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~ Desktop/Tablet Versions of This Page: Lesson 11 ff - 'Word Order'

Dutch Word Order - Smartphones Page

Dutch basic word order is much the same as in English, but there are some complications in specialized sentences.

Adjectives and Nouns
Simple Sentences
Complements
Objects
Indirect Objects
Combining Objects and Complements
Questions
Secondary Verbs
Time and Place
Negative Statements
The Imperative
The Passive Voice
Query Words
Lines Starting with Place, Time, or a Condition
Problematic Sub-Sentences:

"Subordinate Clauses"

After 'Dat' ('that') Conjunction

The Position of The Active Verb

Splitting Verbs Re-Attaching

Adjectives

Adjectives are placed before their nouns:

adjective noun

openbaar vervoer click to hear public transportation
de vrije wereld click to hear 2 the free world
gelijke rechten click to hear equal rights

Adjectives very often have an -E ending. The most important exceptions are for 'het'-words after een ('a,') geen ('no, zero quantity') or no article, and adjectives ending in -EN.

het lange verhaal click to hear the long story
een lang verhaal click to hear a long story
(het) ijzeren ros click to hear "iron horse"
- bicycle (jocular)
more about adjectives - Grammar Terms

Simple Sentences: Subject and Verb

Very simple sentences are just like in English, the subject comes before the verb:

subject verb

Zij zingt click to hear She sings
Hij rookt click to hear 2 He smokes
De trein vertrok click to hear 2 The train left
Varkens knorren click to hear Pigs oink

In the simple present tense, English often uses the continuous; the Dutch continuous is less common.

De zon schijnt click to hear The sun [shines] is shining
't Regent click to hear It [rains] is raining

Adding a Complement

To make a statement more interesting and/or informative, add something like an adverb. Some grammarians call this part of the sentence a complement.

subject verb complement

't Regende hard click to hear It was raining hard
Hij is oud click to hear He is old
Zij zingt mooi click to hear She sings beautifully
't Water is koud click to hear The water is cold
De appels zijn groen click to hear The apples are green

Adding Objects

A sentence can be more meaningful when an object is added to the subject and verb.

subject verb object

Hij schopt de bal click to hear He kicks the ball
Ik hoor een vliegtuig click to hear I hear a plane
Zij leest een boek click to hear She is reading a book
Ik zei: "Nee." click to hear I said: "No."

The Indirect Object

Actually, there are two kinds of objects. The most common, and the one in the examples above, is called the 'direct object' in English, and in Dutch (sometimes fittingly) lijdend voorwerp click to hear ('suffering entity/object.')
The second class of objects is called the 'indirect object' in English, and meewerkend voorwerp click to hear ('cooperating entity/object') in Dutch. It's usually found in sentences with verbs like 'to give' (geven click to hear 2), 'to say' (zeggen click to
  hear) and 'to tell' (vertellen click to hear) that describe someone receiving something. Its usual position is right after the verb, before the direct object.

subject verb indirect object direct object

Jan geeft Piet een boek click to hear
Jan gives Piet a book

Ik geef Marietje bloemen click to hear
I'm giving flowers to Marietje

Het geeft de mensen hoop click to hear
It gives the people hope

Ik vertel je de waarheid click to hear
I'm telling you the truth

You can also put prepositions equivalent to English 'for' or 'to' with the indirect object - and then both Dutch and English place it after the direct object.

subject
verb
direct object
preposition with indirect object

Jan geeft een boek aan Piet click to hear
Jan gives a book to Piet

Ik geef bloemen aan Marietje click to hear
I'm giving flowers to Marietje

Zij zingen een lied voor mij click to hear 2
They are singing a song for me

Zeg 't niet tegen Piet click to hear 2
Don't [say it to] tell Piet

Combining Objects and Complements

If there is both a 'complement' and an object the object ususally comes first, right after the verb, like in English.

subject verb object complement

Hij schopt de bal hard click to hear
He kicks the ball hard

Ik kende die mensen goed click to hear 2
I knew those people well

Honger maakt rauwe bonen zoet click to hear 2 3
Hunger makes raw beans [taste] sweet

Hij verfde het huis snel click to hear 2
He quickly painted the house, he painted the house quickly

Hij verft het houten huis wit click to hear 2
He's painting the wooden house white

Unfortunately, sometimes the complement is placed before the object, and I don't see a pattern to formulate a rule. It may have to do with the article being definite or indefinite (de/the or een/a) but there seem to be exceptions. I can only offer the schrale troost click to hear 2 ['shallow consolation'] 'cold comfort' that the placement in English is also variable.

Je spreekt goed Nederlands click to hear 2
You speak Dutch well

Hij speelt heel goed gitaar click to hear 2
He plays the guitar very well

Hij drinkt snel een biertje click to hear 2
He is quickly drinking a beer, he quickly has a beer

Hij bedacht snel een smoesje click to hear 2 3
He quickly [thought up] made up an excuse

Hij vertelde ons snel een paar mopjes click to hear 2
He quickly told us a few jokes

Hij berekende het verschil snel click to hear 2
He calculated the difference quickly

Hij berekende snel het verschil click to hear 2
He quickly calculated the difference

There is a slight difference in meaning in the last two examples. 'Hij berekende het verschil snel' is a stand-alone remark indicating the subject is a clever or competent person; while 'Hij berekende snel het verschil' implies 'he' is in a hurry and you expect another statement on why the rush or what 'he' did next.
In the examples above, only the similar 'Hij verfde het huis snel' can be turned around like that and still be good Dutch.

Questions

Turn the verb and subject around to make a statement sentence into a question.

verb subject (object) (complement)

Het is te laat click to hear It's too late
Is het te laat? click to hear Is it too late?
Je bent boos click to hear 2 You are angry
Ben je boos? click to hear 2 3 Are you angry?

Talking with friends and acquaintances, you'll use the informal 'je' or 'jij.' Do note that in the present tense for the second person singular (informal) the T is dropped when the verb is placed before the personal pronoun:

je bent click to hear 2 you are
ben je? click to hear are you?

Ben je ziek? click to hear Are you sick?
Ben je bang? click to hear Are you afraid?
Was je moe? click to hear Were you tired?

In English, turning around verb and object for question mode only works for 'to be' - other verbs add 'to do' but in Dutch it works for all verbs.

Heb je hoofdpijn? click to hear 2 Do you have a headache?
Heb je honger? click to hear Are you hungry?
Heb je een auto? click to hear Do you have a car?
Verveel je je? click to hear Are you bored? >>
Ga jij? click to hear 2 [Go you?] Are you going? (like, to an event)

In speaking, the sentence melody changes to a higher pitch at the end:

Er is wat brood over. click to hear
There is some bread left.
Is er wat brood over? click to hear
Is there any bread left?
exaggerated:
Is er wat brood over? click to hear

Secondary Verbs at the End of the Sentence

Simple sentences have just one verb. It is called the 'working verb.' The 'working verb' changes with the subject: I am, you are, he is.
In Dutch, the verbs that are not the 'working verb,' like the past participle of the perfect tense, or other verb forms like infinitives are usually put at the end of the sentence.

subject
working verb
(object)
(complement)
other verbs

Ik heb teveel gegeten click to hear
I've eaten too much

Ik heb een nieuwe fiets gekocht click to hear
I've bought a new bicycle

Jan heeft Piet een boek gegeven click to hear
Jan has given Piet a book

Jan heeft een boek aan Piet gegeven click to hear 2
Jan has given a book to Piet

Heb je lekker gegeten? click to hear
Did you eat well, did you enjoy your meal?

Ben je van de trap gevallen? click to hear
Did you [fall off] fall down the stairs? (jocular remark about a very short haircut ->>)

Ben je wel eens in Denemarken geweest? click to hear
Have you ever been to Denmark?

Heeft 't gisteren geregend? click to
  hear
Did it rain yesterday?

Gaat 't regenen? click to hear
Is it going to rain?

Gaat 't morgen regenen? click to hear 2
Is it going to rain tomorrow?

Gaat 't morgen hard regenen? click to hear
Is it going to rain hard tomorrow?

Dutch sometimes has a string of verb infinitves at the end of sentences, often starting with 'modal' verbs expressing possibility or necessity, like kunnen click to hear 'can,' mogen click to hear 2 'may' and moeten click to hear 2 'should, must' - but Dutch also has other auxiliary verbs that come with infinitives, like for instance laten click to hear '~to let, allow' and gaan click to hear 'to go, going to' (Just some examples, I'll try to make a page about it sometime)

Ik wil gaan wandelen click to hear
I want to go [walking] for a walk

Ze wilde gaan zwemmen click to hear 2 3
She wanted to go swimming

Ik heb moeten leren improviseren click to hear 2
I've had to learn [to improvise] improvisation

Je kunt wel blijven eten click to hear 2 3
You may stay for dinner (or lunch)

Je kunt nog even blijven liggen click to hear slow
You can [remain lying down] stay in bed for a little longer

t Had erger kunnen zijn click to hear 2
It could have been worse

Ik heb een paar jaar pianoles gehad click to hear
I have had piano lessons for a [couple of] few years
Maar ik had beter gitaar kunnen leren spelen click to hear
But it would have been better to have learned [how] to play the guitar

Ik had geschiedenis moeten gaan studeren click to hear
I should have studied history (in college, at the university)

Ik had schrijver willen worden, maar ik ben spreker geworden click to hear
I wanted to be a writer, but I've become a speaker

Unlike in English, there is little difference between the simple past tense and the present perfect tense in Dutch.

Time and Place

Time and place are usually put right after the working verb, time usually before place. Occasionally, place is put after the secondary verbs: I'll give some examples of that but the regular sequence is just as good, don't see it as an extra rule.

subject
working verb
(indirect object)
(time)
(place)
(object)
(complement)
(secondary verbs)

Ik heb thuis gegeten click to hear
I [have eaten] had dinner at home

Ik was gisteren ziek click to hear
I was sick yesterday, Yesterday I was sick

Ik ga morgen bij m'n moeder eten click to hear
I'll have dinner at my mother's house tomorrow

Ik was gisteren bij de tandarts click to hear
I was at the dentist yesterday

Ik ga morgen naar de kapper click to hear
[I'm going to the barber tomorrow] Tomorrow I'll get a haircut

In sentences with secondary verbs, 'place' can also be put at the end of the line.

Het heeft gisteren in Nederland geregend click to hear
Yesterday it rained in Holland
Het heeft gisteren geregend in Nederland click to hear 2
Yesterday it rained in Holland

Ik ga overmorgen in Barneveld een schuur bouwen click to hear
The day after tomorrow I'm going to build a shed in Barneveld
Ik ga overmorgen een schuur bouwen in Barneveld click to hear
The day after tomorrow I'm going to build a shed in Barneveld

The Indirect Object:
Ik gaf Piet gisteren in Assen een cadeau click to hear 2
Yesterday I gave Piet a present in Assen
Ik gaf gisteren in Assen een cadeau aan Piet click to hear 2
Yesterday in Assen I gave a present to Piet

There is actually some freedom in the word order, but I recommend students to stick with the rules. Not every possible sequence is good Dutch, but the examples below are all O.K.

Ik heb gisteren in Assen een cadeau aan Piet gegeven click to hear 2
Ik heb gisteren in Assen een cadeau gegeven aan Piet click to hear 2
Yesterday in Assen I've given a present to Piet

Ik heb Piet gisteren in Assen een cadeau gegeven click to hear 2
Ik heb gisteren in Assen Piet een cadeau gegeven click to hear 2
Gisteren heb ik Piet in Assen een cadeau gegeven click to hear 2
Gisteren in Assen heb ik Piet een cadeau gegeven click to hear
'Yesterday in Assen I've given Piet a present'
- there are very small differences in emphasis, like in English

Negative Statements

It looks like the negative statements 'niet' click to hear 2 ('not') and 'geen' click to hear ('no, zero quantity') behave just like adverbs and adjectives; actually more straightforward than English 'no' and 'not'. ->> But do note that Dutch doesn't use the auxiliary verb 'to do,' and also note that you can't translate not and no as niet and geen every time, sometimes Dutch takes the other word or turns it around.

De zon schijnt niet click to hear
The sun is not shining

Ik ben niet ziek click to hear 2 3
I am not sick

Er is geen bewijs click to hear 2 3
There is no proof

Er zijn geen bergen in Nederland click to hear
There are no mountains in Holland

Ik heb geen hoofdpijn click to hear
I [have no headache] do not have a headache

Ik wil geen feest click to hear 2 3
[I want no party] I don't want a party

Je kon niet ver zien click to hear
[You couldn't see far] Visibility was low.

Ik heb nog niet gegeten. click to hear
I haven't eaten yet

Ik heb nog geen rollator click to hear
[I have no walker yet] I still don't have a walker

Ik heb nog niet gestemd click to hear
I didn't vote yet, I have not voted yet

Commands, Recommendations and Suggestions: The Imperative

In the imperative (commands, recommendations and suggestions) very much like in English, there is no subject and these sentences usually start with the verb.
The verb stem is the imperative - and it is almost always in the singular.

verb stem
(time)
(place)
(object)
(complement)
(other verbs)

Luister! click to hear 2 Listen!
Zwijg! click to hear 2 Be silent! (Don't speak! Shut up!)
Schiet op! click to hear 2 Hurry!

Haal diep adem click to hear 2
Take a deep breath

Neem de tweede weg rechts click to hear
Take the second road to the right

Schrijf je naam op een papiertje click to hear
Write down your name on a piece of paper

Kook de aardappels zeventien minuten click to hear
Boil the potatoes for 17 minutes

Doe geen domme dingen click to hear 2 3
[Do no stupid things] Don't do anything stupid

The rare plural imperative adds a T to the verb stem:

Zeg het voort click to hear 2
Zegt het voort click to hear 2
[Say it forth] - Pass on the message

Gaat heen en vermenigvuldigt U click to hear 2
Go forth and multiply [yourself]

The Passive Voice

Dutch uses the auxiliary verb worden click to hear 2 and a past participle for the passive voice. English uses 'to be' - but in Dutch, zijn click to hear the usual equivalent of 'to be' is the auxiliary verb for the perfect tense of some verbs. That can be quite confusing - more.
The 'agent' in the passive voice is indicated by 'by' in English and by door click to hear in Dutch. The 'agent' can be either be put before or after the past participle. It might be easier for foreign students to follow the general rule and put the agent before the past participle.

Het huis werd door een raket getroffen click to hear
The house was hit by a rocket

Ik word geschopt door Jan click to hear
I am kicked by John

Query Words

Wie? click to hear 2
Who?
Wat? click to hear
What?
Waar? click to hear
Where?
Wanneer? click to hear
When?
Hoe? click to hear
How?
Waarom? click to hear 2
Why?

Wie is de mooiste in het land? click to hear
Who is the prettiest in the land?
Sneeuwwitje is de mooiste in het land click to hear
Snow White is the prettiest in the land

Wat zegt U? click to hear 2
What [do] did you say? (polite 'you')

Waar is de uitgang? click to hear
Where is the exit?
Hier is de ingang click to hear
The entrance is here
De uitgang is daar click to hear
The exit is (over) there

Waar heeft U die tas gekocht? click to hear 2
Where did you buy that bag?

Wanneer kom je thuis? click to hear
When are you coming home?

Wanneer heb je voor het laatst een brief geschreven? click to hear
When was the last time you wrote a letter?

Hoe is het weer? click to hear 2
How is the weather? ->>

Waarom ben je boos? click to hear
Why are you angry?

Waarom zijn de bananen krom? click to hear 2
Why are bananas not straight? (a rhetorical question)

In other contexts, the query words can have other meanings. See for instance the Disambiguation 'Waar' and Disambiguation 'Wat' pages.

Sentences Starting with Place, Time, or a Condition

After a statement of place or time or a condition, the verb is placed before the subject. In English the word order doesn't change in sentences of this kind.

Het is vaak bewolkt in Nederland click to hear
It's often overcast in Holland
In Nederland is het vaak bewolkt click to hear
In Holland it's often overcast

Nederland werd een koninkrijk in 1813 click to hear
Holland became a kingdom in 1813.
In 1813 werd Nederland een koninkrijk click to hear
In 1813 Holland became a kingdom

De Tachtigjarige Oorlog begon in 1568 click to hear
The 80-Years War (The Dutch Revolt) started in 1568
In 1568 begon De Tachtigjarige Oorlog click to hear
In 1568 the 80-Years War started

Je moet stil zijn click to hear
You have to be quiet
Als de muziek begint moet je stil zijn click to hear
When the music starts you'll have to be quiet

Ik ben blij click to hear
I'm happy
Als de zon schijnt ben ik blij click to hear
When the sun shines I'm happy

Ik word droevig click to hear
I'm getting sad
Als het regent word ik droevig click to hear
When it rains I get sad

We gingen naar de nachtmis met Kerstmis click to hear
We went to midnight mass at Christmas
Met Kerstmis gingen we naar de nachtmis click to hear
At Christmas we went to the midnight mass

Problematic Sub-Sentences ("Subordinate Clauses")

The 'condition' at the start of a sentence can be just a preposition with a noun, possibly with an adjective - but as already shown above, it can also be a 'sub-sentence' with a verb and subject.

M'n vader was tweeëndertig toen de oorlog begon click to hear
My Dad was 32 when the war started
Toen de oorlog begon was m'n vader tweeëndertig click to hear
When the war started, my Dad was 32

Simple 'condition' sub-sentences with just a subject and a verb follow the regular word order, but when an object and/or a complement are added, those are placed between the subject and the verb. To Dutch people this is entirely logical because isn't that the most important information?

The word order in a conditional sub-sentence:

condition word
subject
(complement)
(object)
working verb / (other verbs)

Ik eet vis click to hear 2
I'm [eating] having fish
Je moet wat drinken click to hear 2
You should drink something
Als je vis eet moet je ook wat drinken click to hear 2
When you're having fish, you should also have something to drink

Het werd donker click to hear
It [became] turned dark
Toen het donker werd gingen we naar huis click to hear
When it got dark we went home.
We gingen naar huis toen het donker werd click to hear 2
We went home when it got dark

Het licht werd groen en we reden weg click to hear 2
The light turned green and we drove off
Toen het licht groen werd reden we weg click to hear 2
When the light turned green we drove off
- The example shows a way to avoid the problematic sentence structure.

Het is donker click to hear 2
It is dark
Is het donker? click to hear 2
Is it dark?
's Nachts is het donker click to hear 2
At night it is dark
Als het donker is ... click to hear
When it is dark ...

Hij deed het werk snel click to hear 2 3
He [did] finished the work (the job) quickly
Als je het werk snel doet krijg je meer geld click to hear 2 3
When you do the work quickly you'll get more money

The 'condition' sub-sentences usually start with words like

als click to hear
if, when >>
omdat click to hear
because >>
daar click to hear
because >>
waar click to hear
where >>
hoe click to hear
how
wat click to hear
what >>
alsof click to hear
as if ->>
wie click to hear 2
(he/she) who
voordat click to hear 2 3
before
nadat click to hear 2 3
after

Ik begrijp 't niet click to hear
I don't understand it (the how or why)
Omdat ik 't niet begreep click to hear 2 3
Because I didn't understand it

Ik ben Nederlands in hart en nieren click to hear 2 3
[I am Dutch in heart and kidneys] I am a Dutchman through and through
Omdat ik Nederlands ben click to hear
Because I am Dutch

De plaats waar ik vandaan kom click to hear
The [place] town where I'm from - My Home Town

Alsof er geen grotere problemen in de wereld zijn click to hear
As if there are no [bigger] more serious problems in the world

Alsof ik met m'n ogen dicht achteruit liep click to hear 2 3
As if I was walking backward with (my) eyes closed

Wie zonder zonden is werpe de eerste steen click to hear
'Let him who is without sin throw the first stone' (Jesus addressing the people who want to stone an adulterous woman - John 8:7 - 'werpe' is an old-fashioned imperative)

Voordat 't koud wordt click to hear
Before it gets cold

Snij(d) de tomaten terwijl je de champignons bakt click to hear
Cut up the tomatoes while you're baking the mushrooms

Most of the 'condition' words can also be query words, but the word order in the sub-sentence is not the same as in questions:

Wie is hij? click to hear 2
Who is he?
Weet jij wie hij is? click to hear
Do you know who he is?

Waar haalt Abraham de mosterd? click to hear 2
Where does Abraham get mustard?
Hij weet waar Abraham de mosterd haalt click to hear 2
'He knows where Abraham gets mustard' - said of a knowledgeable person, but it can also be said ironically of a not-too-bright person

'Dat' ('that') Conjunction Sub-Sentences

When 'dat' click to hear ('that') is used as a conjuction (say that, think that, hope that etc.) the subsentence after it also puts the object and complement before the active verb. >>

Ze zeggen dat er niet genoeg tijd is click to hear
They say there's not enough time

Men zegt dat in Kentucky het gras blauw is click to hear 2
It is said that the grass is blue in Kentucky

Kan 't zijn dat ik U ken? click to hear
Could it be that I know you? (Have we met before?)

Zeg dat 't niet zo is! click to hear
Say it ain't so!

Ik had kunnen weten dat 't slecht zou aflopen click to hear 2 3
I could have known that it would end badly

Denk eraan dat de zomertijd dit weekend ingaat click to hear
Keep in mind that the Daylight Saving Time starts this weekend

Hij zei dat ik het aan Jan moest geven click to hear 2 3
He said that I should give it to Jan, he told me to give it to Jan

The Position of The Active Verb

When the secondary verbs in a 'condition sub-sentence' are infinitives, the 'active verb' comes before them. It may look unusual with a object and/or complement between the object and the working verb but it is according to the common rules

condition word or 'dat' (that)
subject
(complement)
(object)
working verb
(other verbs)

Het weerbericht zegt dat het morgen gaat regenen click to hear
The weather report says it's going to rain tomorrow

Ik denk niet dat hij naar ons had willen luisteren click to hear 2
I don't think he would have [wanted to listen] listened to us

Er is geen reden waarom hij niet zou kunnen winnen click to hear
There's no reason why he [shouldn't be able to] couldn't win

Unexplained Exception:
Als ik dat vragen mag click to hear
If I may ask [that]

If there is a past participle in sentences of this kind, I usually place the working verb after it, at the end of the (sub)sentence, but it is not wrong to follow the general rule and place the working verb before the past participle.

Ik ben blij dat je gekomen bent click to hear 2 3
I'm glad that you have come

Zoals ik je misschien wel eens verteld heb ... click to hear 2 3
As I may have told you sometime ...

Ik wil precies weten wat er gebeurd is click to hear 2 3
I want to know exactly what happened

Ik ben blij dat je voor het examen geslaagd bent click to hear 2
I'm glad you passed the test

Ik was kwaad omdat ik weer voor m'n rijexamen gezakt was click to hear 2
I was angry because I had failed the driving test again

Ik zag op het nieuws dat er geen oplossing gevonden is click to hear
I saw in the news that no solution has been found

Ik ben blij dat het goed is afgelopen click to hear
I'm glad it ended well - endings

Splitting Verbs Re-Attaching

Some Dutch compound verbs split up in the simple tenses, for instance this strong verb:

weggaan to leave ['go away']
ik ga weg I'm leaving
ik ging weg I left
ik ben weggegaan I have left
click to hear - more

Now it gets weird ... similar to the complement moving from the end of the sentence to between the subject and the verb in the 'condition' and 'dat' sub-sentences, the preposition part of splitting compound verbs also moves to in front of the main verb part, and then re-attaches:

Ga je weg? click to hear 2
Are you leaving?
Je gaat weg click to hear 2
You are leaving
Doe je het licht uit als je weggaat? click to hear
Will you turn off the light when you leave?

De zon ging onder click to hear 2 3
The sun went down
Het werd donker click to hear
It [became] got dark
Toen de zon onderging werd het donker click to hear
When the sun went down it got dark
Ze gingen weg toen de zon onderging click to hear 2
They left when the sun went down

De bliksem sloeg in click to hear 2
Lightning hit
Toen de bliksem insloeg ging het licht uit click to hear 2
When lightning hit, the light went out
Ik zag de sterren click to hear
I saw the stars
Toen het licht uitging zag ik de sterren click to hear 2
When the light went out I saw the stars
Toen ik de sterren zag, begreep ik ... click to hear 2
When I saw the stars, I understood ...

't Zit ons niet mee click to hear 2 3
It's not going well, we're having a lot of trouble, luck seems against us
Als 't meezit ... click to hear 2
If things go well, if we're lucky ...
Als 't meezit is 't morgen klaar click to hear
If things go well it will be ready tomorrow

De verwachte groei bleef uit click to hear 2 3
The expected growth didn't happen
De fabriek werd weer gesloten click to hear 2
The factory was closed (again)
Daar de verwachte groei uitbleef, werd de fabriek weer gesloten click to hear 2
Because the expected growth didn't materialize the factory was closed (again)

De zon komt op click to hear 2
The sun is rising
Het was alsof de zon om middernacht opkwam click to hear
It was as if the sun came up at midnight

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Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'