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Medieval

The Middle Ages

De Middeleeuwen click to hear 2 (ca. 500-1500 AD)

Medieval

Middeleeuws click to hear 2
de / het / 't click to hear
de click to hear het click to hear 't click to hear
(the)
een, 'n click to hear (a)
één click to hear (one)
>>
emperor (de) keizer click to hear
king (de) koning click to hear
crown (de) kroon click to hear
throne (de) troon click to hear
prince
princess
(de) prins click to hear
(de) prinses click to hear
noble/nobles (de) edelman / edelen click to hear
nobility de adel click to hear
feudal feodaal click to hear
duke
duke/dukes
(de) hertog click to hear
hertog/hertogen click to hear 2
count
plural: counts
(de) graaf click to hear
graven click to hear
squire (low nobility) (de) jonker click to hear 2
a noble lady (de) jonkvrouw click to hear
knight (de) ridder click to hear
horse (het) paard click to hear 2
knight's servant (de) page (Fr.) click to hear
(de) schildknaap click to hear 2
jousting tournament (het) tournooi click to hear 2
troubadour (de) minstreel click to hear 2
court jester (de) hofnar click to hear 2
taster (de) voorproever click to hear
cupbearer (de) schenker click to hear * ->>
wet nurse (de) min click to hear

castle (het) kasteel click to hear 2
tower (de) toren click to hear
moat (de) gracht click to hear
drawbridge (de) ophaalbrug click to hear 2
city
cities
(de) stad click to hear
steden click to hear
city walls (de) stadsmuren click to hear 2
or: (de) stadswallen click to hear
city gate (de) stadspoort click to hear
(the) guilds (de) gilden click to hear 2

[battlements, crenelations]
kantelen click to hear (note that the
stress is on the second syllable)
The Dutch word (de) knecht click to hear 2 means (male) 'servant' - interesting how a word had different development in the two languages. Also note that in Dutch K before N is pronounced.
The Dutch word (de) keizer click to hear ('emperor') comes from the Latin name and title 'Caesar.'
(De) keizersnede click to hear 2 3 ['caesarean section'] - 'caesarean' - Julius Caesar may have come into the world that way.
Yonkers, New York got its name from a Dutch jonker click to hear 2 ('squire')

In the early Middle ages till about the Crusades there were next to the free 'vrijen' click to hear 2 3 two lower classes of people: lijfeigenen click to hear 2 and horigen click to hear 2 (singular: (de) horige click to hear 2)
The lijfeigenen were like slaves (Dutch: (de) slaaf click to hear 2 / slaven click to hear 2) though they had some 'right' to marry. Originally they were probably captives and vanquished enemies from the wars between tribes.
De horigen 'serfs' were 'bound to the soil,' peasants who in lawless times had sought out powerful lords (or monastries) for protection and paid them with part of their harvest and work. They could not be sold but could be passed on with the land to new masters and were not allowed to just leave.

Arms, Weapons

wapens click to hear 2 singular (het) wapen click to hear ('weapon')
club (de) knuppel click to hear
spiked club (de) blijde click to hear 2
spiked heavy club (de) goedendag click to hear
spear (de) speer click to hear 2
axe (de) bijl click to hear
battle-axe (de) strijdbijl click to hear 2
halberd (de) hellebaard click to hear 2
arrow (de) pijl click to hear 2
bow (de) boog click to hear
[arrow and bow]
bow and arrow
pijl en boog click to hear
crossbow (de) kruisboog click to hear
sword (het) zwaard click to hear
shield (het) schild click to hear 2
lance (de) lans click to hear 2
light sword (de) degen click to hear
dagger (de) dolk click to hear 2
a suit of armor (het) harnas click to hear
mail (armor) (de) maliën click to hear
coat of mail (de) maliënkolder click to hear 2
archer (de) boogschutter click to hear 2
horseman (de) ruiter click to hear 2
foot soldiers (het) voetvolk click to hear 2
army (het) leger click to hear
a battle of armies (de) veldslag click to hear 2
battlefield (het) slagveld click to hear 2
catapult (de) katapult click to hear 2
[chess pieces]
schaken click to hear >>

One of stone-age man's first weapons must have been the (de) vuistbijl click to hear (['fist-axe'] 'hand axe' - 'celt'?) - a rock with a sharp point held in the hand. Clubs and spears have also been found in Stone Age digs. Swords and shields were developed in antiquity; the Germanic tribes already had swords and shields before they came into contact with the Romans.
English 'catapult' is both the large medieval siege machine, precursor of the cannon (het) kanon click to hear and a contraption that helps launch airplanes from ships; Dutch 'katapult' click to hear 2 is also the handheld Y-shaped device with a rubber band used by teenagers and violent 'protestors' to shoot projectiles - 'slingshot' in English. The sling as used by David against Goliath is called (de) slinger click to hear 2 in Dutch.

Karel de Grote click to hear 2 Charlemagne
Pepijn de Korte click to hear 2 Pippin the Short
Lodewijk de Vrome click to hear 2 Louis the Pious
Karel de Kale click to hear Charles the Bald
de Kruistochten click to hear 2 (the Crusades) - Godfried van Bouillon click to hear 2 3 (Godfrey of Bouillon - like in English, Dutch (de) bouillon click to hear 2 also means 'soup stock, broth') - Richard Leeuwenhart click to hear 2 3 (Richard the Lionheart) - of course the Crusades were wrong, but wasn't it equally wrong or even more wrong how the Arab Muslims came to occupy the Holy Land and other parts of the world? Was that a 'lawful occupation'?
De Guldensporenslag click to hear 'the Battle of the [Golden] Spurs' - Flemish citizen militia (guilds, workers, and peasants) defeated the French army near Brugge click to hear (Bruges) in 1302 - after the battle hundreds of golden spurs were collected from the French noblemen fallen on the battlefield. The supporters of an independent Flanders were called the Clauwaerts (Klauwaards) click to hear 2 after the claw - (de) klauw click to hear 2 - of the Flemish lion, and those in favor of French rule were called the Leliaerts (Leliaards) click to hear 2 after the French lily - (de) lelie click to hear. The Clauwaerts used the shibboleth 'schild en vriend' click to hear 2 to distinguish friend from foe. French-speakers have difficulty with sounds like Dutch 'short I' and SCH.
De Pest click to hear 2 - the (bubonic) Plague epidemic that killed 30% of the European population ca 1350
Wiegedrukken click to hear 2 'incunables' - the first printed books (Dutch (de) wieg click to hear 2 means 'cradle')
Hoeken click to hear 2 and Kabeljauwen click to hear 2 ('cods') were late-Medieval warring factions.
De Hoekse en Kabeljauwse Twisten click to hear (their fights)
Late Medieval warring factions in the North of The Netherlands: Schieringers click to hear and Vetkopers click to hear
Jacoba van Beieren click to hear 2 Jacoba of Bavaria *
Bourgondië click to hear 2 Burgundy
Jan zonder Vrees click to hear 2 John the Fearless
Filips de Goede click to hear 2 3 Philip the Good
Karel de Stoute * click to hear Charles the Bold
Filips de Schone click to hear 2 3 Philip the Fair
By clever marriages, other rulers' lack of heirs and wars, in the early 1400s most of present-day Holland and Belgium passed on to the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy. The Dutch word Bargoens click to hear 2 ('slang') may be a corruption of the Dutch word for 'Burgundian' - the strange language of the new officials.
(Het) bolwerk click to hear 2 'stronghold' (think of: 'bulwark') - also figuratively
(De) ruwaard click to hear a regent, guardian who rules during the absence of the ruler
(De) baljuw click to hear 2 medieval city official - bailiff?
(Het) beleg click to hear 'siege' of a city or castle (also: 'bread covering, sandwich filling') - (de) staat van beleg click to hear 2 ('state of siege' - the emergency situation where martial law is declared etc.)
(Het) ontzet click to hear 2 'lifting of a siege.' - Leidens ontzet click to hear the lifting of the Spanish siege of Leyden (1574)
Kokende olie click to hear was poured from the top of the walls of a besieged fortress or city on enemy soldiers that tried to scale those walls. 'Boiling oil,' not 'cooking oil.'
Kinderkopjes click to hear 2 ['children's heads'] cobblestones, the old street pavement
Dutch (de) boog click to hear is both the weapon 'bow' and the building feature 'arch.' The 'bow' that a person takes as a sign of respect is (de) buiging click to hear 2; the 'bow' to play a violin and similar instruments is called (de) strijkstok click to hear - and the 'bow' with loops that ties shoelaces etc. is (de) strik click to hear (English 'bow' is pronounced in various ways.)
The guilds (gilden click to hear 2) were Medieval organisations of craftsmen, tradesmen and traders. A young man would start as an apprentice (leerling click to hear 2) - after a few years of good work become a journeyman (gezel click to hear *) - and finally a 'master' (meester click to hear ) after successful completion of a 'master's test' (meesterproef click to hear 2 /or/ proeve van bekwaamheid click to hear 2 "proof, proving of ability")
Many Dutch cities had a mostly ceremonial militia called (de) schutterij click to hear 2 - Rembrandt's >> famous painting de Nachtwacht click to hear 2 ('the Night Watch') is a portrait of the Amsterdam militia of the early 1640s. The militia meeting place was called de doelen click to hear - originally the militia's shooting range, but later more a community center or an inn than a military headquarters - (het) doel click to hear ('target'.)
From the late Middle Ages until the French occupation at the end of the 18th Century, the Schout en Schepenen click to hear were a combined city police force and court of justice. (De) schout click to hear 2 (the person in charge) - (de) schepenen click to hear (his chief officers) - singular (de) schepen click to hear - which is a funny word to Dutchmen, because it also is the plural of (het) schip click to hear ('ship.')
Johan Huizinga click to hear 2 'Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen' click to hear 2 'The [Autumn Ebb Tide] Waning of the Middle Ages' - a famous 1919 book about the atmosphere and mindset of the late Middle Ages in France and The Low Countries
De Oudheid click to hear ('Antiquity') - de Steentijd click to hear 2 ('the Stone Age') - (de) Bronstijd click to hear ('(the) Bronze Age' - (de) bronsttijd (with the same pronunciation) is 'mating season.')
(de) IJzertijd click to hear ('Iron Age')

See also: The Military and Fairy Tales
Dutch History: The Anthem - The Dutch Revolt (1568-1648) - Chatham (The Anglo-Dutch Sea Wars) - Simon Stevin (the Dutch Names for the Sciences)
Polders (Land Reclamation) - The Large Water Projects - Elections, Political Parties and Government - Wageningen (My Home Town)

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2