45 minutes'

(de) dag click to hear 'day'
dagen click to hear 2 'days'
dagelijks click to hear 2 'daily' (every day)
(de) week click to hear 'week
weken click to hear 2 'weeks'
wekelijks click to hear 2 'weekly'
(de) maand click to hear 'month'
maanden click to hear 'months'
maandelijks click to hear 2 'monthly'
(het) jaar click to hear 'year'
jaren click to hear 'years'
jaarlijks click to hear 2 'yearly'
(de) eeuw click to hear 2 'century'
eeuwen click to hear 2 'centuries'
eeuwig click to hear 2 'eternal'
(de) eeuwigheid click to hear 2 'eternity'

Timepieces

[a clock]
(de) klok click to hear >>
[wristwatch]
(het) horloge (Fr.) click to hear
[an alarm clock]
click to hear (de) wekker click to hear
[sundial]
(de) zonnewijzer click to hear
[radio alarm clock]
(de) wekradio click to hear
[kitchen timers]
click to hear 2 keukenwekkers click to hear
[hourglass]
(de) zandloper click to hear
[kitchen timer]
(de) keukenwekker click to hear 2
[Then: me as a child on a scooter] [Now: present me on a scooter]
toen click to hear - (de) step click to hear - nu click to hear
[calendar]
(de) kalender click to hear 2
[diary - appointments book]
(de) agenda click to hear 2 3
[diary, journal - daily personal reports]
(het) dagboek click to hear 2 >>
klok kijken click to hear 2 to tell time, reading the clock - more right below
de klok achteruitzetten click to hear 2 to turn back the clock
de klok stilzetten click to hear 2 to stop the clock
Die klok loopt achter click to hear 2 That clock [runs behind] is slow
Die klok staat voor click to hear 2 3 That clock [stands] is ahead, fast
met de klok mee click to hear 2 3 clockwise
tegen de klok in click to hear 2 counterclockwise, anticlockwise
de wijzers van de klok click to hear 2 the hands of the clock - See also: Slow Dutch

Zoals 't klokje thuis tikt, tikt het nergens click to hear 2 3 4 5 ['There is no place where the clock ticks like at home'] 'Home sweet home'

Telling Time and The Hours of The Day

Hoe laat is het? click to
  hear 'What's the time?' / 'What time is it?
Weet jij hoe laat het is? click to hear 2 'Do you know what time it is?' / 'Do you have the time?'
Klok kijken click to hear 2 'to tell time, reading the clock'
[a clock, 3:00]
Drie uur
click to hear
[a clock, 2:30]
Half drie
click to
  hear
[a clock, 3:30]
Half vier
click to hear
[a clock, 2:45]
Kwart voor drie
click to hear
[a clock, 6:15]
Kwart over zes
click to hear
[a clock, 2:20]
Tien voor half drie /or/
Twintig over twee
click to hear
[a clock, 2:55]
Vijf voor drie
click to hear
[a clock, 3:05]
Vijf over drie
click to hear
[a clock, 11:58]
Twee voor twaalf
click to hear
[digital clock, 2:30]
twee uur dertig (2:30)
click to hear
vroeg click to hear 'early'
laat click to hear 'late'
op tijd click to hear 2 'in/on time'
te laat click to hear 'too late, not in time'
much more below

't Is iets over acht click to hear 2 'It's a little (a few minutes) past eight'

Do note that in time, Dutch 'half X' means 'half an hour before X' and not 'half an hour past X' like in (British?) English.

1
één
click to
      hear
2
twee
click to
      hear
3
drie
click to
      hear
4
vier
click to
      hear
5
vijf
click to
      hear
6
zes
click to
      hear
7
zeven
click to
      hear
8
acht
click to
      hear
9
negen
click to
      hear
10
tien
click to
      hear
11
elf
click to
      hear
12
twaalf
click to
      hear
In stating a full hour with a preposition, Dutchmen sometimes leave out the 'uur' and give the number an -EN ending (the old, inflected form) - with prepositions like voor click to hear 2 ('before') and especially with na click to hear ('after') and tegen click to hear ('at about, just before') - more prepositions below - and do note the F/V shift in numbers ending in F. In English, you can often leave out the "o'clock'" part but that doesn't change the form of the number.
na acht uur / na achten click to hear
na achten click to hear 2
'after 8 o'clock'
na vijf uur / na vijven click to hear
na vijven click to hear 2
'after 5 o'clock'
tegen negen uur click to hear
tegen negenen click to hear 2
'at about, just
before 9 o'clock'
na twaalven click to hear 2
'after 12, after
noon or midnight'
voor tienen click to hear before 10
na tienen click to hear after 10

Dutch says 'hoe laat?' click to hear for 'what time?'

Hoe laat is het? click to hear 2 What time is it?
Weet jij hoe laat 't is? click to hear 2 Do you know what time it is? Do you have the time?
Hoe laat gaat de volgende trein? click to hear 2 What time [goes] is the next train?
Kun je me zeggen hoe laat 't begint? click to hear 2 3 Could you (please) tell me what time it [starts] will start?
Hoe laat moet je opstaan? click to  hear 2 'What time do you need to get up?'
Hoe laat zal ik je wakker maken? click to hear 2 'What time shall I wake you up?'
Hoe laat moet ik je wakker maken? click to hear 'What time should I wake you up?'

(De) Zomertijd click to hear ('Daylight Saving Time' - after the clock is set back an hour in early Spring so evenings will stay light longer) Denk eraan dat de zomertijd dit weekend ingaat click to hear
Keep in mind that the daylight saving time starts this weekend

Like English, Dutch uses a variety of prepositions when specifying the time, day or year.
To indicate the 'time' and 'hours' of an event or a condition, where English uses 'at,' Dutch uses the preposition 'om' click to hear

Om acht uur click to hear 2 At 8 (o'clock)
Om acht uur precies click to hear 2 At 8 o'clock sharp
Om ongeveer vier uur click to hear At about 4 (o'clock)
We komen om vier uur aan click to hear 2 We'll arrive at 4
Ik ga om acht uur weg click to hear 2 3 I'm [going away] leaving at 8
Ik moet om acht uur weg click to hear 2 I have to leave at 8
We gaan om zes uur weg click to hear We'll leave at 6
't Is om zes uur click to hear 2 It is at 6 (event etc.)
't Begint om negen uur click to hear It starts at 9
Ik heb een afspraak om acht uur click to hear 2 3 I have an 8 o'clock appointment
Ik werd om vier uur wakker click to hear I woke up at 4
Ik ben om zes uur opgestaan click to hear 2 I got up at 6
Ik probeer om tien uur in bed te liggen click to hear 2 I try to be in bed by 10
Ik ga meestal om half elf naar bed click to hear 2 I usually go to bed at 10:30
Om elf uur viel ik in slaap click to hear 2 I fell asleep at 11
Kun je me om zeven uur wakker maken? click to hear 2 3 Could you (please) wake me up at 7?
De volgende trein gaat om half twaalf click to hear 2 The next train [goes, leaves] is at 11:30
De laatste trein gaat om tien over twaalf click to hear 2 3 The last train is at 10 past 12
't Was alsof de zon om middernacht opkwam click to hear It was as if the sun came up at midnight
Ik moet om acht uur op m'n werk zijn click to hear 2 3 I have to be at work (at the place where I work, 'on the job') at 8

The correct use of prepositions is one of the great problems of learning a foreign language. Click the arrows for more detailed explanations further below.
Numbers do not get an -E ending like adjectives - numbers are not adjectives.

'n fractie van 'n seconde click to hear 2 'a fraction of a second' - a very short time
vijf minuten click to hear 2 5 minutes
rond vier uur click to hear at about 4 o'clock
meer dan drie uur click to hear 2 3 more than 3 hours
binnen een uur click to hear 2 within an hour ->>
over twee uur click to hear 2 3 in 2 hours ->>
De volgende bus gaat over een halfuur click to hear 2 3 The next bus is in half an hour
Ik ben over een uur weer thuis click to hear 2 3 4 I'll be back home in an hour
Eten over een paar minuten click to hear 2 [Food] Dinner (or lunch) in a few minutes
vier uur per dag click to hear 2 4 hours a day >>
tien minuten per uur click to hear 2 3 10 minutes each hour
dertig kilometer per uur click to hear 30 kilometers an hour
twee uur werk click to hear two hours' work, 2 hours of work
't Is hoogstens een uur werk click to hear 2 It's at most one hour of work
't Is twee uur rijden click to hear 2 It's a two-hour drive
't Duurde maar tien minuten click to hear It only lasted ten minutes
't Duurt zeker nog een uur click to hear 2 It's definitely still going to take an hour
't Kostte maar vijf minuten click to hear 2 It only took five minutes
Ik zat een uur bij de tandarts click to hear 2 3 I [sat] was at the dentist for an hour - for
Ik heb een uur in de tuin gewerkt click to hear I worked in the yard for an hour
Ik heb een uur gelopen click to hear 2 I walked for an hour
Kook de aardappels zeventien minuten click to hear Boil the potatoes for 17 minutes
Laat 't twintig minuten koken click to hear 2 3 [Let it ...] Boil for 20 minutes
Hij liet ons een uur wachten click to hear 2 3 4 He [let] made us wait for an hour

The Day - and Morning, Afternoon, Evening and Night

Smartphone version of this picture
(de) dag click to hear 'day'
dagen click to hear 2 'days'

(The times of sunup and sundown vary over the year)

zons-
opgang
click to hear
[sunup]
overdag click to hear 2 3
'in the daytime'
zons-
ondergang
click to hear 2
[sundown]
[12 O'Clock (Midnight)]
12 uur
's nachts
click to hear
[6 O'Clock (AM)]
6 uur
's morgens
click to hear

[12 O'Clock (Noon)]
12 uur
's middags
click to hear

[6 O'Clock (PM)]
6 uur
's avonds
click to hear 2
[12 O'Clock (Midnight)]
12 uur
's nachts
click to hear
(de) nacht
click to hear
(de) morgen
click to hear 2
| (de) middag
click to hear
| (de) avond
click to hear

's nachts
click to hear
at night
's morgens
click to hear
in the morning
| 's middags
click to hear
in the afternoon
| 's avonds
click to hear
in the evening
For 'morning' there is also the somewhat difficult alternative (de) ochtend click to hear - 's ochtends click to hear 2 3 ('in the morning') - in 's ochtends the D is very soft or dropped - also: (het) ochtendhumeur click to hear 2 ('bad mood in the early morning')
Do note that Dutch still says avond click to hear ('evening') where English already says 'night.' Vanavond gaan we naar de bioscoop click to hear
'Tonight we're going to [see a movie at] the cinema'

Also note the " 's Xs " figure above in for instance 's nachts click to hear ('at night') - it may look old-fashioned but it's still often used by Dutchmen. It's also found with some of the seasons.
The T in 's nachts click to hear ('at night') is sometimes dropped: click to hear
Middernacht click to hear ('[12] midnight' - maybe not logical)
De hele dag click to hear ['the whole day'] 'all day'
't Is overdag zulk mooi weer click to hear 2 3 ('The weather in the daytime is very nice')
(De) schemering click to hear 2 ('twilight') - the grey bars in the graphic above exaggerate its length
(De) duisternis click to hear 2 ('darkness')

Morgen click to hear 2 can mean three things:

  1. 'morning'
  2. 'Good morning!' (short for goedemorgen click to hear - often 'softened' to goeiemorgen click to hear - or further shortened to môge click to hear 2 )
  3. but most often 'morgen' means: 3. 'tomorrow.'
Vandaag click to hear is 'today' but vanmorgen click to hear is 'this morning' and NOT 'tomorrow' - language is not always logical.
eergisteren click to hear
the day before yesterday
gisteren click to hear
yesterday
vandaag click to hear
today
morgen click to hear 2
tomorrow
overmorgen click to hear 2
the day after tomorrow
vanmorgen click to hear this morning
vanmiddag click to hear this afternoon
vanavond click to hear 2 this evening, tonight
vannacht click to hear tonight / last night >>
vandaag click to hear 2 3 today
gistermorgen click to hear 2 yesterday morning
gistermiddag click to hear 2 yesterday afternoon
gisteravond click to hear 2 yesterday evening/night
morgenochtend click to hear 2 3 tomorrow morning - NOT: 'morgenmorgen'
morgenmiddag click to hear 2 3 tomorrow afternoon
morgenavond click to hear 2 tomorrow evening/night
Tot vanmiddag click to hear See you this afternoon
Tot vanavond click to hear See you tonight
Tot morgen click to hear See you tomorrow
Tot maandag click to hear See you on Monday
Prettig weekend click to hear Have a nice weekend

De morgen van de laatste dag click to hear 2 The morning of the last day
's morgens vroeg click to hear 2 3 early in the morning
Vanmorgen scheen de zon click to hear This morning, the sun was shining
's Avonds ging de zon onder click to hear 2 In the evening, the sun went down
's avonds laat click to hear 2 late in the evening, late at night
(de) levensavond click to hear 2 'life's evening' - old age

Hij heeft de hele middag zitten typen click to hear 2 3 'He's been typing all afternoon' - see also: a Dutch continuous
tussen de middag click to hear during the lunch break, say 12-1PM

'Tussen de middag' click to hear means 'during the lunch break,' say 12-1PM or a little later, between morning and afternoon work or school - but it is a bit strange when you think of it, literally it is 'between the afternoon.' Maybe 'and morning' was dropped somewhere along the way.

'Vannacht' click to
 hear can mean either 'last night' or 'tonight' - look at the tense of the verb:

Ik kon vannacht niet slapen click to hear Last night I couldn't sleep
't Gaat vannacht regenen click to hear It's going to rain tonight
Vannacht regende het. click to hear Last night it rained
Vannacht heeft 't geregend. click to
 hear Last night it rained
't Heeft vannacht geregend. click to hear 2 Last night it rained

dag en nacht click to hear 2 3 4 day and night, all the time
(de) nachtdienst click to hear 2 nightshift (time)
de nachtploeg click to hear 2 the nightshift crew
(de) nachtwaker click to hear 2 3 night watchman
de Nachtwacht click to hear 2 the Night Watch Rembrandt
(de) nachtvlinder click to hear 2 [butterfly of the night] large moth
(de) nachtegaal click to hear 2 nightingale
slapeloze nachten click to hear 2 sleepless nights
's Nachts is het donker click to hear 2 At night it is dark
Ik wil er nog een nachtje over slapen click to hear 2 I'd like to sleep [a night] on it, take a decision tomorrow
Ik heb de hele nacht wakker gelegen click to hear 2 I was lying awake all night
Ik werd midden in de nacht wakker click to hear 2 I woke up in the middle of the night
Niet over één nacht ijs gaan click to hear 2 3 (saying) ['Not going over one night's ice'] Proceed with great caution

Als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear
'When the days get longer, the nights get more severe' (i.e. colder)

Nog twee nachtjes slapen click to hear 2 3
['Still two nights of sleep' ("sleeps?")] - said to children, to give the time span till an important event like a birthday or Sinterklaas

So 'dag' like English 'day' can be the 24-hour period from one midnight to the next midnight, but sometimes it's used in the more narrow sense of 'daylight time.' An old-fashioned but precise word for the 24-hour 'day' is (het) etmaal click to hear 2

voor dag en dauw click to hear ['before day and dew'] - very early, still dark, still at night
De dag breekt aan click to hear 'The day begins' '~at daybreak, at first light'
Bij 't krieken van de dag click to hear 'at daybreak, at first light'
in de loop van de dag click to hear 2 3 'in the course of the day'
Ik heb de hele dag gelopen click to hear 2 3 I've been walking all day
Zij sleten hun dagen met sigaren click to hear They spent their days [with] smoking cigars
verloren dagen click to hear 'lost,' wasted days
Sommige dagen gaat alles mis click to hear 2 On some days everything goes wrong
Sommige dagen gaat er van alles mis click to hear On some days all kinds of things go wrong
Ik eet elke dag een sinaasappel click to hear 2 I [eat] have an orange every day
Ik sta elke dag vroeg op click to hear 2 I get up early every day
De Zesdaagse Oorlog click to hear 2 The 6-Day War (1967) - military
De Tiendaagse Veldtocht click to hear 2 The Ten-Day (Military) Campaign (1831, against Belgian independence)
een gewone dag click to hear 2 a regular, ordinary day
Een dag als alle andere click to hear 2 [a day like all others] - Just another day
alledaagse dingen click to hear 2 everyday things
de jongste dag click to hear 2 the ["youngest"] last day, doomsday - the day of:
het laatste oordeel click to hear 2 3 the [last] final judgement - religion
de dagen zat click to hear 2 [having had your fill of days] - tired of the days (i.e. life)
Oud en de dagen zat click to hear 2 3 Old and tired of life
Een prettige dag nog! click to hear Have a nice day!
een gezellige dag gewenst click to hear 2 3 Wishing you a pleasant day (in the company of family and friends)'

Meals and Breaks

(het) ontbijt click to hear 'breakfast'
(de) lunch click to hear 2 'lunch'
(het) avondeten click to hear 2 'dinner'
(de) pauze click to hear break, pause
(de) koffiepauze click to hear 2 3 mid-morning 'coffee' break
(de) lunchpauze click to hear 2 lunch break
(de) theepauze click to hear 2 tea time, mid-afternoon 'tea' break
Most people use the English word for 'lunch' - if it's a hot meal, you could say (het) middageten click to hear ('afternoon meal.')
(het) elfuurtje click to hear an eleven-o'clock (A.M.) drink (usually coffee) and/or a snack
See and hear also: Breakfast and Lunch - Drinks - Snacks and Dinner

Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

eergisteren click to hear
the day before yesterday
gisteren click to hear
yesterday
vandaag click to hear
today
morgen click to hear 2
tomorrow
overmorgen click to hear 2
the day after tomorrow
Heeft 't gisteren geregend? click to hear Did it rain yesterday?
't Heeft gisteren geregend click to hear It did rain yesterday
Heeft 't gisteren hard geregend? click to hear Did it rain hard yesterday?
't Regende gisteren hard click to hear It was raining hard yesterday
't Heeft gisteren hard geregend click to hear It was raining hard yesterday (in Dutch, there's not much difference between the simple past and the perfect present tenses)
Gisteren was het erg slecht weer click to hear Yesterday [it was] we had very bad weather ->>
Ik was gisteren bij de tandarts click to hear Yesterday I was at the dentist's
Gisteren heb ik gezwommen click to hear I went swimming yesterday
Ik heb gisteren thuis gegeten click to hear I [ate] had dinner and/or lunch at home yesterday
Ik had je gisteren willen waarschuwen click to hear 2 I had wanted to warn you yesterday
De verpleegster gaf hem gisteren thuis een injectie click to hear The nurse gave him a shot at home yesterday
vandaag de dag click to hear 2 ["today the day"] - nowadays ->>
vandaag of morgen click to hear 2 [today or tomorrow] soon
... maar vandaag voel ik me weer een stuk beter click to hear ... but today I feel a lot better [again]
Vandaag eten we vis click to hear 2 Today [we'll eat] we're having fish
Ik zag vandaag een politieauto bij de school click to hear I saw a policecar at the school today
Ik ben vandaag niet buiten geweest click to hear I've not been outside today
Ik heb vandaag geen hoofdpijn click to hear 2 3 4 I don't have a headache today
Vandaag moet ik een boom omzagen in Heelsum click to hear 2 3 Today I have to cut down a tree in Heelsum
Met het oog op morgen click to hear 2 [with an eye to] taking tomorrow into consideration
Morgen wil ik gaan hardlopen click to hear 2 Tomorrow I want to go running
Morgen ga ik witlof maken click to hear Tomorrow I'll be preparing Belgian endives
Ik ga morgen naar de kapper click to hear Tomorrow I'll [go to the barber] get a haircut
We gaan morgen voetballen click to hear We're going to play soccer tomorrow
We zijn van plan om morgen weg te gaan click to hear [We're planning] The plan is to leave tomorrow
Als morgen de hemel valt hebben
we allemaal een blauwe muts click to hear 2 3
If the sky falls tomorrow,
we'll all have a blue cap
De morgenstond heeft goud in de mond click to hear 2 [The morning hour has gold in its mouth] - The early bird gets the worm ->>
Gaat 't morgen regenen? click to hear 2 Is it going to rain tomorrow?
Het gaat morgen regenen click to hear It's going to rain tomorrow
Het is morgen klaar click to hear It will be ready tomorrow
Ik denk dat het morgen klaar is click to hear I think it will be ready tomorrow
Hij zegt dat het morgen klaar is click to hear He says it will be ready tomorrow
Laten we tot morgen wachten click to hear Let's wait till tomorrow
Morgen gaan we lijnen click to hear Tomorrow we'll start dieting
Morgen gaat hij naar Den Haag click to hear 2 Tomorrow he's going to The Hague
Morgen zal 't wel beter zijn click to hear 2 3 Tomorrow it will be better
Morgen is er weer een dag click to hear 2 Tomorrow there'll be a new day
Eergisteren schopte ik in Waddinxveen veel te hard click to hear The day before yesterday in Waddinxveen I kicked way too hard (soccer)
Ik ga overmorgen in Barneveld een schuur bouwen click to hear The day after tomorrow I'm going to build a large shed in Barneveld
Ik ga overmorgen een schuur bouwen in Barneveld click to hear The day after tomorrow I'm going to build a large shed in Barneveld
We gaan overmorgen op reis click to hear We're travelling the day after tomorrow

The Week and The Days of the Week

[the sun]
de zon click to hear >>
[the moon]
de maan click to hear
De Dagen van de Week click to hear The Days of the Week
maandag
click to hear
Monday
dinsdag
click to hear
Tuesday
woensdag
click to hear
Wednesday
donderdag
click to hear
Thursday
vrijdag
click to hear
Friday
zaterdag
click to hear
Saturday
zondag
click to hear
Sunday
Welke dag komt 't beste uit? click to hear Which day would suit (you) best?

In English and Dutch, some of the days of the week are named after the old Germanic gods, like Wednesday for chief god Odin/Wotan (Dutch: Wodan click to hear) - Thursday for god of thunder Thor (Donar click to hear 2) and Friday for Frigga (Dutch: Freya click to hear 2) - Mrs Wotan.

(de) week click to hear 2 ('week') / weken click to hear 2 ('weeks') - wekelijks click to hear 2 ('weekly')

Like English, Dutch uses a variety of prepositions when specifying the time, day or year.
Mentioning weekdays or dates, placing an event or a condition on a weekday or a date, Dutch often uses the preposition 'op' click to hear
For something that takes place regularly on a certain weekday, Dutchmen may drop 'op' and give the name of the day an S-ending instead. (English has an -S ending too for this meaning. You could think it's just the plural - but Dutch 'dag' has an -EN plural: dag/dagen click to
 hear) - It looks a bit similar to 's winters click to hear ('in Winter') and 's zomers click to hear ('in Summer') below and 's morgens click to hear ('in the morning') and 's middags click to hear ('in the afternoon') above. Only maandag click to hear (Monday) and woensdag click to hear (Wednesday) commonly start with apostrophe-S in this use, zaterdag click to hear (Saturday) and zondag click to hear (Sunday) could, but it's unusual, and for the other days it would be an unpleasant break in the flow of sounds: S-D, S-V, and it's not a syllable break.
Speaking about a one-time event on a day of the week, 'op' may be dropped.

op zondag gesloten click to hear 2 Closed on Sundays
Op zondag gaan we naar de kerk click to hear 2 Sundays we go to church
's Woensdags eten we vaak linzen click to hear 2 3 On Wednesdays we often [eat] have lentils
Vrijdags eten we vaak vis click to hear 2 3 4 On Fridays we often [eat] have fish
op een blauwe maandag click to hear (saying) ['On a Blue Monday'] - 'for a short, inisgnificant time in the past'
We gaan donderdag op vakantie click to hear 2 3 We'll [go on] leave for vacation on Thursday
Donderdag gaan we op vakantie click to hear 2 Thursday we'll go on vacation
maandag wasdag click to hear Monday laundry day ->>

afgelopen woensdag click to hear 2 last Wednesday
in de afgelopen dagen click to hear 2 3 in the past few days
vorige week dinsdag click to hear 2 last week Tuesday
aanstaande vrijdag click to hear 2 3 this coming Friday
volgende week maandag click to hear 2 next week Monday
één dezer dagen click to hear one of these days, soon
dagelijks click to hear 2 3 daily, every day
om de dag click to hear every other day >>
laatst click to hear 2 some time ago, 'the other day' ->>

vorige week click to hear 2 last week
deze week click to hear 2 this week
volgende week click to hear 2 next week
door de week click to hear ['through the week'] during the workweek
doordeweekse dag click to hear 2 weekday
weekdag click to hear weekday
werkweek click to hear workweek (Mon-Fri)
werkdag click to hear workday
in 't weekend click to hear 2 in the weekend
wekelijks click to hear 2 weekly
om de week click to hear every other week
ruim een week click to hear 2 3 ['roughly'] - 'over a week, a little more than a week'
(Het) weekend click to hear 2 is the English word and pronounced like in English

Vorige week hebben we ... gezien click to hear Last week we've seen ... (a movie)
Vorige week vrijdag was er een concert van ... click to hear Last week Friday there was a concert by ...
Volgende week gaat 't regenen click to hear Next week it's going to rain
't Blijft de hele week regenen click to hear It's going to rain all week
Volgende week ga ik Elly in Edam bloemen geven click to hear 2 Next week I'll give flowers to Elly in Edam
Die week moet ik werken click to hear That week I'll have to work
Hij heeft de hele week lopen klagen click to hear 2 He's been complaining all week
't Kost minstens twee weken click to hear 2 It will take at least two weeks

Special Days

(De) feestdag click to hear ('holiday')
zon- en feestdagen click to hear 2 ('Sundays and Holidays')
Kerstmis click to hear (the T is often very soft: click to hear) Christmas (The day Christ was born)
Pasen click to hear Easter (When Christ was raised from the dead)
Pinksteren click to hear Pentecost, Whitsun (when the Holy Spirit touched the Disciples, seven weeks after Jesus' resurrection.) See also: Religion

In Holland, the second days of the main religious festivals are also holidays, most shops and businesses are closed.
Tweede Kerstdag click to hear 2
Tweede Paasdag click to hear 2
Tweede Pinksterdag click to hear 2

Oudejaarsavond click to hear 2 [old year's evening] - new year's eve night.
Nieuwjaarsdag click to hear 2 New Year's Day
Oud en Nieuw click to hear 2 ('New Year's Eve and New Year's Day, the New Year Holiday')

Prettige Kerstdagen! click to hear 2 Merry Christmas! - >>
Prettige Kerstdagen en een Gelukkig Nieuwjaar! click to hear 2 Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
Vrolijk Kerstfeest! click to hear 2 quick Merry Christmas!
Zalig Kerstfeest! click to hear 2 Blessed Christmas! (said by Roman Catholics)
Zalig Uiteinde! click to hear 2 Happy Year's End! (jocular and among Catholics)
Prettige Jaarwisseling! click to hear 2 3 [Happy Year's Change] Happy New Year's Eve and New Year's Day
Gelukkig Nieuwjaar! click to hear Happy New Year! - >>
Prettige Paasdagen! click to hear Happy Easter!
Vrolijk Pasen! click to hear Happy Easter
Zalig Pasen! click to hear 2 3 Blessed Easter! (said by Roman Catholics)
Prettige Feestdagen! click to hear 2 Happy Holidays!
Ik kijk uit naar de kerstdagen click to hear I'm looking forward to the Christmas [days] holiday
Ik kijk uit naar de feestdagen click to hear I'm looking forward to the holidays

Carnaval click to hear 2 'Carnival' - the festivities just before the 'fasting' of Lent
Aswoensdag click to hear 2 'Ash Wednesday'
De Vasten click to hear 2 3 ['Fasting'] 'Lent' - the 40 days before Easter: moderate consumption
Witte Donderdag click to hear 2 White Thursday, the day of the last supper
Goede Vrijdag click to hear Good Friday, the day Jesus died on the cross
Hemelvaartsdag click to hear 2 3 Ascension Day, when Jesus went up to heaven, 40 days after Easter
Maria Hemelvaart click to hear 2 Mary's Ascension Day

5 Mei click to hear (May 5th) - Bevrijdingsdag click to hear Liberation Day - when the German army surrendered at the end of the Second World War, 1945.
May 4th, evening: Dodenherdenking click to hear commemorating those who died in the Second World War.

Koningsdag click to hear 2 April 27, the king's (birth)day. It used to be Koninginnedag click to hear 2 "The Queen's Day" (April 30th) - actually the previous queen Juliana's birthday, but the last queen Beatrix's birthday is in Winter, less suitable for open-air festivities. In the 2013 troonswisseling click to hear ('change of throne') Queen Beatrix was succeeded by her son Willem-Alexander
Prinsjesdag click to hear 2 [little princes' day] - the third Tuesday in September, when the King or Queen ceremoniously presents the government's budget for the next year.

Sinterklaas click to hear 2 - December 5th, when the Dutch Santa Claus gives out presents - >>

(De) verjaardag click to hear birthday - "Hartelijk gefeliciteerd met je verjaardag!" click to hear Happy birthday (informal) >>
(de) trouwdag click to hear 2 'wedding day' - also: 'wedding anniversary' >>
moederdag click to hear 'Mother's day' - vaderdag click to hear 2 'Father's day'

(De) verjaardag click to hear - the yearly 'birthday.' Literally translated, 'birthday' is 'geboortedag' - a very unusual word in Dutch, only used for that one day in the past that a person came into this world, and only in a sense like in 'Born on the 4th of July.' 'Date of birth' (bureaucratic use, including year) is (de) geboortedatum click to hear 2 ->>
With 'wedding day' it's the other way 'round between Dutch and English: '(de) trouwdag' click to hear 2 is both 'wedding day,' the day of the vows and what English calls 'the Anniversary,' the yearly return of that date.

Referring to activities on the traditional holidays or maybe festive days in general, Dutch often uses 'met' click to hear - but not to indicate a specific day.

Met Oud en Nieuw click to hear On New Year's Eve and New Year's Day
Wat doe je met Pasen? click to hear 2 3 What are you going to do over the Easter Holiday?
Met Kerstmis gingen we naar de nachtmis click to hear At Christmas we went to the midnight mass
We gingen naar de nachtmis met Kerstmis click to hear We went to midnight mass at Christmas
We gingen met Kerstmis naar de nachtmis click to hear 2 We went to midnight mass at Christmas
Met m'n verjaardag blijf ik thuis click to hear 2 3 I'm staying home on my birthday
BUT: Ze is op Kerstdag geboren click to hear 2 She was born on Christmas Day

The Months and The Seasons

[tapestry]
Leer ons alzo onze dagen tellen click to hear
So teach us to number our days (Ps 90:12)
Tapestry by Elizabeth Sipma-Veenstra
De Maanden
van het Jaar
click to hear The Months
of the Year
De Seizoenen click to hear The Seasons
januari click to hear January (de) winter click to hear
's winters click to hear
Winter
in Winter
februari click to hear February
maart click to hear March
april click to hear April (de) lente click to hear
in de lente click to hear
Spring
in Spring
mei click to hear May
juni click to hear June
juli click to hear July (de) zomer click to hear
's zomers click to hear
Summer
in Summer
augustus click to hear August
september click to hear September
oktober click to hear October (de) herfst click to hear
in de herfst click to hear
Fall, Autumn
in Fall
november click to hear November
december click to hear December

(het) seizoen click to hear ('season')
A slightly old-fashioned word for 'season' is (het) jaargetijde click to hear
'De Vier Jaargetijden' click to hear 2 3 'The Four Seasons' (Vivaldi's masterpiece)

You may come across the somewhat formal:
(het) voorjaar click to hear 2 ('Spring')
(het) najaar click to hear 2 ('Fall, Autumn') and
(de) nazomer click to hear 2 ('the last weeks of Summer.')

1
één
click to
      hear
2
twee
click to
      hear
3
drie
click to
      hear
4
vier
click to
      hear
5
vijf
click to
      hear
6
zes
click to
      hear
7
zeven
click to
      hear
8
acht
click to
      hear
9
negen
click to
      hear
10
tien
click to
      hear
11
elf
click to
      hear
12
twaalf
click to
      hear
13
dertien
click to
      hear
14
veertien
click to
      hear
15
vijftien
click to
      hear
16
zestien
click to
      hear
17
zeventien
click to
      hear
18
achttien
click to
      hear
19
negentien
click to
      hear
20
twintig
click to
      hear
21
éénentwintig
click to
      hear
22
tweeëntwintig
click to
      hear
23
drieëntwintig
click to
      hear
24
vierentwintig
click to
      hear 2
25
vijfentwintig
click to
      hear
26
zesentwintig
click to
      hear
27
zevenentwintig
click to
      hear
28
achtentwintig
click to
      hear
29
negenentwintig
click to
      hear
30
dertig
click to
      hear
31
éénendertig
click to
      hear

more numbers

For the days of the months, Dutch uses regular numbers, and not ordinal numbers like in English.
Keep in mind that in Dutch dates, the day comes before the month.
Placing an event on a date, Dutch uses 'op' click to hear

1 april 1572 click to hear April 1st, 1572
Hij is op 2 maart jarig click to hear 2 3 4 His birthday is March 2nd
Hij is 2 maart jarig click to hear 2 His birthday is March 2nd - I have a slight preference for the line with 'op' but it's not wrong to leave it out
In augustus 1914 click to hear 2 In august 1914
Het was vorige maand erg koud click to hear It was very cold last month, Last month was very cold
Als de R in de maand zit click to hear 2 When there's an R in [the name of] the month' - the time for the daily spoonful of levertraan click to hear 2 ('cod-liver-oil')
De winter was lang click to hear 2 3 The winter was long
De winter komt eraan click to hear 2 Winter is coming
Als de lente komt, dan stuur ik jou tulpen uit Amsterdam click to hear 2 Come Spring I'll send you tulips from Amsterdam

The 'date' as 'day of the month,' for instance 'May 5th' (5 mei click to hear) is (de) datum click to hear 2 in Dutch. A medical, business or bureaucratic 'appointment' is (de) afspraak click to hear - a romantic 'date' is (het) afspraakje click to hear 2

Ik heb een afspraak om acht uur click to hear 2 3 I have an 8 o'clock appointment

Years

2015
tweeduizendvijftien
click to hear
2016
tweeduizendzestien
click to hear
2017
tweeduizendzeventien
click to hear
2018
tweeduizendachttien
click to hear
2019
tweeduizendnegentien
click to hear 2

vorig jaar
click to hear
last year
dit jaar
click to hear 2
this year
volgend jaar
click to hear 2
next year
more years
previous and next


het verleden
click to hear
the past >>
het heden
click to hear
the present >>
de toekomst
click to hear
the future >>


toen
click to hear
then >>
nu click to hear
nou click to hear 2
now >>
dan
click to hear
then >>

(het) jaar click to hear year
jaren click to hear years
jaarlijks click to hear 2 yearly
(de) schrikkeldag click to hear 2 February 29
(het) schrikkeljaar click to hear leap year
anderhalf jaar click to hear a year and a half, 18 months
tientallen jaren click to hear [decades] dozens of years
(de) eeuw click to hear 2 3 'century'
de zeventiende eeuw click to hear 2 'the 17th Century'
De Gouden Eeuw click to hear 'The Golden Century' - Holland's glorious 17th century

Like in English, events or conditions are usually placed in months and years with 'in' click to hear

in augustus 1914 (negentienveertien) click to hear 2 in August 1914
in 1568 (vijftienachtenzestig) click to hear 2 in 1568
in 1648 (zestienachtenveertig) click to hear in 1648
BUT: Op 14 mei 1948 click to hear 2
On May 14th, 1948
De Tachtigjarige Oorlog click to hear 2 3 The 80-Years War (The Dutch Revolt: 1568-1648)
Het Twaalfjarig Bestand click to hear 2 3 The 12-Year Truce (1609-1621)
drie jaar geleden click to hear 2 3 Three (3) years ago
'n paar jaar later click to hear a few years later
over een paar jaar click to hear 2 3 in a [couple of] few years
later dat jaar click to hear 2 later that year
de jaren zestig click to hear 2 3 the sixties (1960s)
door de jaren heen click to hear 2 through the years
In 1813 werd Nederland een koninkrijk click to hear In 1813 Holland became a kingdom
Nederland werd een koninkrijk in 1813 click to hear Holland became a kingdom in 1813
In 1568 begon De Tachtigjarige Oorlog click to hear In 1568 the 80-Years War started
De Tachtigjarige Oorlog begon in 1568 click to hear The 80-Years War started in 1568
Een dag als alle andere in 1692 (zestientweeënnegentig) click to hear Just another day in 1692.
Vorig jaar zijn we in Duitsland op vakantie geweest click to hear Last year we were on vacation in Germany.
Volgend jaar gaan we naar Engeland click to hear Next year we'll go to England.
Dit jaar gaan we naar Frankrijk click to hear This year we'll go to France.
Goede voornemens voor het nieuwe jaar click to hear [Good intentions for the new year] - New Year's Resolutions ->>
We hebben een goed jaar gehad click to hear We've had a good year (weather, health, income, wine)
Dat jaar was heel mooi click to hear That was a very good year ('mooi' click to hear is literally 'pretty, beautiful' but here it has a wider meaning)
Er was niet veel sneeuw dit jaar click to hear There wasn't much snow this year
Nog vele jaren! click to hear [Still many years!] Many happy returns! - Birthday
Ik heb een paar jaar pianoles gehad click to hear I've had a few years of piano lessons, I've had piano lessons for a few years
Ze zijn al twintig jaar samen click to hear 2 They've (already) been together for 20 years (a relationship)
Ze werken al twintig jaar samen click to hear They've (already) been working together for 20 years
twee jaar van m'n leven click to hear 2 Two (2) years of my life
Ik heb hem in geen jaren gezien click to hear 2 [I have seen him in no years] I haven't seen him in years

More Event Placement Phrases

in de loop van de dag click to hear in the course of the day
in een ver verleden click to hear in a distant past
in m'n jonge jaren click to hear 2 3 in my [young] younger years
in de toekomst click to hear 2 in the future
een blik in de toekomst click to hear 2 a [look into] view of the future
in het begin click to hear 2 in the beginning, at the start
in het weekend click to hear 2 in the weekend
in de afgelopen dagen click to hear 2 3 in the past days
met het oog op morgen click to hear 2 with an eye on tomorrow, taking tomorrow into consideration
In die tijd hadden we allemaal lang haar click to hear At that time all of us had long hair >>
Er waren in die tijd geen violen click to hear 2 At that time there were no violins
in eerste instantie click to hear 2 3 'at first view, initially'
op den duur click to hear 2 3 4 in the long run
op mijn leeftijd click to hear 2 at my age
op het nippertje click to hear barely in time, in the nick of time
op het laatste moment click to hear at the last moment
later op die dag click to hear later that day
later op de dag click to hear later in the day
Op den duur wordt 't makkelijker click to hear ['in the long run'] 'after a while it will be easier'

Query Words and Short Answers

wanneer? click to hear when? ->>

hoe lang? click to hear 2 3 how long >>

hoe vaak? click to hear 2 how often?
nu click to hear 2 now
nou click to hear 2 'now' >>
tot nu toe click to hear up until now
opeens click to hear 2 suddenly >>
plotseling click to hear suddenly; sudden
voortaan click to hear from now on, in the future
binnenkort click to hear 2 soon
spoedig click to hear 2 3 soon >>
straks click to hear 2 'later,' in a while ->>
voortdurend click to hear 2 continuously
langdurig click to hear 2 'long-lasting' >>

altijd click to hear always >>
bijna altijd click to hear almost always, almost every time
meestal click to hear 2
most of the time, usually >>
geregeld click to hear egularly, on a regular basis
regelmatig click to hear regularly, on a regular basis
onregelmatig click to hear 2 irregular
vaak click to hear 2 often >>
heel vaak click to hear very often
niet zo vaak click to hear 2 3 not that often
soms click to hear sometimes >>
nooit click to hear never >>
bijna nooit click to hear 2 almost never
ooit click to hear ever, sometime >>
zelden click to hear rarely, seldom >>
hoogst zelden click to hear 2 very rarely, almost never
een enkele keer click to hear 2 3 4 ['a single time'] - rarely, very occasionally
af en toe click to hear 2 occasionally, from time to time
zo nu en dan click to hear 2 occasionally, from time to time

In and Within

Next to placing an event in a year or month, English 'in' can also be used to indicate the time span till a future event. Dutch says 'over' click to hear 2 for this meaning.
Dutch 'over' can mean other many things, like 'past' in telling time, for instance vijf over drie click to hear ('5 past 3') - (more above.) Also see and hear: Disambiguation: 'Over'.

English 'within' time is 'binnen' click to hear 2 which is also the regular Dutch word for 'inside.'

over twee uur click to hear 2 3 in 2 hours
over een paar jaar click to hear 2 3 in a [couple of] few years
Ik ben over een uur weer thuis click to hear 2 3 4 I'll be back home in an hour
"Eten over een paar minuten" click to hear 2 [Eating] Dinner (or lunch) in a few minutes
De volgende bus gaat over een halfuur click to hear 2 3 The next bus is in half an hour

binenkort click to hear 2 ['within short'] soon
binnen een uur click to hear 2 within an hour
Kom je binnen of wil je buiten blijven? click to hear Are you coming in(side) or do you want to stay out(side)?

Before and After

[war years]
voor click to hear before
na click to hear after
tijdens click to hear during
van click to hear from
tot click to hear to, till
tussen click to hear between
en click to hear and
de oorlog click to hear the War
voor de oorlog click to hear before the War
tijdens de oorlog click to hear during the War
na de oorlog click to hear after the war
van 1940 tot 1945 click to hear from 1940 to 1945
tussen 1940 en 1945 click to hear between 1940 and 1945
de Tweede Wereldoorlog begon in 1939 click to hear 2
the Second World War started in 1939
[eight o'clock] [an arrow pointing to '8:00']
om click to hear at
om acht uur click to hear at eight o'clock
voor acht uur click to hear before eight
na acht uur click to hear after eight
om acht uur precies click to hear at eight sharp
op tijd click to hear on time, in time
precies op tijd click to hear exactly on time
te laat click to hear too late >>
The Clock: Telling Time

Het begint vòòr acht uur click to hear It starts before 8 o'clock
De donkere dagen voor Kerstmis click to hear 2 The dark days before Christmas
De stilte voor de storm click to hear The quiet before the storm (literally and figuratively)
Na regen komt zonneschijn click to hear 2 3 4 After rain the sun will come out ('bad things won't last')
Na mij de zondvloed click to hear 2 3 After me the deluge ('Après moi le déluge' - Louis XIV)
Als mosterd na de maaltijd click to hear 2 'Like mustard after a meal' - something that comes in too late and is now useless
't Nederland van na de oorlog click to hear (The The Netherlands of after the war) postwar Holland - more about 'after'.

'Voor click to hear 2 and 'na' click to hear are used with just a noun or a short phrase - when there is a subsentence with a subject and a noun, Dutchmen usually say voordat click to hear 2 3 or nadat click to hear 2 3 - though it's not always wrong just to say 'voor' or 'na.'

kort voor de voorstelling click to hear 2 shortly before the performance
Kort voordat de voorstelling begon click to hear 2 Shortly before the performance started
Net voordat de voorstelling begon click to hear 2 Just before the performance started
lang na de oorlog click to hear 2 3 long after the war
Lang nadat de oorlog was afgelopen click to hear 2 3 Long after the war had ended
Lang nadat we verhuisd waren click to hear 2 Long after we had moved
Kijk even achterom voordat je afslaat click to hear 2 Look backward for a moment before [that] you make a turn (in traffic)
Voordat 't te laat is click to hear 2 Before [that] it's too late
Voordat ik 't vergeet click to hear Before [that] I forget [it]
Voordat 't koud wordt click to hear Before it gets cold
[a clock, 2:55]
Vijf voor drie
click to hear
[a clock, 3:05]
Vijf over drie
click to hear

On the clock, 'voor' click to hear 2 is 'to' and 'over' click to hear 2 is 'past, after' - telling time (above)
't Is al over elven click to hear 2 ('It's already past 11')
In other time contexts, 'over' is often translated as 'in'

over twee uur click to hear 2 3 in 2 hours
"Eten over een paar minuten" click to hear 2 Food (dinner, lunch) will be served in a few minutes (preliminary call)
Ik ben over een uur weer thuis click to hear 2 slow quick I'll be back home in an hour

Dutch 'over' click to hear 2 can mean several other things, like 'across' and 'about,' and 'over' is used in a large number of compound words. English 'over' also doesn't have a straight Dutch translation. See also: Disambiguation: 'Over'

Een brug over de gracht click to hear 2 A bridge across the canal
Het boek gaat over dolfijnen click to hear The book is about dolphins
boven 't huis click to hear Over (above) the house
't Is voorbij click to hear It's over

From, Till and From ... Till

Dutch 'van' click to hear 2 can be English 'from' - indicating starting at a time.
Dutch 'tot' click to hear is English 'until, till, to'
'Van ...tot' click to hear is 'from ... till' - but here Dutch 'tot' click to hear is a little ambiguous: is the second time included or not?
- 'Tot en met' click to hear ('up to and including, through') is unequivocal and avoids that confusion.

['pharmacy' with signs 'hours' and 'days']

(de) apotheek click to hear pharmacy
(de) openingstijden click to hear ['open'] business hours
van acht tot zes click to hear from eight to six
maandag tot en met zaterdag click to hear Monday through Saturday
tot en met click to hear up to and including
op zondag gesloten click to hear closed Sundays
van acht tot vijf click to hear 2 from 8 to 5
van negen tot vijf click to hear from 9 to 5
van negen tot zes click to hear from 9 to 6
tot nu toe click to hear up till now
Laten we tot morgen wachten click to hear Let's wait till tomorrow

Ik heb tot m'n zevenendertigste in Nederland gewoond click to hear 2
I lived in Holland till age 37 ->>

Tot ziens! click to hear 2 [Till seeing] See you!
Tot zo! click to hear 2 3 4 See you in a moment!
Tot gauw! click to hear See you soon!
Tot straks! click to hear 2 See you later!
Tot vanmiddag! click to hear See you this afternoon!
Tot vanavond! click to hear See you tonight! >>
Tot morgen! click to hear 2 See you tomorrow!
Tot maandag! click to hear See you on Monday!

'Van' click to hear 2 is not only from a time, but it can also mean originating from a place. In that meaning you'll find names of Dutch people like for instance Van Wageningen click to hear - usually referring to the small towns, villages or hamlets ancestors came from when they moved to the big cities - very few people have names of big cities. See and hear also: Names and Place Names
'Van ...tot' click to hear ('from ... to') is not only used for time, but also for place:

van top tot teen click to hear from [top] head to toe
van Gouda tot Schoonhoven click to hear 2 [from G to S] between Gouda and Schoonhoven

'Van' also can have the related meaning of belonging to, ownership, a connection, or the constituting material - which is usually translated in English as 'of' - for instance:

de dagen van de week click to hear the days of the week
Het/'t Delft van Vermeer click to hear 2 [The Delft of Vermeer] Vermeer's Delft - see also: Disambiguation: 'Van'

While / In The Meantime / Since

voor 't eten click to hear 2
['before eating']
- 'before lunch/dinner'
onder 't eten click to hear 2
'while we were eating'
- 'during lunch/dinner'
na 't eten click to hear 2
'after we had eaten'
- 'after lunch/dinner'

These phrases can also be found in instructions for when to take medication: before a meal / with food / after a meal
Op de nuchtere maag click to hear 2 ('on an empty stomach')

terwijl click to hear 2 while
tijdens click to hear 2 during
ondertussen click to hear 2 3 in the meantime
inmiddels click to hear 2 meanwhile, by now (while something else was going on)
sinds click to hear 2 since (starting point) - NOT: 'because'
Nero speelde viool terwijl Rome in brand stond click to hear 2 Nero played the violin while Rome was burning
(Er waren in die tijd geen violen click to hear 2 There were no violins at [that] the time)
Snijd de tomaten terwijl je de champignons bakt click to hear Cut up the tomatoes while you're sautéing the mushrooms
Als de zon schijnt terwijl 't regent krijg je soms een regenboog click to hear When the sun shines while it's raining you sometimes get a rainbow
tijdens de oorlog click to hear during the war
Er is ondertussen veel veranderd click to hear 2 3 Much has changed in the meantime
Hij was inmiddels kaal geworden click to hear 2 Meanwhile he had gone bald
Er zijn inmiddels drie kinderen click to hear 2 By now there are three children
Sinds hij bij Philips werkt ... click to hear (Ever since he started working at ...) Now that he works at Philips ...
Er is sinds die tijd veel veranderd click to hear 2 3 Much has changed since (that time) then

Always, Usually, Often and Sometimes

altijd click to hear always
meestal click to hear 2 usually, most of the time
vaak click to hear 2 3 often
soms click to hear sometimes
De trein is meestal op tijd click to hear 2 The train usually [is] runs on time
't Is meestal bewolkt in Nederland click to hear 2 Most of the time it's overcast in Holland
Ik ga meestal om half elf naar bed click to hear 2 I usually go to bed at 10:30
Ik krijg wel eens honger op straat,
maar ik eet altijd thuis click to hear
Sometimes I get hungry on the street,
but I always eat at home
D'r is ook altijd wat click to hear 2 There's always something
Er is altijd wel iets click to hear There's always something
Er is voor jou altijd plaats click to hear 2 3 There's always room, a place for you
Hij staat altijd voor je klaar click to hear 2 He's always [ready] there for you
Hij staat altijd klaar voor je click to hear He's always [ready] there for you
Er gaat altijd zoveel mis! click to hear 2 So many things go wrong, all the time
Hij wil altijd méér click to hear 2 3 He always wants more (he's never happy, content with what he's got)
In Nederland is het vaak bewolkt click to hear In Holland it's often cloudy, overcast
Ik denk vaak aan je click to hear I often think of you
Ik luister nog vaak naar ... click to hear 2 I still often listen to ...
De CD ... van ... draai ik ook nog vaak click to hear I still often play the CD ... by ...
Verkeer van rechts heeft vaak voorrang click to hear 2 Traffic from the right often has the right of way
Prijzen gaan niet vaak omlaag click to hear Prices [not often] rarely go down
Ik heb vaak hoofdpijn click to hear I often have [a headache] headaches
Ik heb je er al vaak op gewezen click to hear 2 3 4 I've pointed it out to you [often] many times
Vrijdags eten we vaak vis click to hear 2 3 4 On Fridays we often [eat] have fish
Ze heeft het vaak over jou click to hear 2 3 4 She often ['has it'] talks about you
Hij heeft 't er vaak over click to hear 2 3 He often ['has it'] talks about it

Klaas Vaak click to hear 2 is the Dutch Sandman (an unrelated meaning of 'vaak')

'Sometimes' is the easy 'soms click to hear - or you may find 'wel eens' click to hear 2 though depending on context that can also translated as 'ever' or it can be just a shade of meaning like a pragmatic marker - see and hear more examples under 'eens'

Er is soms een tekort aan tomaten - tomatentekort click to hear Sometimes there is a shortage of tomatoes - tomato schortage
Als de zon schijnt terwijl 't regent
krijg je soms een regenboog click to hear
When the sun is shining while it's raining
you sometimes get a rainbow
Ik koop soms dingen die ik niet nodig heb click to hear 2 Sometimes I buy things I don't need
Ik vraag me wel eens af ... click to hear 2 Sometimes I wonder ... more below

Always (2) - Dutch Steeds - continually, all the time, every time

steeds click to hear 2 continually, all the time, every time
steeds hetzelfde click to hear 2 3 always the same
't Werd steeds later click to hear 2 3 It kept getting later
't Wordt steeds erger click to hear 2 3 It's getting worse and worse
't Gaat steeds mis click to hear 2 It goes wrong every time

'Steeds' may be from the same root as English 'steady' - but meaning has diverged.

When 'steeds' is combined with Dutch 'nog' click to hear to 'nog steeds' click to hear 2 3 it just amplifies the 'still, yet' meaning of nog - giving it a sense of being unexpected like 'after all these years.' Further explained under 'nog' below.

Ik vond het nog steeds erg goed click to hear I still really liked it
Ik vind het nog steeds een fantastische film click to hear 2 I still think it's a great movie

De wind is gaan liggen, maar we zitten nog steeds in het water click to hear
The wind has died down, but we're still in the water

Ever, Never and Rarely

ooit click to hear 2 ever, sometime
nooit click to hear 2 never
zelden click to hear rarely, seldom
voorgoed click to hear 2 'for good,' forever
nog nooit click to hear 2 never before, never (yet)
bijna nooit click to hear 2 almost never
nooit eerder click to hear 2 ['never earlier'] - never before
nooit meer click to hear 2 never again
hoogst zelden click to hear 2 very seldom, almost never

nu of nooit click to hear 2 now or never!
nooit ofte nimmer! click to hear 2 ['never and never'] - 'absolutely never!' ('nimmer' by itself is old-fashioned)
beter laat dan nooit click to hear better late than never
Als je ooit deze kant op komt ... click to hear If you ever come this way ... (an invitation to visit)
Ben je ooit in Memphis geweest? click to hear Have you ever been [in] to Memphis?
Heb je Kees ooit ontmoet? click to hear Have (did) you ever met Kees?
't Kan ooit nog van pas komen click to hear 2 3 It might come in useful someday (the hoarder's problem)
Ooit zullen we de Zuiderzee bedwingen
en het land weer droogleggen click to hear
Someday we'll [subdue] overcome the Zuyder Zee
and reclaim the land
Ik ben niet meer zo slim als ik ooit was click to hear 2 I'm no longer as clever [as I ever was] as I was in the past, as I used to be
Misschien was ik nooit zo slim click to hear 2 3 Maybe I never was that clever
Ik verveel me nooit click to hear 2 I'm never bored
Dat lukt je nooit click to hear 2 You'll never succeed in that, you'll never be able to do that
Dat lukt me nooit click to hear I'll never be able to do that
Houdt die herrie nooit op? click to hear Is that miserable noise never going to stop?
Het is er nooit van gekomen click to hear 2 3 It never came about (I/we/he/they have/has never done that)
ik ben nog nooit in Rome geweest click to hear I've never been to Rome (yet)
Ik had me nog nooit zo ziek gevoeld click to hear 2 3 I had never felt that sick before
Ik had me nog nooit zo beroerd gevoeld click to hear 2 3
I had never felt that miserable (sick) before
Ik heb 't nooit eerder gemerkt click to hear 2 3 I've never noticed it before
't Is me nooit eerder opgevallen click to hear 2 3 4 5 I've never noticed it before
Was ik er maar nooit aan begonnen! click to hear 2 3 4 I wish I had never started (on) it, gotten into it
't Mag nooit meer gebeuren click to hear 2 3 We cannot allow it to ever happen again - never again!
Ik ga nooit meer weg click to hear 2 I'll never [go away] leave (again?)
Ik ga nooit meer terug click to hear 2 3 I'll never [go back] return
Ik kom nooit meer terug click to hear 2 I'll never come back

In the last four examples above Dutch adds 'meer' click to hear 'more' - meaning 'again' - in English that's not always necessary

Ik kom er nooit meer click to hear 2 3 4 I never [come] go there anymore
We eten het nooit meer click to hear 2 3 We never [eat] have it anymore
Prijzen gaan zelden omlaag click to hear Prices [seldom] rarely go down
Haastige spoed is zelden goed click to hear slow ["Hasty speed is seldom good"] - 'Hurry is rarely useful'
Het is voorgoed voorbij click to hear 2 It's over for good, it's once and for all over and done with
Hij is z'n rijbewijs voorgoed kwijt click to hear 2 3 4 He lost his driver's license 'for good,' it was suspended indefinitely

Once

'Once' meaning 'one time' is 'één keer' click to hear in Dutch:

één keer per dag click to hear 'one time a day, once daily' >> 2

'Once' meaning 'sometime' is the similar Dutch eens click to hear - like in the common opening phrase of fairy tales:

Er was eens ... click to hear 2 3 Once upon a time there was ...
or: Er was er eens ... click to hear 2 Once upon a time there was ...
D'r was eens een prinses ... click to hear 2 Once upon a time there was a princess ...

Do note that the EE of 'eens' is in most cases pronounced as schwa, 'voiceless E' click to hear 2 and not as the 'long E' click to hear 2 you'd expect from the spelling: eens click to hear - when talking about the future, 'eens' is usually pronounced with 'long E,' in a meaning like 'someday ...' - more below

'Eens' click to hear is often combined with prepositions like:

Ik vraag me wel eens af ... click to hear 2 Sometimes I wonder ...
Ik heb wel eens gehoord dat ... click to hear 2 I have heard [sometime] that ...
Ik heb wel eens gelezen dat ... click to hear 2 I have read [sometime somewhere] that ...
Ben je wel eens in Denemarken geweest? click to hear Have you ever been to Denmark?
Heb je wel eens zo-iets meegemaakt? click to hear 2 Have you ever experienced? something like that?
Ik krijg wel eens honger op straat,
maar ik eet altijd thuis click to hear
Sometimes I get an appetite in the street,
but I always eat at home
Er gaat er wel eens een de mist in click to hear 2 Occasionally something (a part of a performance) [disppears into the mist] fails
Ik zou wel eens willen weten ... click to hear 2 I really would like to know ...
Zoals ik je misschien wel eens verteld heb ... click to hear 2 3 As (Like?) I may have told you sometime ...
Kunt U dat nog eens zeggen? click to hear Could you please say that once more, one more time, again, repeat that?
Zou U dat nog eens willen zeggen? click to hear 2 Would you mind repeating that please?
Ik heb laatst ... nog eens gelezen click to hear
Sometime ago I have re-read ...
Gisteren heb ik ... weer eens gezien click to hear Yesterday I've seen ... again, another time (a movie)
Dan hoor je het ook eens van een ander click to hear 2 'Then you'll hear it from someone else' ~you'll get the second opinion you need

'Eens' click to hear is pronounced with 'long E' in dramatic statements like 'someday in the future ...' or 'there'll be a day that ...' or (depending on context) 'one time only'

Eens zul je begrijpen ... click to hear 2 There'll come a day that you'll understand ...
You could also say: Ooit zul je begrijpen ... click to hear 2 Someday you'll understand ...
't Gebeurt maar eens in je leven click to hear 2 It happens just once in your lifetime

'Eens' kan also be an almost meaningless interjection that's often not translated straightforwardly, or it can just give a shade of meaning (a 'pragmatic marker') that's translated in different ways.
'Eens' is also found in the expression: het eens zijn (met) click to hear 2 3 which means 'to agree, ~to be on one page with.' See also: Disambiguation: 'Eens'

Early, Late - and In Time

'vroeg' click to hear (vroege click to hear) early
'laat' click to hear (late click to hear)
(laat/late click to hear 2)
late, not in time
'op tijd' click to hear 2 3 - Dutch has just one phrase for 'in time' and 'on time'

As explained in in lesson 11, adjectives often get an -E ending - smartphone version
English 'the late' meaning 'deceased,' a person passed away, is 'wijlen' click to hear

vroege vogels click to hear 2 'early birds' - people who get up early
's morgens vroeg click to hear 2 3 early in the morning
Het is nog vroeg click to hear It's still early
't Is nog te vroeg click to hear 2 3 It's still too early
Hij is vroeg click to hear 2 He is early
Ik sta elke dag vroeg op click to hear 2
I get up early every day

'Biologisch' is vroeg 19e (negentiende-) eeuwse landbouw click to hear 2
'Organic' is early 19th-Century agriculture
'Biologisch' is niks anders dan vroeg 19e eeuwse landbouw click to hear 2
'Organic' is nothing else than early 19th-Century agriculture
- 'vroeg 19e eeuwse' - here, 'vroeg' does not get the -E ending because it is an adverb, modifying the adjective '19e eeuwse'

'Vroeg' click to hear is also the past tense singular of 'vragen' click to hear 2 ('to ask') >>

Hij vroeg om water click to hear 2 He asked for water - See Disambiguation: 'Vroeg' for more examples

The comparative degree of 'vroeg' click to hear ('early') is 'vroeger' click to hear ('earlier, sooner')

Dan moet je vroeger opstaan click to hear 2 3 'Then you'll have to get up earlier, sooner' - i.e. you'll have to be more alert and more active
'Vroeger' is also often used colloquially as 'in the past, before' - find more examples below.
Vroeger was alles beter click to hear 'Everything was better in the past'

The opposite of 'vroeg' click to hear ('early') is 'laat' click to hear ('late' - not in/on time /or/ at the end of a time frame)
When used as an adjective, it often gets an -E ending: late click to hear - laat/late click to hear 2 - see also: lesson 11 - or smartphone version

'Too late,' past the right time, is 'te laat' click to hear - note that Dutch sometimes says 'te laat' where English just says 'late'

de vroege click to hear 2 / de late click to hear 2 'the early' / 'the late' - referring to early or late blooming plants
's avonds laat click to hear 2 late in the evening, late at night
gistermiddag laat click to hear 2 late yesterday afternoon
Hij is laat click to hear 2 He is late, not in time
't Wordt laat click to hear 2 It's getting late
't Is laat geworden click to hear 2 3 It's gottten late
Beter laat dan nooit click to hear Better late than never
Is het te laat? click to hear Is it too late?
Het is te laat click to hear It is too late
Nou is het te laat click to hear 2 Now it's too late
Ik denk dat het te laat is click to hear I think it's too late
Het is eigenlijk al te laat click to hear It's actually already too late
't Is nog niet te laat click to hear 2 3 It's not too late (yet)
Is 't al zò laat? click to hear 2 Is it already that late?
Voordat 't te laat is click to hear 2 Before [that] it's too late
Zij waren te laat click to hear They were too late
niet te laat opstaan click to hear Don't get up (too) late, don't sleep in
Maak 't niet te laat click to hear 2 Don't make it late (get back home or finish the job in time)
Hij komt bijvoorbeeld nooit te laat click to hear 2
He is for instance never late
Als 't niet te laat is click to hear 2 If it's not too late
Als 't nog niet te laat is click to hear 2 3 If it's not too late yet
Als 't nog maar niet te laat is click to hear If only it's not too late (I hope it's not too late)

As mentioned in 'Telling Time,' Dutch says 'hoe laat?' click to hear for 'what time?' See and hear more examples above

Hoe laat is het? click to hear 2 What time is it? What's the time?

Dutch 'Weet jij hoe laat het is?' click to hear 2 means just 'Do you know what time it is?' and NOT English 'Do you know how late it is?' which is angrily telling someone he or she is bothering you at an inappropriate time.

'Laat' click to hear is also the present tense singular of 'laten' click to hear - a verb that's a bit hard to translate. See Disambiguation: 'Laat' for more.

Laat 't twintig minuten koken click to hear 2 3 (Let it boil) Boil it for twenty minutes

'Later' click to hear is the comparative degree of 'laat' click to hear ('late') - like in English.

vroeger of later click to hear ['earlier or later'] 'sooner or later'
een paar jaar later click to hear a few years later
later dat jaar click to hear 2 later that year
later op die dag click to hear later that day
later op de dag click to hear later in the day, usually end-of-afternoon
in een later stadium click to hear 2 at a later stage
't Werd steeds later click to hear 2 3

It became later and later - said when for instance something is not finished in time but delayed several times

Like 'vroeger' is often used colloquially as 'in the past,' 'later' is sometimes used as 'in the future' or 'afterwards.'

Wat wil je later worden? click to hear What do you want to be when you grow up?

'Straks' click to hear 2 means 'later,' in a little while, 'soon.'

tot straks click to hear 2 See you later (in a little while)
Straks is 't te laat click to hear 2 3 4 [Later] In a while it'll be too late (act now!)

For 'laatste' click to hear 2 - the superlative degree of 'laat' see also: First and Last, Previous and Next and The First Time, The Last Time

If I understand it correctly, English 'on time' means 'according to schedule,' like a bus or train, while 'in time' has a more general meaning of 'at the right time.' In Dutch, both are 'op tijd' click to hear 2 3

Precies op tijd click to hear 2 Exactly in/on time
Op tijd naar bed click to hear Get to bed in time (a - resolution, suggestion or command)
Ben je op tijd thuis? click to hear 2 Will you be home in time? (usually: not late, before your regular bedtime)
De trein is meestal op tijd click to hear 2 The train is usually on time (on schedule)
Ik hoop dat 't op tijd is click to hear I hope it's in time
We waren net op tijd click to hear 2 We were just in time
Zorg dat je op tijd bent click to hear 2 3 4 Take care to be in time

'Eerder' click to hear means 'earlier' in the sense of 'before.' The phrase 'nooit eerder' click to hear 2 ('never before') is quite common.
Dutch '(de) eer' click to hear 2 is 'honor' but in old-fashioned Dutch it's also 'before' - probably related to English 'ere.' 'Eerder' looks like a comparative degree of that 'eer,' and 'eerste' ('first') - >> as the superlative degree.

Bezint eer ge begint click to hear 2 3 (saying) Think before you [begin] act - Flemish 'ge' = 'je' (you)
Dat had ik veel eerder moeten doen click to hear 2 I should have done that [much earlier] long ago
Ik heb 't nooit eerder gemerkt click to hear 2 3 I never noticed it before
't Is me nooit eerder opgevallen click to hear 2 3 4 5 I never noticed it before
Ik had er eerder nooit last van click to hear 2 It never bothered me before (hurt, caused discomfort)

'(For) A Moment' - Dutch 'Even'

'Even' click to hear 2 3 - a moment, for a moment

Wacht even click to hear 2 Wait a moment
Wacht eens even click to hear 2 Now wait a moment
Hoor eens even click to hear Now listen, that's outrageous
Heel even click to hear 2 A very short time
Hij is even naar buiten gegaan click to hear He stepped (outside) out for a moment
Ik ga even een blokje om click to hear 2 I'll make a walk around the block
Hij is even weg click to hear He's [away for a moment] not here right now
Ik ga even naar de bakker click to hear 2 I'll make a quick run to the bakery
"Even naar de bakker" click to hear Just a quick trip to the bakery
Even afkloppen click to hear 2 3 [Take a moment to] knock on wood
Mag ik even? click to hear 2 [May I] allow me (a moment)
Mag ik me even voorstellen? click to hear 2 Allow me to introduce myself
Dat duurt nog wel even click to hear 2 3 [That's] It's going to take a while
't Was even droog click to hear 2 3 For a moment it was dry, it didn't rain for a short time
't Was even stil click to hear 2 3 For a moment it was quiet
Kijk even achterom voordat je afslaat click to hear 2 Quickly look back before you make a turn
Zeg je nog even dag tegen Jan? click to hear 2 Please take a moment to say Goodbye (or Hello) to Jan
Laat ik dat eerst even doen click to hear 2 Let me do that first ('quickly')
Drink eerst even rustig een kopje thee click to hear 2 First relax and take a moment to drink a cup of tea
Even zitten! click to hear 2 I'm going to sit down for a moment (and relax)
Ik wil er nog even over nadenken click to hear 2 3 I'd like (some time) to think about it
Je kunt nog even blijven liggen click to hear 2 You may stay in bed a little longer
Heb je even tijd? click to hear 2 (3) Do you have a moment?
Heb je nog even tijd? click to hear Do you (still) have a moment?

"Just a moment" is 'momentje' click to hear 2 /or/ 'ogenblikje' click to hear 2 - see also: telephone - 2

"momentje" click to hear 2 "just a moment"
"een momentje alstublieft" click to hear "just a moment please"
"ogenblikje" click to hear 2 "just a moment" ->>
"een ogenblikje" click to hear "just a moment"
"een ogenblikje alstublieft" click to hear "just a moment please"

Dutch 'even ... als' click to hear is English 'just as.' Without 'als' in this meaning it can be translated by something like 'equally.'

Hij is even oud als jij click to hear 2 ['He's as old as you'] - He's your age
We zijn even oud click to hear 2 ['We are equally old'] - 'We are the same age'

Dutch 'even' click to hear may also mean 'even' like in English, 'numbers divisible by 2' - even getallen click to hear 2 ('even numbers.')

even en oneven getallen click to hear even and odd numbers

English 'even' referring to extreme or unexpected situations is 'zelfs' click to hear in Dutch - See also: Disambiguation: 'Even'

Zelfs in de schaduw was het warm click to hear Even in the shade it was hot

'In A Moment' - Dutch 'Zo'

Dutch zo click to hear can mean 'soon, in a moment'
Tot zo! click to hear 2 3 See you soon!
We gaan zo eten click to hear 2 3 We'll eat (have dinner or lunch) in a moment
Ik ben zo klaar click to hear I'll be ready, I'm done in a moment
Ik kom zo bij U click to hear 2 I'll [come to you] be with you in a minute
Dat zie je zo click to hear 2 3 4 You [see] notice that right away
Zullen we zo gaan? click to hear 2 3 [Shall we go in a moment?] - Let's leave (go somewhere) soon

But 'zo' has many other uses in Dutch. Sometimes it means 'very' like English 'so' - "a high degree of"

't Wordt zo vroeg donker click to hear 2 3 It gets dark so early
Dat is zo ouderwets! click to hear That's so old-fashioned!
't Is zo voorspelbaar wat-ie doet click to hear It is so predictable what he does, his behavior is so predictable
Is 't al zò laat? click to hear 2 Is it already that late?

'Zo' also has the related meaning 'such' - usually found as zo'n click to hear 2 - a contraction of 'zo een' click to hear 2 - but without the pause zo'n sounds the same as zoon click to hear ('son')

zo'n mooie dag click to hear 2 such a beautiful day
zo'n sombere zomer click to hear such a dark, gloomy Summer

'Zo' by itself can also mean something like 'that way' and something similar is also found in a word like zoals click to hear 2 ('like,' 'as,' 'similar to') - and its split-up form zo ... als click to hear 2 with an adverb in between.

Zoals 't klokje thuis tikt, tikt het nergens click to hear 2 3 4 5
['There is no place where the clock ticks like at home'] 'Home sweet home'

See and hear more 'zo' examples: Disambiguation: 'Zo'

Dutch 'Net:' A Moment Ago / Just, Barely

In the paragraph above we've seen zoals click to hear 2 and with an adjective or adverb on the dotted line, zo ... als click to hear 2 - for emphasis, net click to hear ('just') can be added: 'net zo ... als' click to hear 2 ('just like ...') - and it can again be de-emphasized by dropping the 'zo.'

Net als vroeger click to hear 2 3 Just like before, just as in the past

In a time context, English 'just' can also mean 'barely, with little margin' or 'only a moment ago, a short time ago in the past.' Both of these meanings can be translated in Dutch as net click to hear

We waren net op tijd click to hear 2 3 We were just in time
op 't nippertje click to hear in the nick of time, with barely a moment to spare
We waren net op tijd voor de pont click to hear We were just in time for the ferry
De pont is net weg click to hear 2 The ferry just left
Net voordat 't begon te regenen click to hear 2 3 Just before [that] it [started to rain] rained
Ik wilde je net roepen click to hear 2 3 I was just about to get (call) you
We hebben de bus net gemist click to hear 2 3 4 We just (barely?) missed the bus
Hij is net thuis click to hear 2 He just came home, only a minute ago
Ik heb net een sinaasappel gegeten click to hear 2 I just [ate] had an orange
Ik heb net gegorgeld met citroensap click to hear I just gargled with lemon juice
See Disambiguation: 'Net' for more examples outside the time context

Then - Dutch 'Toen' or 'Dan'

English 'then,' meaning 'at that time' simply states what happens next, referring to something mentioned before. It can be about either a past or a future event. It's often found in the common, somewhat boring phrase 'and then ...' meaning 'after that,' giving a sequence of two or more events.

Speaking of the past, the Dutch word for 'then' is 'toen' click to hear 2 3

... en toen ... click to hear 2 '... and then ...' (an event in the past)
Toen was ik op reis click to hear 2 3 I was traveling then, at the time I was traveling
... en toen gingen we eten click to hear 2 ... and then we [went to eat] had a meal
... en toen werd het donker click to hear 2 3 4 ... and then it got dark

Speaking of the future, the Dutch word for 'then' is 'dan' click to hear 2

... en dan ... click to hear 2 '... and then ...' (future events)
Dan ben ik op reis click to hear 2 3 Then, at that time I will be traveling
... en dan gaan we eten click to hear 2 ... and then we'll eat
... en dan wordt 't donker click to hear 2 3 ... and then it will get dark

ik was toen 52 (tweeënvijftig) kilo click to hear I was 52 kilos then, I was 52 kilos at the time
... en toen dronken we koffie click to hear ... and then we had coffee
... en toen kwam Jan click to hear ... and then Jan arrived
... en toen ben ik naar Amerika gegaan click to hear ... and then I went to the U.S.
Neem de tweede weg links en dan de derde weg rechts click to hear Take the 2nd road to the left and then the 3rd to the right
... en dan is er feest click to hear ... and then there'll be a party
... en dan wordt 't spannend click to hear ... and then it'll get exciting
Dat zien we dan wel weer click to hear 2 3 We'll see about that [then] when the time comes

Referring just to a specific time in the past, you can also say indertijd click to hear 2 ('at that time') - but you could just as well say 'toen' click to hear 2 3

Dat is indertijd niet goed gedaan click to hear 2 That was not done correctly at the time

Dutch has many standard phrases (see also: Sayings) with 'dan' - often about less-than-ideal outcomes or situations that mean trouble.

Dan houdt alles op click to hear 2 ['Then everything ends']
Dan ben je nog niet jarig click to hear 2 3 ['Then it won't be like your birthday'] You'll be in trouble, you'll suffer
Dan zijn we nog verder van huis click to hear 2 3 ['Then we're even farther from home'] Making an already bad situation worse
Dan heb je de poppen aan het dansen click to hear 2 3 ['Then you'll have the dolls dancing'] There'll be trouble
Dan heb je 't gedonder in de glazen click to hear 2 3 4 ['Then you'll have the windows rattling'] There'll be trouble
Dan vind je de hond in de pot click to hear 2 ['Then you'll find the dog in the cooking pot'] Coming late to a meal, everything is gone and the dog is cleaning out the pots
... en dan komt de aap uit de mouw click to hear 2 3 4 [... and then the monkey comes out of the sleeve'] The truth comes out
Dan is 't voorbij met de pret click to hear Then the fun is over, back to normal or worse
Dan is 't gedaan met de pret click to hear 2 3 Then the fun is over, back to normal or worse
Dan is 't uit met de pret click to hear 2 Then the fun is over, back to normal or worse
Dan weet je dat voor de volgende keer click to hear 2 3 [Then you know] So you can keep that in mind the next time
Dan moet je vroeger opstaan click to hear 2 3 [Then] For that you'll have to get up earlier (be more alert and active)
Dan hoor je het ook eens van een ander click to hear 2 [Then] That way you'll also hear it from someone else (get a second opinion)

'Dan' can also be like English 'than' - used with the comparative degree, for instance groter dan click to hear 2 ('bigger than') - more examples in Disambiguation: 'Dan'

Beter laat dan nooit click to hear Better late than never
Londen is ouder dan Berlijn click to hear London is older than Berlin
Meer dan drie uur click to hear 2 3 More than three hours

When - Introduction

English 'when' can mean three things: You could also say that Dutch 'toen' (English 'then' and 'when') connects statements and events of the past, while 'als' (English 'when' and 'if') connects statements, conditions and/or events in the present and future.

When: 'At The Time That' - Dutch 'Toen'

'When' can mean something like 'at the time that' - stating a point in time in the past and connecting it with another event or statement (a 'conjunction.') For this 'when' Dutch says: toen click to hear 2 3 Note the change in word order in the paired examples below: after a statement of time or a sub-sentence stating a time, the verb will come before the subject - more M'n vader was tweeëndertig toen de oorlog begon click to hear
My Dad was 32 when the war started
Toen de oorlog begon was m'n vader tweeëndertig click to hear
When the war started my Dad was 32 word order

Toen de zon onderging ... click to hear 2 3 When the sun went down ...
Toen de zon onderging begon de muziek click to hear When the sun went down the music started
Ze gingen weg toen de zon onderging click to hear 2 They [went away] left when the sun went down
Toen de bliksem insloeg ging het licht uit click to hear 2 When lightning hit the light went out
Toen het licht uitging zag ik de sterren click to hear 2 When the light went out I saw the stars
Toen ik de sterren zag begreep ik ... click to hear 2 3 When I saw the stars I understood ...
Toen het licht groen werd reden we weg click to hear 2 When the light turned green we drove off
Toen het donker werd gingen we naar huis click to hear When it got dark we went home
We gingen naar huis toen het donker werd click to hear 2 We went home when it got dark
Toen het donker werd ging het licht aan click to hear When it got dark the light came on
Toen we naar huis gingen was het donker click to hear 2 When we went home it was dark
Toen we naar huis gingen werd het donker click to hear 2 When we went home it was getting dark

Toen ik het licht aandeed sloegen de stoppen door click to hear
When I turned on the light the fuses blew
Toen ik z'n fiets optilde begreep ik hoe hij zo hard kon rijden click to hear 2 3 4
When I lifted up his bike I understood how he could ride that fast

'When' and 'If' - Dutch 'Als'

English has 'if' and 'when' to state a condition for something else or for another event to happen, or indicating two simultaneous events or a connection. If I understand it correctly, 'if' refers to a hypothetical situation or something that may never happen, while 'when' refers to a common situation or something that will happen eventually, you just don't know at what time.
Dutch 'als' click to hear can mean both English 'when' (it's going to happen, you just don't know when exactly) and 'if' (it may happen, in case it happens, a condition, hypothetical.) You may notice Dutchmen have trouble differentiating between this 'when' and 'if.' There may be mistakes in my English translation.
Note that in the sub-sentences right after 'toen' and 'als' objects and/or complements are placed between subject and verb - more
't IJzer smeden als het heet is click to hear 2 3 ['Smith'] Forge the iron when it's hot
Je moet ijzer smeden als 't heet is click to hear 2 3 You should work/forge the iron when it's hot
Kijk even achterom als je afslaat click to hear 2 Look backward for a moment when you make a turn (in traffic)
Doe je het licht uit als je weggaat? click to hear Will you turn off the light when you leave?
Wat doe je, als je dingen ziet die niemand ooit heeft gezien? click to hear 2
What do you do, when you see things no-one has ever seen before? >>

In het Nederlands zeggen we 'gezondheid' als iemand niest click to hear
In Dutch we say 'gezondheid' click to hear when somebody sneezes click to hear 2

Maar als ik heel snel praat, daar heeft niemand wat aan click to hear slow 2 3
But when I talk very fast it's of [use to no-one] no use to anyone

Als de zon schijnt terwijl 't regent krijg je soms een regenboog click to hear
When the sun is shining while it is raining you sometimes get a rainbow

Als het donker is ... click to hear When it's dark ...
Als de R in de maand zit click to hear 2 slow When there's an R in [the name of] the month
Als de muziek begint moet je stil zijn click to hear When the music starts you have to be quiet
Als het concert begint moet je stil zijn click to hear When the concert starts you have to be quiet
Als de zon schijnt ben ik blij click to hear When the sun is shining I'm happy
Ik ben blij als de zon schijnt click to hear 2 3 I'm happy when the sun is shining
Als het regent word ik droevig click to hear When it rains I get sad
Als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear When the days get longer, the nights get more severe (i.e. colder)
Als dat achter de rug is click to hear 2 When that's behind [our back] us
Als 't licht rood is moet je stoppen click to hear 2 3 4 When the light is red you have to stop
Als 't licht rood wordt moet je stoppen click to hear 2 3 When the light turns red you have to stop
Als het licht groen is mag je doorrijden click to hear 2 When the light is green you may drive on
Als je vis eet moet je ook wat drinken click to hear 2 3 4 When you're [eating] having fish you should also drink [something]
Als je goed kijkt ... click to hear 2 When you look sharp, when you inspect it closely ...

'When' and especially 'if' can be combined with 'then' to the somewhat formal condition-and-result 'when/if ... then ...' - in Dutch this 'then' is 'dan' click to hear 2 - als ... dan click to hear - though in Dutch the 'dan' is usually dropped. 'Als' can also be dropped.

Haast je als je de tijd hebt, dan heb je de tijd als je haast hebt click to hear
'Hurry when you have time, then you'll have time when you're in a hurry' (informal 'you')
Haast U als U de tijd heeft, dan heeft U de tijd als U haast heeft click to hear
'Hurry when you have time, then you'll have time when you're in a hurry' (polite 'you')
Als de lente komt, dan stuur ik jou tulpen uit Amsterdam click to hear 2
[When Spring arrives] Come Spring I'll send you tulips from Amsterdam

Baat 't niet, dan schaadt 't niet click to hear 2 'If there is no benefit, there will no damage either'
Als je 't nu niet doet, wanneer dan wel? click to hear 2 [If you don't do it now, when are you going to do it then?] - If not now, when?
Als 't hard regent blijf ik thuis click to hear 2 If it's raining hard I'll stay home - word order
Als 't mee zit ... click to hear 2 If it goes well, if we're lucky ...
Als 't mee zit is 't morgen klaar click to hear If things go well it'll be ready tomorrow
Als 't tegen zit ... click to hear 2 If things don't go well, if we're not lucky ...
Als 't tegen zit kan 't nog wel een week duren click to hear If it doesn't go well it may take a week
Als ik 't goed begrijp ... click to hear 2 3 4 If I understand it correctly ...
Als er wat is ... click to hear 2 If there is something ... (like, a problem)
Als blikken konden doden ... click to hear 2 If looks could kill ...
Als ik jou was ... click to hear 2 If I were you ...
Als ik jou was zou ik niet gaan click to hear If I were you I wouldn't go
Als 't regent wordt de wedstrijd afgelast click to hear If it's raining the match will be canceled
Als ik dat vragen mag click to hear If I may ask
Als morgen de hemel valt click to hear If the sky falls tomorrow ...
Als de hemel morgen valt click to hear If the sky falls tomorrow ...
Als je ooit deze kant op komt ... click to hear If you ever come this way (an invitation to get in touch then)
Als 't moet click to hear If it has to be
Als je 't nu niet doet, wanneer dan wel? click to hear 2 [If you don't do it now, when are you?] - If not now, when?

Als morgen de hemel valt hebben we allemaal een blauwe muts click to hear 2 3
If the sky falls tomorrow we'll all have a blue cap (said when someone continually offers depressing scenarios)
Als het niet vanzelf overgaat ga ik ermee naar de dokter click to hear
If it doesn't go away by itself I'll go see a doctor about it
Zelfs als hij geweten had dat het zou gaan regenen ... click to hear 2
Even if he'd known it was going to rain

'Toen' for the past and 'als' for the present or future is a good rule of thumb, though it is actually about the verb tense - but don't worry about it. In a poetic mood I could produce this sentence and there's nothing wrong with it: Als de oorlog begint is m'n vader tweeëndertig click to hear 2 3
When the war starts, my Dad is 32

Somewhat bookishly, 'if' can be translated as indien click to hear 2 3 'in case that ...'

Another Dutch construction with a similar meaning of 'if there are any ..., in case of ...' is 'mochten er ...' click to hear 2

Mochten er vragen zijn ... click to hear In case of questions, if there are any questions ...
Mochten er problemen zijn ... click to hear In case of problems, if there are any problems ...

'Als' click to hear can also mean 'as' or 'like' in comparisons and is often used in related phrases like even ... als click to hear and net zo ... als click to hear 2 - both meaning 'just as.' Zoals /or/ zo ... als click to hear 2 ('like') and alsof click to hear ('as if.') See Disambiguation: 'Als' for more examples

'n Dag als alle andere click to hear 2 3 A day like all others, just another day
Zo oud als de weg naar Kralingen click to hear 2 3 [As old as the road to K.] Old as the hills
Hij is even oud als jij click to hear 2 [He is equally old as you] He is your age
Net als vroeger click to hear 2 3 Just like [before] in the past
Zoals ik al zei click to hear 2 3 As I already said, as I said before
Zoals 't klokje thuis tikt, tikt 't nergens click to hear 2 3 4 5 6 Nowhere the clock ticks like at home (home sweet home)
't Was alsof de zon om middernacht opkwam click to hear As if the sun rose at midnight

'Als' can also be translated as 'as' indicating representation - see also Disambiguation: 'Als'

Als voorbeeld click to hear 2 As an example
Als Nederlander zou ik zeggen: "ja!" click to hear As a Dutchman I would say: "Yes!"

When? - At What Time? - 'Wanneer?'

English 'when' can also be a question: 'at what time?' The Dutch word for this 'when?' is 'wanneer?' click to hear - keep in mind that in questions, the verb comes before the subject - more
Wanneer kom je terug? click to hear When are you coming back?
Wanneer kom je thuis? click to hear When will you be back home?
Wanneer ben je jarig? click to hear When is your birthday? [when are you year-y?]
Wanneer is hij jarig? click to hear When is his birthday?
Wanneer is 't klaar? click to hear 2 3 When will it be ready?
Wanneer heb je gegeten? click to hear 2 When, what time have you eaten?
Wanneer heb je voor 't laatst gegeten? click to hear 2 What time have you (eaten for the last time) last eaten?
Wanneer gaat de volgende trein? click to hear 2 3 What time does the next train (go) leave?
Weet je al wanneer? click to hear 2 Do you already know when?
Weet je al wanneer 't gaat gebeuren? click to hear 2 3 Do you already know when it's going to happen?

Kunt U mij zeggen wanneer de laatste trein gaat? click to hear 2 3 4
Could you please tell me what time the last train leaves?
Wanneer heb je voor het laatst een brief geschreven? click to hear
When was the last time you've written a letter?

When it's about hours, you can as well say 'what time?' / hoe laat click to hear 2 3 - >> instead of 'when?'/wanneer?

Hoe laat gaat de volgende trein? click to hear 2 What time [goes] is the next train?

Still, Yet

Like English 'still,' the Dutch adverb 'nog' click to hear usually refers to an ongoing situation, a continuing condition or a remaining amount
Zijn de bananen nog groen? click to hear Are the bananas still green?
Is 't nog goed? click to hear 2 3 Is it still good? (food, still edible?)
Leven je ouders nog? click to hear 2 Are your parents still alive?
Het is nog vroeg click to hear It is still early
Dan weet ik nog niks click to hear 2 3 Then I still [know nothing] don't know anything (failed experiments, useless information)
Ik heb nog een koffer in Berlijn (staan) click to hear 2 (3) I still have a suitcase [standing] in Berlin (from a German song by Hildegard Knef)
Hoeveel tijd is er nog? click to hear 2 3 How much time is [there still] left?
Hoe lang nog? click to hear [How long still?] How much longer?
Er is nog veel werk click to hear 2 There is still a lot of work
Er is nog veel te doen click to hear 2 There is still much to do
Er is nog veel papier click to hear There is still a lot of paper
Er moet nog hard gewerkt worden click to hear It still needs a lot of hard work
Er is nog zoveel te doen! click to hear 2 3 4 There is still so much to do!
Heb je nog even tijd? click to hear Do you still have a moment?
Is er nog genoeg tijd? click to hear Is there still enough time?
Is er nog genoeg brood? click to hear 2 Is there still enough bread?
Een prettige dag nog click to hear [Enjoy the remainder of the day] Have a nice day
Nog vele jaren! click to hear [Still many years! Wishing you many more years] - Many happy returns! - (Birthday)
Moet je nog eten? click to hear 2 3 Do you still have to eat? Have you not eaten yet?
Heb je Piet nog gekend? click to hear [Have you still known Piet?] Did you ever meet Piet? (he has passed away or moved )
Zij denkt dat het nog gaat gebeuren click to hear She thinks it's still going to happen
Ik luister nog vaak naar ... click to hear 2 I still (often) listen to ...
De CD ... van ... draai ik ook nog vaak. click to hear I still often play the CD ... by ...

Heb je de laatste tijd nog een goed boek gelezen? click to hear
Have you (still) read a good book lately?

Hoe lang nog voor we weer een overstroming krijgen? click to hear
How much longer till [we get] there is [again a] another flood?

English 'yet' is somewhat similar to 'still' and is also often translated as 'nog' click to hear - especially in the negative 'not yet' - 'nog niet' click to hear 2 3 and 'nog geen' click to hear - something awaiting fulfillment, a situation not reached, a condition not met (niet click to hear 2 'not' is a kind of adverb, stating a negative about a verb or saying an action was not taken, while geen click to hear 'no' is a kind of adjective meaning 'zero quantity.')

Ik heb nog geen rollator click to hear [I have no walker yet] I still don't have a walker
Ik heb nog niet gegeten click to hear I have not eaten yet
We hebben de oorlog nog niet gewonnen click to hear We have not yet won the war, we still have not won the war
Ik heb nog niet gestemd click to hear I have not voted yet
Ik ben bang dat het nog niet klaar is click to hear I'm afraid it's not ready yet
Er is nog geen oplossing click to hear There is still no solution, there is yet no solution
't Is nog geen tijd click to hear 2 It's not time yet
Heb je nog niet gegeten? click to hear 2 Haven't you eaten yet?
't Is nog niet te laat click to hear 2 3 It's not too late yet
We zijn er bijna click to hear We're almost there
- maar nog niet helemaal click to hear 2 - but not yet [entirely, completely] at the end of the journey

Ik ben bang dat de avocado's nog niet rijp zijn click to hear 2
I'm afraid the avocados are not ripe yet

The opposite of 'not yet' 'nog niet' click to hear 2 3 is 'already' 'al' click to hear 2 >>

't Is al over elven click to hear 2 'It's already past 11'
Hij zag de bui al hangen click to hear ['He had already seen the rainshower "hanging"'] - 'He understood trouble was brewing'

Doe maar normaal, dan doe je al gek genoeg click to hear 2
Just do like you always do, that's enough craziness already

Dutch 'eens' click to hear (often pronounced with 'voiceless E, schwa' as click to hear) means 'once, sometime' - more above - like "een keer " click to hear 2 3
'Nog eens' click to hear 2 means 'once more, once again' - 'again'

Kunt U dat nog eens zeggen? click to hear Could you please say that one more time, again, repeat that?
Zou U dat nog eens willen zeggen? click to hear 2 Would you mind repeating that please?
Ik heb laatst ... nog eens gelezen click to hear
Sometime ago I have re-read ...

Stressing 'nog' in 'nòg eens' or 'nòg een keer' click to hear changes the meaning from 'sometime' to 'again, once more, once more again'

Ik wil ook nog een keer naar Amerika click to hear I would like to visit the US sometime
Ik wil nòg een keer naar Jeruzalem click to hear 2 3 I want to visit Jerusalem again, once more
Wie weet er nog een mop? click to hear [Who knows a joke?] Anybody has a joke to tell?
Wie weet er nòg een mop? click to hear 2 Who still [knows] has another joke to tell? (people have been telling jokes for a while)

When 'Nog' click to hear is combined with 'steeds' click to hear 2 ('continually, all the time' - more above) - to 'nog steeds' click to hear 2 3 it just amplifies the meaning of 'still, yet' - giving it a sense of being unexpected, surprising, sometimes like 'after all these years.'

Heb je al een rollator? click to hear 2 3 Do you already have a walker?
Ik heb geen rollator click to hear 2 3 I don't have a walker
Ik heb nog geen rollator click to hear I don't have a walker yet
Ik heb nog steeds geen rollator click to hear 2 3 I still don't have a walker (despite my age / I should get one etc.)

'Nog' click to hear can be combined with various other time words like 'nooit' click to hear 2 ('never' - more above) - to 'nog nooit' click to hear 2 ('never yet, never before, never')

Ik had me nog nooit zo beroerd gevoeld click to hear 2 3 I'd never felt that miserable (sick) before

English 'still' can also point out something unexpected, often after an 'although' ('hoewel' click to hear) statement - translated in Dutch as 'toch' click to hear 2 - See also: 'Toch'

Hoewel 't regende ging hij toch zonder jas naar buiten click to hear 2
Although it was raining he still went out without a coat

Dutch 'nog' click to hear in combination with a superlative degree is usually translated as 'even' in English, but 'still' may fit too.

Moeten we de dijken nog verder verhogen? click to hear Do we have to, should we raise the levees still (even) further?

The opposite of 'nog' / 'still' is niet meer click to hear 2 3 ('no longer, not anymore') - though depending on context it can also mean 'not more, not a larger amount'

Heb je niet meer voorbeelden? click to hear 2 Don't you have more examples?
Is er niet meer geld? click to hear 2 3 Is there not more money? Is that all the money there is?
niet meer belangrijk click to hear 2 not important anymore, no longer important, 'moot'
Ik kan het niet meer bijhouden click to hear 2 I cannot keep up with it anymore
't Is niet leuk meer click to hear 2 It's no fun anymore
't Is niet lekker meer click to hear 2 It doesn't taste good anymore (spoiled food)
Als ik er niet meer ben ... click to hear 2 3 When I'm no longer around, when I'm gone (dead) ...
De minuutwijzer beweegt bijna niet meer click to hear slow The minute hand is barely moving anymore ->>
Er was niet veel tijd meer click to hear ['There was no longer much time'] - there was not much time left
Er was opeens geen geld meer click to hear 2 3 Suddenly there was no more money - suddenly the money was gone
Ik weet 't niet meer click to hear 2 [I no longer know it] - I have forgotten (it) -or- I don't know what to think anymore
Ik kan er niet meer tegen click to hear 2 3 I can't stand it anymore
Ik wil niet meer click to hear 2 I don't want (to go on) anymore
Ik zag 't niet meer zitten click to hear I didn't see a future (depressed)

Already

English 'already' is 'al' click to hear 2 in Dutch - something happened or was established in the past, before now, or something is surprising or unexpected.
The very old-fashioned 'alreeds' click to hear 2 3 looks and sounds somewhat similar to 'already' - and you may find the slightly more modern 'reeds' click to hear 2 in books.
Zijn de bananen al geel? click to hear 2 Are the bananas already yellow?
Zijn de perziken al rijp? click to hear 2 Are the peaches ripe already?
Heb je al kaartjes? click to hear 2 3 Did you already get the tickets? (travel, events)
Heb je al een rollator? click to hear 2 3 Do you have a walker already?
Weet je al wanneer? click to hear 2 Do you already know when?
Weet je al wanneer 't gaat gebeuren? click to hear 2 3 Do you know already when it's going to happen? (something big like surgery, remodeling)
Ben je al klaar? click to hear Are you done (finished) already?
Heb je al gegeten? click to hear 2 Have you eaten (already)?
Is de post al geweest? click to hear 2 Has the mail come in already? Has the mailman come by?
Heb je al gestemd? click to hear 2 Did you vote already? Have you already voted?
Heb je het nieuws gehoord? click to hear 2 3 Have you heard the news?
Heb je het nieuws al gehoord? click to hear 2 3 Have you (already) heard the news?
Had ik dat al gezegd? click to hear 2 Did I say that already?
Zoals ik al zei click to hear 2 3 As I already said, as I said before
Er wordt al zoveel gezegd click to hear 2 So much is being/has been said already
Ze zijn al twintig jaar samen click to hear 2 They've (already) been together for 20 years (married, in a relationship)
Ze werken al twintig jaar samen click to hear They've (already) been working together for 20 years
't Is eigenlijk al te laat click to hear It is really (almost) already too late
Al doende leert men click to hear 2 3 [Already, while doing, you learn] Practice makes perfect
Daar was ik al bang voor click to hear 2 I was already afraid of that
Hij heeft z'n hand al ingepakt click to hear ( 2 3 4 ) He's packed his hand already (jokey remark about the bad habit of putting a hand in your pocket while speaking in public)
Ik heb al van alles click to hear 2 I already have (own) all kinds of things
Ik heb al zoveel click to hear I already have so much
Ik heb je er al vaak op gewezen click to hear 2 3 4 I have already pointed it out to you so often
Ik heb al verkering click to hear I am already in a relationship, going steady (jokey, old-fashioned)

The opposite of 'already' 'al' click to hear 2 is 'not yet' 'nog niet' click to hear 2 3 >>

'Alvast' click to hear 2 3 4 means 'already' or 'meanwhile' in the sense of bridging a period of time, usually 'in advance'

Hier is alvast een voorschot click to hear 2 Here's already some money in advance
Alvast bedankt! click to hear 2 Thank you in advance!
or you can say: Bij voorbaat bedankt click to hear Thank you in advance!
Bij voorbaat mijn dank click to hear 2 [My thanks in advance] Thank you in advance!

Dutch 'al' can also mean 'all, everything' and occasionally it has a meaning indicating extremes, like 'even' - also see and hear: Disambiguation: 'Al'

Eind goed, al goed click to hear 2 3 [End good, all good] All's well that ends well
Al kost 't me jaren click to hear 2 3 Even if it takes (me) years

Changes in Word Order

You must have noticed changes in Dutch word order earlier on the page: See also my general Word Order page or the Smartphone page

The Tides

It is very possible that the words for 'time' and 'tides' are from a common root. As the poet Robinson Jeffers said, 'The tides are in our veins.' (1924)
De getijden hebben we in ons bloed click to hear 2 [literally: 'we have the tides in our blood']

(de) tijd click to hear 2 'time'
(de) getijden click to hear 2 'tides'
(het) tij click to hear 'tide'
(de) eb click to hear 2 'ebb, low tide'
(de) vloed click to hear 'flow, high tide'
(de) overstroming click to hear 'flood, inundation'

Springtij click to hear ['jump tide'] - when the high tide is very high because the Sun and Moon align, pulling on the sea in tandem
Hoogtijdagen click to hear 2 ['Days of high tide'] - heyday, the high point, prime, 'when they were at their best'
(het) jaargetijde click to hear - a slightly old-fashioned word for 'season'

'Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen' click to hear 2 'The Waning of the Middle Ages' - a famous 1919 book by Johan Huizinga click to hear 2 about the atmosphere and mindset of the late Middle Ages in France and The Low Countries. 'Herfsttij' is literally 'Autumn (Ebb) Tide,' a word Mr Huizinga made up himself. In the book title it is usually translated as 'Waning.'

Time

(de) vrije tijd click to hear leisure time, time off
(de) proeftijd click to hear 2 trial period
(de) tijdverspilling click to hear 2 waste of time
Uit de tijd click to hear [Out of Time] Not of this time ->>
'n andere keer click to hear another time, not now ->>
Tijd is geld click to hear 2 'Time is money' - time is valuable
De tijd vliegt click to hear 'Time flies'
De tijd vliedt click to hear 2 3
(old-fashioned)
'Time moves quickly'
Beidt Uw tijd click to hear 2 3
(old-fashioned)
Bide your time, wait for the right moment
Bij tijd en wijle click to hear
(old-fashioned)
from time to time
(de) bedtijd click to hear 2 bedtime ->>
(de) diensttijd click to hear 2 time as a conscript
in the military ->>
(de) eindtijd click to hear end time, end-of-days
(de) incubatietijd click to hear 2 incubation period ->>
openingstijden click to hear [opening] business hours ->>
(de) reistijd click to hear travel time ->>
(de) overtijd click to hear 2 overtime ->>
(de) theepauze click to hear 2 [tea break] teatime ->>
(het) tijdschrift click to hear magazine, periodical ->>
(de) wachttijd click to hear 2 waiting time
(de) zaaitijd click to hear sowing time
(de) oogsttijd click to hear 2 3 harvest time
(de) zomertijd click to hear daylight saving time
(de) tijdsduur click to hear 2 duration, length of time
(het) tijdstip click to hear 2 point in time

't Is tijd click to hear 2 It is time
't Is hoog tijd click to hear 2 It's high time
hoogste tijd click to hear High[est] time, very urgent
't Wordt tijd click to hear 2 3 4 It is about time (we've been waiting too long)
Het is nog geen tijd click to hear 2 It's not time yet
The above 'het is tijd' / 'it is time' phrases mean 'the moment is here, something should happen or be done right now'

de hele tijd click to hear 2 all the time
(de) volledige baan click to hear 2 3 [complete] full-time job ->>
deeltijd click to hear part-time (both noun and adjective - but the English word is more common)
een tijdje click to hear 2 3 ['a little time' - a small amount of time] - a short time, a while
na een tijdje click to hear 2 (3 ) after a while
een tijdje later click to hear 2 a little later
Alles op z'n tijd click to hear 2 3 Everything in its good time, there will be a right time for everything
Als er tijd voor is ... click to hear 2 3 4 If there is time (for it) ...
Er is geen tijd voor click to hear 2 There is no time (for it)
Er was geen tijd click to hear 2 There was no time
Is er nog genoeg tijd? click to hear Is there still enough time?
Er is genoeg tijd click to hear There is enough time
Er is niet genoeg tijd click to hear There's not enough time
Er is nooit genoeg tijd click to hear There's never enough time
Ze zeggen dat er niet genoeg tijd is click to hear [They say] It is said that there's not enough time
Ik hoop dat je d'r (er) tijd voor hebt click to hear 2 3 4 I hope you'll have time for it
Daar heb ik geen tijd voor click to hear 2 I don't have time (for that)
Ik heb er geen tijd voor click to hear 2 3 I don't have time (for it)
Niemand heeft genoeg tijd click to hear 2 3 Nobody has enough time
Ik heb meer tijd nodig click to hear 2 I need more time (to finish)
De mooiste tijd van m'n leven click to hear 2 The [most beautiful] best time of my life
in mijn tijd ... click to hear In my time, in my day (when I was in my prime)
De mooiste auto aller tijden click to hear 2 3 4 The most beautiful car of all time, The most beautiful car ever ->>
Gezelligheid kent geen tijd click to hear 2 'Time flies when you're having a good time with friends'
Waar blijft de tijd? click to hear 2 3 4 5
- 'blijven' click to hear 2
'Where does the time go?'
usually means 'to remain, to stay'
>>
Er is weinig tijd click to hear 2 3 There is [little] not much time
Er is weinig tijd voor muziek click to hear There is little time for music
Hoe weinig tijd er is voor mezelf click to hear 2 How little time there is to myself
tijd besteden aan click to hear 2 spending time on
Ik besteed veel tijd aan m'n website click to hear 2 3 I'm spending a lot of time (working) on my website
Dat hebben we een tijd niet gehad click to hear 2 We haven't had that [for some time] in a while (eaten, experienced that)
We hebben alle tijd click to hear 2 3 4 We have all the time (in the world) - no need to rush
Rustig maar click to hear 2 3 Calm down, take it easy, no need to rush / "there, there"
De tijd zal 't leren click to hear 2 Time will [teach] tell
Tijd van leven click to hear 2 3 'Time to live' - time to enjoy life, doing your own thing
Vadertje Tijd click to hear 2 3 ['Little Father Time'] - 'Old Man Time
De tand des tijds click to hear 2 3 4 'The tooth of time'] - decay due to age (human and general)

(het) tijdverdrijf click to hear 2 is an old-fashioned word for 'pastime' - the common word is the English (de) hobby click to hear 2 - 'n dure hobby click to hear 2 3 ('an expensive hobby')
'Period' as the dot at the end of a line is '(de) punt' click to hear 2 3 4 5 in Dutch - see and hear more punctuation marks - Punt uit! click to hear 2 3 is Dutch for 'period!' - end of argument.

'Age' - Leeftijd / Tijd

English 'age' can be a person's age, for which Dutch has the word (de) leeftijd click to hear 2 3 ('age')
jong click to hear (jong/jonge click to hear 2) young
oud click to hear 2 (oude click to hear 2) old
bejaard click to hear 2 elderly, old, over 65
bejaarde click to hear 2 an elderly person
bejaarden click to hear elderly people

ouden van dagen click to hear 2 ['old of days'] - a polite phrase for 'old people, the elderly'
ouders click to hear 'parents'
(de) jongen click to hear 'boy' - young'un

van mijn leeftijd click to hear 2 3 'of my age' - of the same age as I
iemand van mijn leeftijd click to hear 2 someone (of) my age
op mijn leeftijd click to hear 2 'at my age' - at this stage in my life
op die leeftijd click to hear 2 at that age
Op m'n oude dag click to hear 2 in my old age
(de) levensavond click to hear 2 [life's evening] old age
Met de ouderdom komen de gebreken click to hear 2 '[With] In old age defects appear'
Wat gebeurde er toen je twintig was? click to hear (2) What happened when you were 20 years old?
Ik ben zevenentwintig click to hear I'm 27 (years old)
Toen ik zestien was click to hear 2 3 When I was 16, at age 16
Op m'n veertigste click to hear 2 At 40 - Ordinal Numbers
twintig lentes jong click to hear 2 '20 springtimes young' (said by slimeballs)
Als ik wat jonger was ... click to hear 2 If I were a little younger ...
achter in de twintig click to hear 2 3 in his/her late twenties
in m'n jonge jaren click to hear 2 3 'in my younger years, when I was younger'
Daar ben ik te oud voor click to hear 2 I'm too old for that
Oud en de dagen zat click to hear 2 3 Old and tired of the days
Ik word oud click to hear 2 I'm getting old
Hoe oud ben je? click to hear 2 3 'How old are you? What is your age?'
Hoe oud ben je geworden? click to hear 2 'How old are you now?' (birthday question) >>
Hij is even oud als jij click to hear 2 ['He's as old as you'] - He's your age
We zijn even oud click to hear 2 ['We are equally old'] - 'We are the same age'
But also: 'Ik ben weer de oude' click to hear 2 ['I'm the old one again'] - 'I'm back to normal'

Ik ben wel oud, maar toch niet zò oud click to hear 2
I may be old, but I'm not that old (yet)

Mijn moeder zou dit jaar honderd geworden zijn click to hear 2
My mother would have turned a hundred this year

But English 'age' may also refer to a span of time, an era, usually in the past. Dutch then mostly says tijd click to hear 2 3 ('time') - a somewhat bookish word for 'era' is (het) tijdperk click to hear 2

de Steentijd click to hear 2 the Stone Age
(de) Bronstijd click to hear The Bronze Age
(de) IJzertijd click to hear The Iron Age
(de) IJstijd click to hear 2
IJstijden click to hear 2
ice age
ice ages
steen click to hear 2 'stone'
brons click to hear 'bronze'
ijzer click to hear 2 iron
ijs click to hear ice
ice cream
De Oudheid click to hear Antiquity
De Romeinse Tijd click to hear The Roman Era
De Middeleeuwen click to hear 2 3 4 The Middle Ages >>
De Franse Tijd click to hear 2 'The French Era' (1795-1813)

Actually, there's also (de) bronsttijd click to hear (double T but with the same pronunciation as 'Bronstijd') 'the mating season' - (de) bronst click to hear 2 ('rut/heat')
(de) holenmens click to hear 2 'caveman'

Time Ago

Geleden click to hear is the past participle of lijden click to hear 2 >> ('to suffer')
Ik heb geleden click to hear 2 'I have suffered'
Het leed is geleden click to hear 2 'The suffering [has been suffered] is over'

But geleden can also mean 'ago'

lang geleden click to hear 2 'long ago'
drie dagen geleden click to hear 2 '3 days ago'
twee jaar geleden click to hear 2 2 years ago'
tien jaar geleden click to hear '10 years ago'
M'n vader is veertig jaar geleden overleden click to hear 2 My Dad passed away 40 years ago

Keep in mind that in a sentence starting with a condition (like these statements about time) the acting verb comes before the subject: (more) Een paar maanden geleden zijn we naar een optreden van Dragonforce geweest click to hear
'A few months ago we [went to] were at a Dragonforce concert'

The Past

'(Het) verleden' click to hear 2 is 'the past' and 'verleden' is also the adjective 'past' - and you could also say 'vorig' click to hear ('previous')
Gisteren click to hear ('yesterday') - see usage examples above

in 'n ver verleden click to hear 'in a [far] distant past'
verleden jaar click to hear - vorig jaar click to hear 'last year'
(de) verleden tijd (verLEden tijd) click to hear 2 3 4 (the) past tense ->>
verleden tijd (verleden TIJD) click to hear 2 3 4 the past, 'history'
Dat is verleden tijd click to hear 2 3 'That's past, that's over' - "That's history"

But coloquially, rather say 'vroeger' click to hear than 'in het verleden' for 'in the past, before' - of course, 'vroeger' is also ('literally') the comparative degree of 'vroeg' click to hear 'early' - >>

Net als vroeger click to hear 2 3 'Just like before, just like in the past'
heel vroeger click to hear 2 [much before] a long time ago, far in the past
Vroeger was alles beter click to hear 'Everything was better in the past'
"Vroeger was geluk heel gewoon" click to hear 2 'Happiness used to be quite common'
Vroeger kostte een zakje patat een kwartje click to hear 'In the past, a small bag of French fries [cost] could be had for a quarter'
Dat deed ik vroeger ook click to hear 2 3
I did that too in the past, I used to do that too

As I said above, 'Vroeger' click to hear is literally the comparative degree of 'vroeg' click to hear ('early.')

Dan moet je vroeger opstaan click to hear 2 3
'Then you'll have to get up earlier' - i.e. you'll have to be more alert and more active

voorbij click to hear 'over,' 'past,' 'done with,' "history"
Het is voorbij click to hear 2 3 4 5 'It's over'
Dan is 't voorbij met de pret click to hear 'Then the fun is over' (back to normal or worse)
't Ergste is voorbij click to hear 2 3 4 The worst is over
't Is voorgoed voorbij click to hear 2 It's over for good, it's once and for all over and done with

First and Last, Previous and Next

eerste click to hear 2 first
tweede click to hear seccond
ordinal numbers
laatste click to hear 2 last -also: latest
voorlaatste click to hear one before last
vorig click to hear
(vorig/vorige click to hear 2)
previous
volgend click to
 hear
(volgend/volgende click to hear 2)
next

op 't eerste gezicht click to hear 2 3 at first sight
in eerste instantie click to hear 2 3 at first view, initially
eerste klas click to hear first class / first grade
eerste verdieping click to hear second (!) floor
'begane grond' click to hear 'first floor' >>
de mannen van het eerste uur click to hear 2 3 ['the men of the first hour'] - the people who started the company, oprganisation or movement
op 't laatste moment click to hear at the last moment
de laatste lichting click to hear 2 3 the last mail collection (of the day)
tot de laatste man click to hear to the last man
de laatste hand leggen aan click to hear putting the finishing touch to
Laatste ronde! click to hear 2 Last call! - last round of ordering before closing time
de laatste mode click to hear 2 the latest fashion
't laatste nieuws click to hear 2 the latest (most recent) news
de laatste trein click to hear 2 'the last train' (of the day)
de eerste bus click to hear 2 'the first bus' (of the day)

Kunt U mij zeggen wanneer de laatste trein gaat? click to hear 2 3 4
'Could you please tell me when the last train [goes] leaves?

de volgende aflevering click to hear 2 3 the next episode
Wanneer gaat de volgende trein? click to hear 2 3 'When is the next train?'
Hoe laat gaat de volgende trein? click to hear 2 'What time is the next train?'
De volgende trein gaat om half twaalf click to hear 2 'The next train is at 11:30'
De volgende bus gaat over een halfuur click to hear 2 3 'The next bus is in half an hour'
Het was vorige maand erg koud click to hear Last month it was very cold
Volgende week gaat het regenen click to hear Next week it is going to rain
Volgend jaar gaan we naar Engeland click to
  hear Next year we're going to England

'Volgend'/'volgende:' adjectives usually get an -E ending - more: lesson 11 or smartphone page

In the examples above, 'first' and 'last' were adjectives. They can also be adverbs / indications of time. In Dutch they will be 'eerst' click to hear 2 and 'laatst' click to hear 2 - Dutch 'laatst' can be seen as the superlative degree of 'laat' and is sometimes translated into English as 'the other day,' not so long ago.

Laat ik dat eerst even doen click to hear 2 Let me do that first, before all other things
Drink eerst even rustig een kopje thee click to hear 2 ~First, relax and have a cup of tea
Maak eerst je huiswerk af click to hear Finish your homework first, First finish your homework
Ik heb 't voor 't laatst bewaard click to hear 2 I saved it for last
Ik heb Jan laatst nog gezien click to hear I've seen, met with Jan not so long ago
Ik had 't er laatst nog over met Jan click to hear The other day I was talking about it with Jan

Wanneer heb je voor het laatst een brief geschreven? click to hear
When was the last time you have written a letter?

The First Time, The Last Time

English 'time' may also refer to a repeating event, like 'the first time' or 'the last time.' Here Dutch says '(de) keer' click to hear (the plural: 'keren' click to hear 2 is not often used, and as a verb 'keren' means 'to turn around.') See also: 'Times' in Multiplication below.
één keer click to hear one time, once
twee keer click to hear 2 two times, twice
drie keer click to hear three times, thrice
numbers
(de) eerste keer click to hear 2 the first time
(de) tweede keer click to hear the 2nd time
ordinal numbers
(de) laatste keer click to hear 2 3 the last time
(de) vorige keer click to hear 2 the previous time
(de) volgende keer click to hear 2 the next time

één keer per dag click to hear 'one time a day, once daily'
twee keer per dag click to hear 'two times a day, twice daily'
'n enkele keer click to hear 'once or twice, very occasionally'
'n andere keer click to hear another time, not now
het is de vierde keer click to hear 'it is the fourth time'
één keer maar click to hear 2 3 Just one time, one time only
voor de laatste keer ... click to hear 2 'for the last time ...'
keer op keer click to hear 2 'time after time, time and again'
nòg een keer click to hear one more time, again
't Zal niet de eerste keer zijn click to hear 2 3 'It won't be the first time'

Dan weet je dat voor de volgende keer click to hear 2 3
['Then you know that for the next time'] - 'Keep that in mind the next time'

Het is niet de eerste keer dat me dit overkomt click to hear 2
It's not the first time that this happens to me

(de) terugkeer click to hear ['(the) turn back'] - '(the) return'
(het) keerpunt click to hear 'turning point'

Gedane zaken nemen geen keer click to hear 2 3
'What's done is done' (You can't turn around what's done in the past)
Beter ten halve gekeerd dan ten hele gedwaald click to hear 2
'It's better to turn around halfway than to be wrong all the way'

Now

nu click to hear 2 'now'
nou click to hear 2 'now'
nu of nooit click to hear 2 '[it's] now or never'
tot nu toe click to hear up till now
tot nog toe click to hear 2 up till now
zo nu en dan click to hear 2 3 'now and then, from time to time'
voortaan click to hear from now on, in the future
voorlopig click to hear 2 for now, in the near future, for the time being
op 't moment click to hear at the moment

Nou en? click to hear ['Now and?'] - 'So what?'
Nou begrijp ik 't click to hear 2 'Now I understand (it)'
Nou herinner ik 't me weer click to hear 'Now I remember (it again)'
Nou ik toch hier ben ... click to hear 2 Now that I'm here anyway ... (let me do something)
Hoe laat is 't nou? click to hear 2 'What's the time now (right this moment)?'
Waarom ben je nu hier? click to hear 'Why are you here now, at this moment?'
Wat ik nu pas begrijp ... click to hear 2 What I only now understand ...
Nu ik niet meer rij(d) ... click to hear 2 Now that I don't drive anymore, now that I stopped driving ...
Als je 't nu niet doet, wanneer dan wel? click to hear 2 ['If you don't do it now, when will you?'] - 'If not now, when?'
Nou is 't wel mooi geweest click to hear ['Now that's been pretty'] - 'That will do (stop it!)'
Nou is 't wel genoeg geweest click to hear 2 'Now that's enough, that will do (stop it!)'
't Kan elk moment gebeuren click to hear 2 3 It [can] could happen any moment, anytime
Doe voortaan de deur op slot click to hear 2 3 4 From now on, lock the door
voorlopig nog niet click to hear 2 not now and not in the near future
Voorlopig nog geen Elfstedentocht click to hear 2 No 11-cities skating tour in the near future ->>

De voorlopige uitslag van de verkiezingen click to hear 2 3 4
The preliminary results of the elections ->>

The Present

het heden click to hear the present
vandaag click to hear 2 3 today - more usage examples above
vandaag de dag click to hear 2 nowadays
vandaag of morgen click to hear ['today or tomorrow'] 'one of these days, someday soon'
tegenwoordig click to hear 2 3 present, current; at present, nowadays
(de) tegenwoordige tijd click to hear 2 3 (the) present tense ->>
de jeugd van tegenwoordig click to hear 2 'the [youth?] young people of today'
Vandaag eten we vis click to hear 2 'Today we'll [eat] have fish'
hedendaags taalgebruik click to hear 2 present-day language use, modern usage, modern-day language
Geef ons heden ons dagelijks brood click to hear 'Give us this day our daily bread' >>

Immediately, Right Away

onmiddelijk click to hear immediately
meteen click to hear 2 immediately, right away
direct click to hear directly, straightaway
gelijk click to hear 2 1. equal 2. immediately ->>

Hou er onmiddelijk mee op! click to hear 2 quick '[Now] Stop that right away!'
Ga meteen je huiswerk maken click to hear 'Go start with your homework right away'
Ga direct naar huis click to hear 2 'Go home straight away'
Ik ga er gelijk mee aan de gang click to hear I'll start on it right away
gelijke rechten click to hear equal rights

But: tegelijk click to hear 2 'at the same time'
Ze kwamen tegelijk aan click to hear 2 They arrived at the same time

'Met een' with a space means 'with a:'
ik loop met een stok click to hear 2 3 I walk with a cane, I use a cane

Hurry, Haste, Urgency

(de) haast click to hear hurry, haste
haastig click to hear 2 3 hurriedly, hastily, hasty
zich haasten click to hear to hurry, make haste ->>
(de) spoed click to hear haste, speed, rush, urgency
spoedig click to hear soon
(het) spoedgeval click to hear 2 3 urgent case, emergency
gauw click to hear 2 soon; quick
dringend click to hear 2 urgent
binnenkort click to hear 2 ['within short'] - soon
Emergency Preparedness

Schiet op! click to hear 2 Hurry up! Be quick!
Ik zal opschieten click to hear 2 I'll hurry, I'll be quick
Er is haast bij click to hear 2 3 4 It is urgent'
't Is dringend click to hear 2 'It is urgent'
Er is geen haast bij click to hear 2 'there's no need for hurry, there is no rush'
't Heeft geen haast click to hear 2 'there's no need for hurry, there is no rush'
zo spoedig mogelijk click to hear 2 'as soon as possible'
Haastige spoed is zelden goed click to hear slow "Hasty speed is seldom good" - 'Hurry is rarely useful'
Tot gauw! click to
    hear See you soon!
Kom gauw! click to hear 2 3 Come quick!
in de gauwigheid click to hear in the rush of things, because I had to act quickly
Ik kan zo gauw geen voorbeeld bedenken click to hear 2 3 I cannot think of an example [that quickly] right away
Er zijn binnenkort verkiezingen click to hear 2 There will be elections soon >>

Haast je als je de tijd hebt, dan heb je de tijd als je haast hebt click to hear
- 'Hurry when you have time, then you'll have time when you're in a hurry' (informal 'you')
Haast U als U de tijd heeft, dan heeft U de tijd als U haast heeft click to hear
- 'Hurry when you have time, then you'll have time when you're in a hurry'(polite 'you')

'Haast' click to hear can also be an adverb meaning 'almost, nearly' - see also: Disambiguation: 'Haast'

Je zou haast denken ... click to hear 2 3 You would almost think ...

Quick, Slow - and Speed

langzaam click to hear slow
snel click to hear quick
traag click to hear 2 slow, sluggish, languid
levendig click to hear 2 lively
kwiek click to hear 2 brisk, lively (old-fashioned)
sloom click to hear 2 3
(sloom / slome) click to hear 2
slow, indolent, languid
(de) snelheid click to hear 2 speed
(de) versnelling click to hear 2 1. accelaration
2. transmission (gear)
versnellingen click to hear 2 3 transmission 'gears'
(de) zwaartekracht click to hear 2 3 gravity
(de) vertraging click to hear 2 delay
(het) uitstel click to hear postponement
rijden
to drive
and to ride
- ik rijd
I drive/ride
- wij rijden
we drive/ride
- ik reed
I drove/rode
- wij reden
we drove/rode
- ik heb gereden / ik ben gereden
I have driven/ridden >>
click to hear 2
30 (dertig) kilometer per uur click to hear 30 kilometers an hour
hard rijden click to hear 2 to drive or ride fast
Ik rijd te hard click to hear 2 I'm driving too fast
Je reed te langzaam click to hear 2 You were driving too slow
Ik loop langzaam click to hear I walk slowly
Ik reed heel langzaam naar huis click to hear 2 I drove/rode home very slowly
Hij kan erg hard fietsen click to hear 2 [He can ride a bike very fast] - He's a fast bike rider
Ik gaf haar snel een knipoogje click to hear I [quickly gave her a wink] winked at her quickly
Hij vertelde ons snel een paar mopjes click to hear 2 He quickly told us a few jokes
Hij berekende snel het verschil click to hear 2 He quickly calculated what the difference was
Hij deed 't werk snel click to hear 2 3 He quickly did the work, he finished the job quickly
't Ging zo snel click to hear 2 3 4 It happened so quickly
Ik had vertraging click to hear 2 3 'I was late' (there was a delay)
Van uitstel komt afstel click to hear 2 3 'Postponement leads to cancellation'
Langzaam maar zeker click to hear 2 3 Slowly but steadily, slow but sure

See also: Traffic and Transportation and Travel

'Tragisch' click to hear 2 means 'tragical' - it is not a variation of 'traag' click to hear 2 ('slow, sluggish, languid') above.

Fashion, Modern

(de) mode click to hear fashion - clothing
de laatste mode click to hear 2 the latest fashion
modezaak click to hear 2 ['fashion shop']
ladies' fashion shop
modern click to hear 2 modern
ouderwets click to hear old-fashioned
oud click to hear old
nieuw click to hear new
tijdloos click to hear 2 3 timeless

uit de tijd click to hear ['out of the time, not in our time'] - not of our time, old-fashioned
uit de mode click to hear 2 3 ['out of fashion'] - not according to the latest fashion
uit de oude doos click to hear 2 3 ['from the old box'] - something of/from the past ->>
Dat is zo ouderwets! click to hear 'That is so old-fashioned!'
Je moet met je tijd meegaan click to hear 2 3 slow You should [go along with] adapt to the (changing) times

[old-fashioned, antique
  keys] [a modern, hi-tech key]
de ouderwetse sleutels - de sleutels zijn ouderwets click to hear
'the old-fashioned keys - the keys are old-fashioned'
De moderne sleutel - de sleutel is modern click to hear
'the modern key - the key is modern'

The Future

de toekomst click to hear the future
morgen click to hear 2 tomorrow - see usage examples above
een dezer dagen click to hear one of these days, someday soon
in de komende jaren click to hear 2 in years to come
de toekomst voorspellen click to hear 2 predicting the future - >>
Een blik in de toekomst click to hear 2 A look into the future
de verre toekomst en de nabije toekomst click to hear 'the far future and the near future'
een onzekere toekomst tegemoet click to hear 'towards an uncertain future'
Wat had kunnen zijn click to hear 2 What could have been
(de) belofte click to hear 2 promise
veelbelovend click to hear 2 3 [much-] promising
beterschap beloven click to hear to promise [improvement] better behavior
beloven
to promise
- ik beloof
I promise
- wij beloven
we promise
- ik beloofde
I promised
- wij beloofden
we promised
- ik heb beloofd
I have promised
click to hear 2

Dutch voorbereiden click to hear 2 ('to prepare') and (de) voorbereiding click to hear 2 ('preparation') refer to preparing for a future event. English 'to prepare' in the sense of 'to make, to create' is maken click to hear >> or for food, a bit old-fashioned: bereiden click to hear 2

goed voorbereid click to hear 2 well-prepared (for future events)
Op alles voorbereid click to hear 2 prepared for anything
Op het ergste voorbereid click to hear 2 prepared for the worst
(de) voorzorgsmaatregelen click to hear precautions - Emergency Preparedness

de toekomende tijd click to hear 2 The Future Tense

The future tense uses the auxiliary verb 'zullen' click to hear with a verb inifinive, for example: ik zal schrijven click to hear 2 "I'll write" - more and mail

(zullen click to hear ) shall/will
ik zal I will/shall
jij zult you will (singular, informal you)
hij zal he will
wij zullen we will/shall
jullie zullen you will (plural, informal you)
zij zullen they will
U zult you will (polite you)
click to hear
zal ik? will/shall I?
zul jij? will you?
zal hij? will he?
zullen wij? will/shall we?
zullen jullie? will y'all?
zullen zij? will they?
zult U? will you?
click to hear
Jij zal click to hear 2 ('you will') and zal jij? click to hear ('will you?') are also said
Note that there is no T in jij zal and hij zal

Ik zal opschieten click to hear 2 I'll hurry, I'll try to be quick
We zullen wel zien click to hear 2 We'll see
Zullen we gaan zwemmen? click to hear Shall we go [swimming] for a swim?
Zullen we naar de film gaan? click to hear slow Shall we go [to the movie] see a movie?
't Zal wel meevallen click to hear 2 3 It will not be as bad as could be
't Lachen zal je vergaan click to hear 2 3 4 5 [~Your laughter will die] - You will not be laughing then
't Zal niet meer gebeuren click to hear 2 3 4 It will not happen again (promising better behavior)
Ik zal 't niet vergeten click to hear 2 3 I will not (won't) forget it
Je zult er geen spijt van krijgen click to hear 2 You will not (won't) regret it
't Zal niet gemakkelijk zijn click to hear 2 It [will] is not going to be easy
Wie zal dat betalen? click to hear 2 Who's going to pay for that?

Waiting, Expecting ... and Patience

wachten to wait
ik wacht I am waiting
jij wacht you are waiting (singular, informal you)
hij wacht he is waiting
wij wachten we are waiting
jullie wachten you are waiting (plural, informal you)
zij wachten they are waiting
U wacht you are waiting (polite you)
click to hear 2

ik wachtte I was waiting
jij wachtte you were waiting
hij wachtte he was waiting
wij wachtten we were waiting
jullie wachtten you were waiting
zij wachtten they were waiting
U wachtte you were waiting
click to
 hear
ik heb gewacht click to hear I have waited
The plural of the simple present tense is written with a single T, while the plural of the simple past tense is written with a double T - but they are pronounced the same

(de) wachtkamer click to hear 2 waiting room
(de) wachttijd click to hear 2 waiting time
Wacht! click to hear Wait!
Wacht even click to hear 2 Wait a moment!
Wacht eens even ... click to hear 2 Now wait a moment ...
Moest je lang wachten? click to hear 2 3 4 Did you have to wait for a long time?
Laten we tot morgen wachten click to hear Let's wait till tomorrow
We staan te wachten op een taxi click to hear 2 3 We're waiting for a taxi - >>
Ik zat te wachten op een telefoontje click to hear I was waiting for a phone call
Ik zat te wachten op ... click to hear
I was waiting for ...

The Dutch verb 'waken' click to hear 2 3 means 'to stay awake' or 'to watch over,' like in (de) bewaker click to hear 2 ('guard, minder') and a word we've seen before: (de) nachtwaker click to hear 2 3 ('night watchman')
Related words are (de) wake click to hear 2 3 ('wake, vigil') and wakker click to hear ('awake.')
'Wacht' click to hear can mean 'wait!' but in compound words it often means something like 'guard.' I guess that 'wachten' originally also meant something like 'to guard, to watch over' or 'to watch out for.' On gates or fences you may see the somewhat humorous warning:

Wacht U voor de(n) hond click to hear 2 3 Watch out for the dog

(de) lijfwacht click to hear 2 bodyguard
(de) schildwacht click to hear 2 3 sentry
de Nachtwacht click to hear 2 'The Night Watch' - Rembrandt's famous militia painting
(de) boswachter click to hear ('forest steward') 'ranger'
(de) veldwachter click to hear 2 'village policeman' (old-fashioned)
(het) geduld click to hear 2 patience
geduldig click to hear 2 patient
ongeduldig click to hear 2 impatient
geduldig zijn click to hear being patient
geduld oefenen click to hear exercise patience
- a bit old-fashioned
Geduld is een schone zaak click to hear Patience is a beautiful thing, patience is a virtue
Hij wachtte geduldig op z'n beurt click to hear 2 3 He was waiting patiently for his turn - your 'turn' in games

The card game of solitaire has a French name in Dutch: patience click to hear 2 3 a False Friend
A doctor's 'patient' is '(de) patiënt' click to hear in Dutch

verwachten
to expect
- ik verwacht
I expect
- wij verwachten
we expect
- ik verwachtte
I expected
- wij verwachtten
we expected
- ik heb verwacht
I have expected
click to hear
The perfect past tense is often found:
ik had verwacht click to hear 2 I had expected

(de) verwachting click to hear 2 expectation
in verwachting click to hear 2 'expecting,' pregnant
in blijde verwachting click to hear 'in happy expectation,' pregnant
(de) weersverwachting click to hear weather forecast
onverwacht click to hear unexpected,unexpectedly

(de) onverwachte wending click to hear 2 unexpected turn of events (often in fiction or in a narrative) - or- unexpected development
geheel onverwacht click to hear 2 3 completely unexpected, out of the blue
De verwachte groei bleef uit click to hear 2 3 The expected expansion didn't happen
Ik verwacht een telefoontje click to hear 2 I'm expecting a ('little') phone call
Dat had ik niet verwacht click to hear 2 3 I had not expected that
Dat was te verwachten click to hear 2 That was to be expected
Niet wat je zou verwachten click to hear Not what you would expect
Wordt er regen verwacht? click to hear 2 Is rain expected?
Wat is de weersverwachting? click to hear 2 What is the weather forecast?
Dat staat ons ook te wachten click to hear 2 [That's waiting for us too] We can also expect that

voorspellen click to hear 2 to predict voorspelbaar click to hear 2 predictable

de toekomst voorspellen click to hear 2 to predict the future ->>
't Is zo voorspelbaar wat-ie doet click to hear [It is so predictable what he does] His behavior is so predictable

'Plotseling' click to hear and 'opeens' click to hear 2 are adverbs meaning 'suddenly' ('plotseling' can also be an adjective, 'sudden.') 'Opeens' indicates a sudden, unexpected change, while the radical change of 'plotseling' does not have to be unexpected.

Opeens werd 't stil click to hear Suddenly it became quiet
Er was opeens geen geld meer click to hear 2 3 [Suddenly there was no more money] - The money ran out suddenly
Hij begon opeens te huilen click to hear 2 3 4 Suddenly he started crying
't Weer sloeg plotseling om click to hear 2 3 The weather suddenly [turned around] changed
Een plotselinge weersverandering click to hear 2 3 A sudden change of the weather

Long and Short

lang click to hear 2 3 - lang / lange click to hear ('long')
lang / langer / langst click to hear 2 ('long / longer / longest')
kort click to hear 2 3 - kort / korte click to hear ('short')
- the E-ending of adjectives

de lange les click to hear the long lesson
de lange vraag click to hear the long question
het korte antwoord click to hear 2 the short answer
kort samengevat ... click to hear 2 [short summarization] - in short ...
lang geleden click to hear 2 long ago
binnenkort click to hear 2 [within short] soon, shortly
lange-termijnplanning click to hear 2 long-term planning ('planning' - Dutch uses the English word)
drie dagen lang click to hear 3 days long
drie lange dagen click to hear 3 long days - >>
Hij is nooit lang boos click to hear 2 He's never angry for long
een korte vreugde click to hear 2 a short pleasure, just a short moment of enjoyment
zo lang mogelijk click to hear 2 as long as possible
't Is lang licht click to hear 2 [It's light for a long time] - it's still light late in the evening

Ik heb een lang gesprek met m'n baas gehad click to hear I had a long talk with my boss
Lang nadat we verhuisd waren click to hear 2 Long after we had moved away
We wonen nog maar kort hier click to hear 2 We've only lived here for a short time
lang na de oorlog click to hear 2 3 long after the war
Lang nadat de oorlog was afgelopen click to hear 2 3 Long after the war had ended
kort voor de voorstelling click to hear 2 shortly before the performance
Kort voordat de voorstelling begon click to hear 2 Shortly before the performance started
Hij dacht er niet lang over na click to hear 2 3 4 He didn't think long about it
Hij is lang van stof click to hear 2 [~'He talks at great length'] 'His talking drags on and on'

Like in English, 'lang' click to hear 2 3 ('long') and 'kort' click to hear 2 3 ('short') are not only about length of time but about length in general, not only a measure of time but also about the other dimensions:

korte mouwen click to hear 'short sleeves'
(de) korte broek click to hear 'short pants, shorts'
het korte haar click to hear 2 'the short hair'
Hoe lang ben je? click to hear 'How tall are you?'

Duren click to hear 2 'to last, to take time'

duren
to last
- 't duurt
it lasts
- 't duurde
it lasted
- 't heeft geduurd
it has lasted
click to hear 2

langdurig click to hear 2 'long-lasting' voortdurend click to hear 2 'continuing'

op den duur click to hear 2 in the long run - 'den' click to hear is an old-fashioned declined article, sometimes found in standard expressions

Hoe lang duurt 't? click to hear 2 How long is it going to take?
Hoe lang zal 't duren? click to hear 2 3 How long will it take?
Het duurt lang click to hear 2 It takes a lot of time
't Duurt te lang click to hear 2 3 It takes too long
't Duurde maar tien minuten click to hear It only lasted for 10 minutes
Dat duurt nog wel even click to hear 2 3 That's (still) going to take a while
't Duurt zeker nog een uur click to hear 2 It will take an hour for sure
Op den duur wordt 't makkelijker click to hear [After a while, (with practice)] - In time it gets easier

'Duur' click to hear (duur / dure click to hear 2) can also mean 'expensive' - duurder click to hear ('more expensive')

een duur restaurant click to hear an expensive restaurant
een dure hobby click to hear 2 3 an expensive pastime
Hoe duur is het? click to hear 2 3 [How expensive is it?] What's the price?
Het is te duur click to hear It's too expensive
Is het duurder geworden? click to hear 2 [Did it become more expensive?] - Did the price go up?

How Long?

Hoe lang? click to hear 2 3 How long?
zo lang mogelijk click to hear 2 as long as possible
Hoe lang zal 't duren? click to hear 2 3 How long will it take? (a question or comment on a hypothetical situation or with doubts about the outcome)
Hoe lang duurt 't? click to hear 2 [How long] How much time will it take? (a procedure already decided on)
Hoe lang nog? click to hear 2 [How long still?] How much longer?
Niet te lang uitslapen click to hear Don't sleep in, don't stay in bed too long (a resolution or a recomendation)

Hoe lang nog voor we weer een overstroming krijgen? click to hear 2
[How long still before we get again a flood?] - How much longer till there's another flood?

Note that Dutch does not use a preposition like English 'for' in statements of duration. See also: Common Problems with Dutch

Ik zat een uur bij de tandarts click to hear 2 3 I [sat] was at the dentist for an hour
Ik was drie dagen ziek click to hear 2 I was sick for 3 days
Ze bleven een week in Delft click to
  hear They stayed in Delft for a week
Ik heb een paar jaar pianoles gehad click to hear I've had piano lessons for a few years
Ze zijn al twintig jaar samen click to hear 2 They've been together for 20 years already

Only in the somewhat unusual statements when time is used as a measurement of physical quantity a preposition like 'for' is used:

Er is voor drie dagen eten click to hear 2 3 There is food for three days (three days' worth of food)

minstens click to hear 2 at least hoogstens click to hear 2 at most
minder click to hear less meer click to hear 2 more - more
bijna click to hear 2 almost
tijdelijk click to hear 2 temporary, not permanent

't Is hoogstens een uur werk click to hear 2 It's an hour's work at most
't Kost minstens twee weken weken click to hear 2 It will take at least two weeks
tenminste houdbaar tot click to hear 2 ["can be kept at least till ..."] - 'good till at least / best before / sell by ...' (remember that in Dutch dates, the day comes before the month)
't Kostte maar vijf minuten click to hear 2 It only took 5 minutes
't Duurt zeker nog een uur click to hear 2 It will [certainly take] take an hour for sure
meer dan drie uur click to hear 2 3 More than 3 hours
Ik ben over een uur weer thuis click to hear 2 3 4 I'll be back home in an hour >>
binnen een uur click to hear 2 within an hour
Het is bijna klaar click to hear It's almost ready
ruim een week click to hear 2 3 [roughly] a little more than a week
tijdelijke baan click to hear 2 3 temporary job - more jobs vocabulary

The Dutch noun '(de) kosten' click to hear means 'the cost' - a price in money, energy or other valuables, material or immaterial. The noun 'kosten' is a plural. The verb 'kosten' can mean the time it takes, or state a price in valuables already paid or still to be paid.
The Dutch word 'kost' click to hear 2 is a form of that verb 'kosten' but it's also is an old-fashioned word for 'food.'

kostbaar click to hear 2 valuable, precious
onbetaalbaar click to hear 2 3 [impossible be paid for] - priceless
Hoeveel kost dit? click to hear [How much does this cost?] What's the price?
Al kost 't duizend gulden click to hear 2 Even if the cost is a thousand guilders
Al kost 't me jaren click to hear 2 Even if it takes me years
Hollandse kost click to hear traditional Dutch food

To Remain, To Stay, Keep On

blijven to stay
ik blijf I stay, I'm staying
jij blijft you stay (singular, informal you)
hij blijft he stays
wij blijven we stay
jullie blijven you stay (plural, informal you)
zij blijven they stay
U blijft you stay (polite you)
click to hear 2

ik bleef I stayed
jij bleef you stayed
hij bleef he stayed
wij bleven we stayed
jullie bleven y'all stayed
zij bleven they stayed
U bleef you stayed
click to hear
ik ben gebleven click to hear 2 ~I have stayed

(de) blijvende schade click to hear 2 'lasting, permanent damage'
(het) verblijf click to hear 2 1. 'stay' 2. 'residence, place to stay'
(het) kinderdagverblijf click to hear 2 'children's daycare center, crèche'
(de) verblijfsvergunning click to hear 2 'residency permit'
(de) vaste aanstelling click to hear 2 permanent job, 'tenure' >>

Ik blijf thuis click to hear 2 3 I'm staying home
Alles blijft veranderen click to hear 2 Everything keeps changing
't Blijft vervelend click to hear 2 It remains unpleasant, it's still unpleasant
Probeer wakker te blijven click to hear Try to stay awake
Wil je blijven eten? click to hear 2 3 Would you like to stay for [food] dinner/lunch?
Je kunt wel blijven eten click to hear 2 3 You may stay for [food] dinner/lunch
Kom je binnen of wil je buiten blijven? click to hear Are you coming in or would you like to stay outside?
Ze bleven een week in Delft click to hear They stayed in Delft for a week
Ik ben de hele dag binnen gebleven click to hear 2 3 I stayed inside all day
'Wie schrijft die blijft' click to hear "He who writes stays" (the person keeping score will remain in the game)
Ik blijf 't proberen click to hear 2 3 4 I keep trying (it)
't Water blijft stijgen click to hear The water keeps rising
't Water blijft maar stijgen click to hear The water just keeps rising
't Blijft regenen click to hear 2 It will keep raining
't Blijft maar regenen click to hear 2 It just keeps raining
't Blijft de hele week regenen click to hear 2 It [keeps] is going to rain all week
't Blijft tobben click to hear 'We keep plodding on, trouble never lets up'
Je kunt nog even blijven liggen click to hear 2 You [can] may remain in bed a little longer

Remaining Words and Phrases, Miscellaneous, Odds and Ends

(de) vergane glorie click to hear faded glory
(het) achterstallig onderhoud click to hear 2 overdue maintenance
het naderend onheil click to hear 2 the approaching doom, the imminent disaster
't Komt slecht uit click to hear It's not a good time, it doesn't suit me
't Komt niet goed uit click to hear 2 It's not a good time, it doesn't suit me
Kan ik de afspraak verzetten? click to hear 2 Could I [move, change] reschedule te appointment?

'Times' in Multiplication

In calculations, English uses the word 'times' for multiplication, like 'three times four is twelve.'
In simple calculations, 'times' is translated as keer click to hear
2x3=6 (twee keer drie is zes) click to hear two times three equals six
de tafel van twee: één keer twee is twee, twee keer twee is vier, drie keer twee is zes, vier keer twee is acht ... click to hear 2
the table of 2: 1x2=2, 2x2=4, 3x2=6, 4x2=8 ...

In a more scientific setting with large numbers or in secondary school, 'times' is usually said in Dutch as maal click to hear 2 (which can also mean 'meal' - short for (de) maaltijd click to hear)

2x3=6 (twee maal drie is zes) click to hear two times three equals six
6x7=42 (zes maal zeven is tweeënveertig) click to hear six times seven equals forty-two

'Maal' click to hear 2 is also found in a few sayings and standard phrases:

Drie maal is scheepsrecht click to hear 2 ['three times is naval law'] - 'third time is the charm' - nonsense remark about things happening three times
... éénmaal ... andermaal ... verkocht! click to hear ['one time ... another time ... sold!'] - 'going once ... going twice ... sold!' (what an auctioneer says)

More Calculations and Simple Math: Vocabulary: Numbers - Lesson 8 - Smartphone page

The Use of The Plural

In Dutch, most units of measure are rarely used in the plural.
The time units ending in -R: (het) kwartier click to hear ('quarter, 15 minutes')
(het) uur click to hear ('hour') and
(het) jaar click to hear ('year')
are often used as both singular and plural; the regular plurals are uren click to hear 2 and jaren click to hear
- kwartier as '15 minutes' does not have a plural. ('Quarter' meaning '25 cents' is (het) kwartje click to hear - 'Quarter' meaning 'neigborhood' is 'wijk' click to
   hear)
drie kwartier click to hear '[3 quarters] 45 minutes'
vier uur click to hear '4 hours'
vijf jaar click to hear 2 '5 years'

Other Dutch 'time' units are always used in the plural when the number is more than 1.

(de) dag / dagen click to hear 'day/days'
(de) week click to hear 2 / weken click to hear 2 'week/weeks'
maand click to hear / maanden click to hear 2 'month/months'
minuut click to hear / minuten click to hear 2 'minute/minutes'
seconde click to hear 2 / seconden click to hear 2 'second/seconds' (1/60th of a minute)
According to my dictionary, secondes click to hear 2 is also acceptable as a plural, but I don't like it

zes dagen click to hear '6 days'
vele dagen click to hear 'many days'
twee weken click to hear 2 '2 weeks'
drie maanden click to hear 2 3 months
vijf minuten click to hear 2 '5 minutes'
drie seconden click to hear 2 '3 seconds'
(drie seconden click to hear '3 seconds')

(de) lente click to hear 'Spring'
twintig lentes jong click to hear 2
'twenty springtimes young' (said by slimeballs about young women)

When the statement is purely about the amount, the measurement (usually with a number) many (but not all) units of measurement are used in the singular:

twee jaar van m'n leven click to hear 2 '2 years of my life'
vier uur per dag click to hear 2 '4 hours a day'
dertig kilometer per uur click to hear '30 kilometers an hour'
twee gulden per stuk click to hear '2 guilders each, 2 guilders for each item'
tien minuten per uur click to hear 2 3 '10 minutes each hour'

But when the statement is about the units of measurement themselves (and it's about more than one) they are used in the plural form:

drie jaar geleden click to hear 2 'three years ago'
drie jaar lang click to hear 2 'for three years'
drie lange jaren click to hear 'three long years'
drie dagen geleden click to hear 2 'three days ago'
drie dagen lang click to hear 'for three days'
drie lange dagen click to hear 'three long days'

English still has this unexpected use of the singular on a smaller scale, in phrases like 'twenty-dollar bill' or 'nine-pound hammer' - when used as an adjective?
More - Metric and Imperial Units of Measurement Compared

Verb Tenses

Dutch uses the word tijd click to hear ('time') for the 'tenses' of the verb.
(de) tegenwoordige tijd click to hear 2 3 '(the) present tense'
(de) verleden tijd click to hear 2 3 4 '(the) past tense'
(de) voltooide tijd click to hear 2 3 '(the) perfect tense'
(het) voltooid deelwoord click to hear 'past participle'
de toekomende tijd click to hear 2 'the future tense'

- or with more precision (and examples)

onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd click to hear 2 ['unfinished present time'] 'simple (imperfect) present tense' >>
(ott click to hear)
ik heb click to hear I have >>
ik ben click to hear 2 I am >>
onvoltooid verleden tijd click to hear 2 ['unfinished past time'] 'simple (imperfect) past tense' ->>
(ovt click to hear)
ik had click to hear 2 I had ->>
ik was click to hear I was
voltooid tegenwoordige tijd click to hear 2 ['finished present time'] 'perfect present tense' ->>
(vtt click to hear)
ik heb gehad click to hear I have had
ik ben geweest click to hear I have been
voltooid verleden tijd click to hear 2 ['finished past time'] 'perfect past tense'
(vvt click to hear)
ik had gehad click to hear 2 I had had
ik was geweest click to hear 2 I had been

Verbs General - The Complete Conjugation of About 60 Dutch Verbs
- Smartphone Verbs Pages

Final Words

nawoord click to hear 2 afterword
nasmaak click to hear aftertaste
Ik heb meer tijd nodig click to hear 2 I need more time (to finish)

More Pages like this: Life - Change

More Phrases: The Most Basic Phrases - Weather - Food and Drink - Travel - Sleep - Various - Fun Things to Say
- The Senses - Jobs and Lines of Work - Speaking Dutch, Speaking about Dutch - Sayings and Idiom

Further Study: Basic Dutch Words - Pictures Dictionary - Easy Dutch - Lessons - Pronunciation - Listening - Reading - Grammar

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2014. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2
Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'