[The Face of Dutch]
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DUTCH PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING

(De) uitspraak click to hear ('pronunciation')
This is a reference page for looking up the pronunciation of Dutch words and names, or just to hear the simple beauty of Dutch. For learning the sounds and spelling of Dutch I recommend these pages:
1. vowels - klinkers click to hear
a, e, i, o, u

2. diphthongs - tweeklanken click to hear
au, ei, eu, ij, oe, ou, ui

3. long and short vowels - 2
a/aa - e/ee - i/ie - o/oo - u/uu

4. 'voiceless E' - 2
click to hear 'schwa'

5. consonants - 2 - medeklinkers click to hear
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x z

6. exceptions and irregularities - 2

vowels and diphthongs compared
hear side-by-side
Slow Dutch - Vowels before R
Final N - L - W - Regional G
Exercises:
Pronunciation - 2 - Listening
Another approach: Easy Dutch - Recognizable Words
Dutch 'Long' and 'Short' Vowels
Hear: la click to hear - laat click to hear - lat click to hear - laten click to hear - latten click to hear // ha click to hear - haak click to hear - hak click to hear - haken click to hear - hakken click to hear
Dutch vowels can be 'long' or 'short.' It's a traditional name - the difference is actually more a matter of tone than of length.
Double vowels are always long: maan click to hear - slaap click to hear - but single vowels can be long or short: hel click to hear - hele click to hear Diphthongs are always long.
Usually, a single vowel is short when followed by more than one consonant, or by a single consonant that's the end of a word: man click to hear - mannen click to hear - hart click to hear - harten click to hear - slap click to hear - slappe click to hear - slapte click to hear
A single vowel is usually long when followed by one consonant and another vowel; a single vowel at the end of a word (except E) is also long: manen click to hear - ma click to hear - slapen click to hear - sla click to hear - but 'voiceless E' is a problematic exception to this rule (see under E below.)
Double consonants are pronounced just like a single consonant; they're double just to show that a single vowel before them is short. At regular speaking speed, the single and double N's in manen click to hear and mannen click to hear sound exactly alike. - grote click to hear - grootte click to hear - grotten click to hear // als click to hear - alles click to hear // lade click to hear - ik laadde click to hear // Babel click to hear - babbel click to hear
Compound words: in combinations of words, vowels usually keep their original pronunciation: slablaadje click to hear
When consonants double up it sounds like a single consonant: griepprik click to hear
A single consonant usually goes to the second syllable: bloem click to hear 2 - bloemist click to hear (blue mist?)
Knowing Dutch vocabulary will help you to recognize the parts of compound words.
It's of course not possible to list all foreign words used in Dutch that don't follow our spelling rules.
First Spelling Words at School - Traditional

[the old-style image used in the schools
 with pictures explaining the words]

aap noot Mies Wim zus Jet click to hear 2
Teun vuur Gijs lam Kees bok click to hear
weide Does hok duif schapen click to hear 2
click to hear

aap click to hear 2 noot click to hear 2 Mies click to hear 2 Wim click to hear zus click to hear Jet click to hear Teun click to hear 2 vuur click to hear 2 Gijs click to hear 2 lam click to hear Kees click to hear 2 bok click to hear 2 weide click to hear 2 Does click to hear hok click to hear 2 duif click to hear 2 schapen click to hear 2

Spelling Words Modern
ik maan roos vis
sok pen teen buik neus
oog aap doos poes eet
click to hear
koek ijs zeep huis hek
weg bos tak hut reus
jas riem bijl hout vuur
geit uil pauw duif ei
click to hear
ik click to hear maan click to hear 2 roos click to hear 2 vis click to hear sok click to hear pen click to hear teen click to hear buik click to hear neus click to hear oog click to hear aap click to hear 2 doos click to hear poes click to hear eet click to hear 2 koek click to hear 2 ijs click to hear zeep click to hear huis click to hear 2 hek click to hear weg click to hear bos click to hear tak click to hear hut click to hear reus click to hear jas click to hear riem click to hear bijl click to hear hout click to hear vuur click to hear 2 geit click to hear 2 uil click to hear 2 pauw click to hear 2 duif click to hear 2 ei click to hear 2

The words in bold are more common ('Basic Dutch.')
All examples translated on a separate page - or hold your mouse over a Dutch word or phrase to see a rough translation.

A-short click to hear the tone of A in English STAR but shorter - hear Dutch: star click to hear
af click to hear - al click to hear - acht click to hear - akker click to hear - hart click to hear - man click to hear 2 - pak click to hear - slap click to hear - strak click to hear 2 - tak click to hear - van click to hear 2
vlam click to hear - wat click to hear - want click to hear 2 - zak click to hear - Mars click to hear - stal click to hear 2 - harnas click to hear - asbak click to hear - gasvlam click to hear
afwas click to hear - grashark click to hear - grapjas click to hear 2 - van de hand in de tand leven click to hear - bepakt en bezakt click to hear
A-long click to hear like A in CHICAGO - hear: Robert Johnson - Paul Butterfield - Barry Goldberg - hear Dutch: ka click to hear 2 - Kaag click to hear
aan click to hear - ja click to hear - na click to hear - maan click to hear 2 - naar click to hear - paar click to hear 2 - zaag click to hear 2 - laag click to hear - lager click to hear - graan click to hear 2 3
slaap click to hear 2 - staan click to hear - water click to hear 2 - maart click to hear - Maas click to hear - ma click to hear - vaan click to hear - vaarwater click to hear - aardstraal click to hear 2
raar maar waar click to hear 2 - water naar de zee dragen click to hear 2 - een aardje naar z'n vaartje click to hear 2 - maart roert z'n staart click to hear 2
exception: 'aa' in sinaasappel click to hear is often said as short A: "sinAsappel" click to hear - originally it was something like 'China-apple,' but over the centuries the long A wore down. sinaasappels click to hear - sinaasappelschillen click to hear - sinaasappelpers click to hear - een glas sinaasappelsap click to hear
Compare Compare short and long A: al as man vak click to hear - aal aas maan vaak click to hear // lat tal pad click to hear - laat la taal paden click to hear
as click to hear 2 - aas click to hear // wal click to hear - Waal click to hear // nar click to hear - naar click to hear // padden click to hear - paden click to hear
unexpected
short A

Rather often, you'll find a short A at the beginning of a word where it should be long according to the general spelling rules (followed by one consonant and another vowel.) In these cases, the stress of the word is usually on the other vowel:
fabriek * click to hear 2 - familie click to hear - kanon click to hear - katoen click to hear - kwaliteit click to hear 2 - manier click to hear - papier click to hear 2 - paraplu click to hear
azijn click to hear - Arabier click to hear - fazant click to hear - lawaai click to hear 2 - kabaal click to hear 2 - kanaal click to hear - kapot click to hear - tapijt click to hear - april click to hear
kapel click to hear - compare with 'regular:' kabel click to hear - adem click to hear - kamer click to hear - avond click to hear - averij click to hear - alimentatie click to hear
English A's baby click to hear - tank click to hear - manager click to hear (English G) - tram click to hear - flat click to hear - flatje click to hear - flats click to hear
ae In a few words of Latin origin AE is said as Dutch long E, English A as in FACE: praeses / quaestor click to
  hear - laesie click to hear 2
but in old Dutch names AE is said as long A: Kersemaeker click to hear / click to hear (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
aai, ai after A and AA, I is pronounced as consonant Y:
maïs click to hear - Thai click to hear - Thais click to hear - Thailand click to hear - pais en vree click to hear (to me, Dutch AI sounds very similar to English 'I')
saai click to hear - taai click to hear - kraai click to hear 2 - haai click to hear - vlaai click to hear - fraai fraaie fraaier fraais click to
  hear - lichterlaaie click to hear
French aie As in the original French: portemonnaie click to hear
French ail As in the original French: detail click to hear - failliet click to hear 2 - medaille click to hear 2 - braille click to hear - taille click to hear 2 - wespentaille click to hear
French air As in the original French: militair click to hear - ordinair click to hear 2 - vulgair click to hear 2 - populair click to hear 2 - documentaire click to hear
ao A and O cannot be connected. There is a short vocal stop between them: aorta click to hear - chaotisch click to hear - Laos click to hear
AU (= OU) click to hear like OU in LOUD, OW in NOW - hear Dutch: nauw click to hear
blauw click to hear - au! click to hear - dauw click to hear - gauw click to hear - rauw click to hear - grauw click to hear - klauw click to hear 2 - pauw click to hear - flauw click to hear - paus click to hear
nauwelijks click to hear 2 - nauwkeurig click to hear - wenkbrauw click to hear - pauken click to hear - augustus click to hear
Aukje click to hear - Paulus click to hear - Kenau click to hear - Maurits click to hear 2 - blauwe houweel click to hear
French au Like Dutch long O: auto click to hear - automatisch click to hear - aubergine click to hear 2
Some people say words like these with a Dutch AU: auto click to
  hear but to me that doesn't sound nice (some of my relatives say automaat click to hear and autochtoon click to hear but I don't like it) - the ugly automatiek click to hear 2 is acceptable
B bel click to hear - been click to hear - berg click to hear - bus click to hear - boos click to hear - bloed click to hear - bord click to hear - brood click to hear - bas click to hear - baars click to hear 2 - baan click to hear
boon click to hear - laboratorium click to hear - Babel click to hear - babbel click to hear - dobbelen click to hear - dubbel click to hear - bibberen click to hear - ambitie click to hear
bolleboos click to hear 2 - bullebak click to hear - bubbelbad click to hear - binnenstebuiten click to hear 2 - blauwe boon click to hear 2 - bar en boos click to hear 2 3
bont en blauw click to hear - zonder blikken of blozen click to hear 2 - geen boe of bah click to hear 2 - buiten z'n boekje click to hear 2 - baas boven baas click to hear
MBT: B is dropped between M and T: ambtenaar click to hear - beambte click to hear - ambt click to hear - ambtelijk click to hear 2
end-of-word B
end-of-word B is pronounced as P - also in parts of compound words
Compare: lab click to hear - lap click to hear // eb click to hear 2 - step click to hear 2 // Job click to hear - Bob click to hear - stop click to hear 2 // hebben click to hear - ik heb click to hear
hebzucht click to hear - ebstroom click to hear // labjas click to hear - lapjes click to hear
B before T is also pronounced as P: jij hebt click to hear - jij mept click to hear - jij hapt click to hear
Compare Compare B and P: jij klopt click to hear - baard paard brak prak click to hear 2
slab slap slabben slappe click to
   hear - lip lippen rib ribben click to
   hear - dubbel doppen click to hear 2
C
C is pronounced either as K or as S, like in similar English words.
- K: before A, O, U and consonants:
bioscoop click to hear - camera click to hear - commissie click to hear - compleet click to hear - concurrentie click to hear - contact click to hear - contract click to hear
correct click to hear - democratie click to hear - respect click to hear - seconde click to hear 2 - structuur click to hear - conflict click to hear - acteur click to hear 2
code click to hear - collega click to hear - combinatie click to hear 2 - cultuur click to hear
- S: before E, I, IJ and Y:
cijfer click to hear - cirkel click to hear - precies click to hear - proces click to hear - centrum click to hear - centraal click to hear - recept click to hear 2 - cyanide click to hear - narcissen click to hear
cel click to hear 2 - citroenen click to hear - fascinerend click to hear - centimeter click to hear - decimeter click to hear - decibel click to hear
K/S: gecompliceerd click to hear - concert click to hear - actrice click to hear - concept concert cycloon cyclus click to hear
Notice the pronunciation change in these Latin-like plurals: politicus / politici click to hear 2 - criticus / critici click to hear 2
Some rebellious Dutchmen write K's or S's instead of C's: aksent sukses click to
     hear ('accent succes' - French U)
CH (= G) click to hear "A sound like you clear your throat." There is no sound like it in English, but it is like J in European Spanish, and a similar sound is found in Hebrew.
chaos click to hear - cholera click to hear - chroom click to hear - chrysanten click to hear - echo click to hear - lach click to hear - toch click to hear 2 - nacht click to hear dicht click to hear - lucht click to hear
rechts click to hear - rechter click to hear - lichaam click to hear - echt click to hear - tocht click to hear 2 - ochtend click to hear - huichelaar click to hear - huichelachtig click to hear
lichtgewicht click to hear 2 - tachtig click to hear - "achtentachtig prachtige grachten" click to hear 2 ('88 wonderful canals')
A single vowel followed by CH is always short.
Dutch CH and G do not sound exactly the same, but the difference is very small and foreign students shouldn't worry about it. lachen click to hear 2 - vlaggen click to hear 2
See also under G for regional variation in G and CH pronunciation
CH in -ISCH
ending
CH in the -ISCH ending is not pronounced (and the I is a long Dutch I, pronounced as EE): as English EES:
logisch click to hear - chronisch click to hear - main examples under -ISCH
CH in SCHR CH in SCHR is not pronounced: schraal click to hear 2 - schreien click to hear - schrijver click to hear - main examples under SCHR-
French CH Several words from French have kept the French CH: charme click to hear - charmant click to hear - cheque click to hear - chirurg click to hear - chocola click to hear
machine click to hear 2 - manchet click to hear - manchetknopen click to hear - broche click to hear - douche click to hear (also French OU)
Christus Most Dutchmen say a K for the CH in Christus click to hear and related names and words: christelijk click to hear - Christien click to hear - Chris click to hear
but there is a small group that says these words and names with Dutch CH: christelijk click to hear
D de click to hear 2 - dat click to hear - door click to hear - dom click to hear - dus click to hear - donder click to hear - bedden click to hear - gedrag click to hear - woorden click to hear - kelder click to hear 2
handel click to hear 2 - Daan click to hear - dan click to hear - adder click to hear - dubbeldekker click to hear 2 - doordouwer click to hear - middagdutje click to hear 2
dadendrang click to hear 2 - door dik en dun click to hear - voor dag en dauw click to hear - dubbel en dwars click to hear 2 - dertien in een dozijn click to hear 2
end-of-word D
D at the end of a word is pronounced as T: draad click to hear - paard click to hear 2 - naald click to hear - dood click to hear - strand click to hear - zand click to hear 2
compare: bad click to hear - gat click to hear // bed click to hear 2 - pet click to hear // lood click to hear 2 - boot click to hear 2 // luid click to hear - luit click to hear 2 // vod click to hear - slot click to hear
Final D is pronounced as D when a word gets voiceless-E endings -e, -el, -er, -en, -ig or the -in and -ing endings:
oud oude click to hear // daad click to hear - daden click to hear // tijd click to hear - tijden click to hear // goud click to hear - gouden click to hear // brand click to hear - branden click to hear
tand click to hear - tanden click to hear // geld click to hear - geldig click to hear 2 // mond click to hear - mondig click to hear // ik leid click to hear - leiding click to hear
wond click to hear - verwonding click to hear // eind click to hear 2 - einde click to hear 2 - oneindig click to hear // ik bid, wij bidden click to hear
vriend click to hear - vrienden click to hear - vriendin click to hear - stad steden click to hear - smid smeden click to hear - kind kinderen click to hear
pet bed petten bedden click to
       hear - lid wit midden witte click to
       hear - dadel datum kader kater click to
       hear
noord click to hear - oost click to hear - zuid click to hear - west click to hear - noorden click to hear - oosten click to hear - zuiden click to hear - westen click to hear - oost west, thuis best click to hear 2

But D's in compound words keep the T-pronunciation: kindje click to hear 2 - hondje click to hear - brandhaard click to hear - tandsteen click to hear
bladzijde click to hear - goedkeuring click to hear - goedkoop click to hear 2 3 - handschoenen click to hear 2 - landbouw click to hear - badhuis click to hear - windhandel click to hear
exception: aardappel click to hear - aardappels click to hear - aardappelpuree click to hear - it should sound like aarT-appel, but in pronouncing there is an (irregular) syllable split shift to aar-dappel; this does not happen in similar words like aardolie click to hear or aardas click to hear
Do note that geweld click to hear ends in a T-sound, but in words like gewelddadig click to hear that T-sound is dropped in favor of the second D, or you could say that double D always has the D-sound - monddood click to hear
ouwe dooie rooie goeie ik hou click to hear - There is a tendency to soften certain D's, but students shouldn't worry about it.
oude ouwe click to hear - rode rooie click to hear - dode dooie click to hear 2 - goede goeie click to hear 2 - ik houd / ik hou click to hear >>

DT At normal speaking speed, mid-word DT is pronounced as T. Only in deliberately slow speech are the letters pronounced separately: breedte click to hear - handtekening click to hear - handtasje click to hear 2 - windtunnel click to hear 2 - windtunnel badtas wind-tunnel bad-tas click to hear
DT at the end of a word is always said as T:
Compare: hij wordt click to hear 2 - ik word click to hear ('wordt' and 'word' sound exactly the same) - overdaad schaadt click to hear 2
E-short click to hear like E in TEST - hear Dutch: test click to hear or like A in HAT or FAT - hear Dutch: het click to hear 2 3 - vet click to hear
en click to hear 2 - er click to hear - men click to hear - net click to hear - ver click to hear - zet click to hear - spel click to hear - stem click to hear - ster click to hear
step click to hear 2 - lef click to hear - bes click to hear - cel click to hear 2 - merk click to hear - vest click to hear - Let click to hear 2
E-long click to hear like A in MALE, TAKE and CASE - hear Dutch: meel click to hear - teek click to hear - Kees click to hear 2
nee click to hear - keel click to hear - veel click to hear 2 3 - zeep click to hear - meer click to hear 2 - weer click to hear 2 - geen click to hear - geest click to hear - greep click to hear - vreemd click to hear
steek click to hear - steen click to hear 2 - neer click to hear - peet click to hear - neef click to hear - mees click to hear
weer of geen weer click to hear 2 - het leed is geleden click to hear 2 - deze en gene click to hear
exception: the indefinite article een click to hear ('a') is pronounced with voiceless E. It's also written as " 'n " which shows the pronunciation correctly. The number 1 is usually written with accents: één click to hear 2 ('one, 1')
Compare Compare short and long E: ten click to hear - teen click to hear // ter click to hear - teer click to hear // ver click to hear - veer click to hear // ven click to hear - veen click to hear // Gert click to hear - Geert click to hear
E-voiceless click to hear UH, like A in ALIVE or AGO ('voiceless E' is also called 'unstressed E' or 'schwa')
de click to hear - te click to hear - me click to hear - je click to hear - ge click to hear - we click to hear - ze click to hear - 'n click to hear - 't click to hear - m'n click to hear - z'n click to hear - 'r click to hear - d'r click to hear
The one-syllable words above are unique in having the stress (klemtoon click to hear 2) of the word on a voiceless E, and there are no words of two or more syllables that have voiceless E as their only vowels.
The single E's may be the biggest problem in Dutch pronunciation. Hear all three E's in each of these words:
spelregel click to hear 2
short / long / voiceless
veldleger click to hear
short / long / voiceless
berenvel click to hear
long / voiceless / short
medemens click to hear
long / voiceless / short
reservedeken click to hear
voiceless / short / voiceless / long / voiceless
Spelling rules clearly indicate long and short vowels, but they do not apply to voiceless E.
There are a few simple rules for voiceless E, but they do not cover every possibility.
One thing you could say is that the stress of a word is rarely on the voiceless E - hear: regering click to hear - rekening click to hear - try to memorize the sound patterns as you learn the words.
Single E at the end of a word is always pronounced as voiceless E:
aarde click to hear - alle click to hear - benzine click to hear - deze click to hear - dezelfde click to hear - hetzelfde click to hear - eerste click to hear 2 - laatste click to hear 2 - einde click to hear 2
groente click to hear - grootte click to hear - hele click to hear - kaartje click to hear 2 - kopje click to hear - liedje click to hear 2 - liefde click to hear - lieve click to hear - lente click to hear
pakje click to hear - ruimte click to hear - schade click to hear - schande click to hear - seconde click to hear 2 - sommige click to hear - welke click to hear 2 - woede click to hear
ziekte click to hear - zijde click to hear - zulke click to hear - zusje click to hear - krukje click to hear 2 - Jantje click to hear - koelte click to hear - wedde click to hear
exception: The single E at the end of the city of Enschede click to hear is a long E

BE-, GE-, TE- and VER- prefixes (word beginnings: be-, ge-, te- and ver- click to hear) have voiceless E:
bericht click to hear - gerecht click to hear - terecht click to hear - verricht click to hear - begroot gekort tekort vergroot click to hear - belet gered terecht verlet click to hear
bedoeling click to hear 2 - bedrijf click to hear 2 - bedroefd click to hear - bedrog click to hear - belasting click to hear - beleg click to hear - besluit click to hear - bestaan click to hear 2
bestelling click to hear - betaling click to hear 2 - bevrijding click to hear - beweging click to hear 2 - bewust click to hear - bezetting click to hear
gebeurtenis click to hear - gebied click to hear 2 - gebruik click to hear 2 - gedicht click to hear - gedrag click to hear - geheel click to hear - geheim click to hear 2 - gehoor click to hear
geluid click to hear - gemak click to hear - gereedschap click to hear - gescheurd click to hear - geschiedenis click to hear - geslacht click to hear - gesneden click to hear 2
getrouwd click to hear - gevaar click to hear geval click to hear - gevangenis click to hear - gevecht click to hear - gevoel click to hear - gevolg click to hear - geweer click to hear 2
gezicht click to hear 2 - gezond click to hear - gebed click to hear
terug click to hear - tegoed click to hear - tevreden click to hear - tehuis click to hear - teleurstellend click to hear - teleurstelling click to hear - teveel click to hear 2
verandering click to hear - verbinding click to hear 2 - verdampen click to hear - verdediging click to hear - verdieping click to hear - vergadering click to hear - vergif click to hear 2
vergissing click to hear - verhuur click to hear - verklaring click to hear - verlies click to hear - vermaak click to hear - vernietiging click to hear - verrassing click to hear
versiering click to hear - verslag click to hear - verspreiding click to hear - verzekering click to hear - verzameling click to hear - verzoek click to hear 2 - vertaling click to hear 2

-EN, -ER and -EL suffixes (word endings -en, -er and -el click to hear) have voiceless E:
wekken wekker wikkel click to hear 2 - planten winter wortel click to hear
benen click to hear 2 - boven click to hear 2 - buiten click to hear 2 - binnen click to hear 2 - even click to hear 2 - heden click to hear - jongen click to hear - kussen click to hear 2 - mensen click to hear
negen click to hear - open click to hear - oven click to hear - samen click to hear - tussen click to hear - varken click to hear 2 - zelden click to hear - zeven click to hear - wedden click to hear
achter click to hear - akker click to hear - ander click to hear - boter click to hear - emmer click to hear - hamer click to hear - helder click to hear - ieder click to hear - leger click to hear - lekker click to hear 2
mager click to hear - moeder click to hear - vader click to hear - dochter click to hear - minder click to hear - onder click to hear - onderzoek click to hear 2 - over click to hear 2
overeenkomst click to hear - overhemd click to hear - wakker click to hear - zeker click to hear 2 - zolder click to hear - zonder click to hear - Nederland click to hear 2
zomer click to hear - winter click to hear - september click to hear - oktober click to hear - november click to hear - december click to hear - Dutch Time
appel click to hear - borstel click to hear - deksel click to hear - enkel click to hear - fluitketel click to hear - handel click to hear 2 - hemel click to hear - lepel click to hear - lepels click to hear - nagel click to hear
regel click to hear 2 - maatregel click to hear - sleutel click to hear - tafel click to hear - vogel click to hear 2 - winkel click to hear 2 - wortel click to hear - rommel click to hear - troffel click to hear 2

But unfortunately, be, ge, te, ver, en, er or el are not always prefixes or suffixes.
As mentioned above, there is only a small group of one-syllable words with voiceless E. In all other cases, adding one or two consonants to a prefix or suffix does not make a good Dutch word.
There are many one-syllable words (and names) beginning with be-, ge-, ter- or ver- or ending in -en, -er or -el that have short E, for example:
en click to hear 2 - er click to hear - bel click to hear - gen click to hear - tel click to hear - ver click to hear - vers click to hear 2 - verf click to hear - den click to hear - ten click to hear - der click to hear - ter click to hear
Ben click to hear - Ger click to hear - bek click to hear - berg click to hear - gek click to hear - terp click to hear - tent click to hear - terts click to hear
Combining a prefix and a suffix, or two prefixes or suffixes cannot result in a good Dutch word. Except for the small group mentioned above (de, te, me,je, ge, we, ze, 'n 't, m'n, z'n, 'r and d'r) there are no Dutch words with only voiceless E's. Instead:
beter click to hear 2 - beste click to hear - bende click to hear - geven click to hear 2 - gevel click to hear - gesel click to hear - gezel click to hear - tegen click to hear - teken click to hear 2 - verte click to hear 2
bevel click to hear - beker click to hear 2
Carrying over into compound words: tegenovergesteld click to hear - tekening click to hear 2 - gegeven click to hear 2
More exceptions: verkoop click to hear - model click to hear - lucifer click to hear - lucifersdoosje click to hear

Words of 3 or more syllables may contain both a voiceless-E prefix and a suffix, or two voiceless-E prefixes or suffixes:
begeleiding click to hear 2 - afgevaardigde click to hear 2 - bedrijfsleider click to hear - begrijpen click to hear - behoefte click to hear - besteden click to hear 2 - besturen click to hear
geboorte click to hear - gedachte click to hear - gebarsten click to hear - gebroken click to hear - geheugen click to hear 2 3 - gesneden click to hear 2
verzinsel click to hear - beneden click to hear - genoegen click to hear - verlangen click to hear 2 - verleden click to hear 2 - verkiezingen click to hear verschillend click to hear
verdampen click to hear - overmorgen click to hear 2 - ondernemer click to hear - winkelen click to hear 2 - tevergeefs click to hear 2 3 - verstandsverbijstering click to hear
Past participles often have a ge-/verb root/-en pattern: ik heb gelachen click to hear - ik heb gegeven click to hear - ik heb genomen click to hear
verbs - more on voiceless (unstressed) E

The -ES ending (indicating female) has short E: leraar click to hear - lerares click to hear - but: leraren click to hear - leraressen click to hear
onderwijzer click to hear onderwijzeres click to hear // priester click to hear - priesteres click to hear
but: dames click to hear with voiceless E - (plural of dame click to hear) - plurals ending in ES have voiceless E
The -ET ending has short E: opgelet! click to hear - loket click to hear - ballet click to hear - banket click to hear - bezet click to hear 2 - verzet click to hear
The prefixes HER- her- click to hear meaning 're-') and TER- (ter- click to hear) have short E:
herinnering click to hear 2 - herhaling click to hear - herkennen click to hear - herdenking click to hear - heroverwegen click to hear 2 - herverdelen click to hear
herstel click to hear - herstellen click to hear - hervorming click to hear 2 - hervormd click to hear - hernemen click to hear - hersenen click to hear - hersens click to hear
terwijl click to hear 2 - terdege click to hear 2 - terloops click to hear - terzijde click to hear - ternauwernood click to hear - tergend click to hear - terrein click to hear 2
terreur click to hear - terrorisme click to hear

é
è
as in French, Dutch long E: click to hear - één click to hear - café click to hear 2
as in French, Dutch short E: click to hear - appèl click to hear - carrière click to hear - première click to hear - kassière click to hear - misère click to hear 2
ea a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect E and A:
reactie click to hear - creatie click to hear - reageerbuis click to hear - kreatief realiteit click to
     hear - Bea click to hear
exception: It's only a small difference, but a few not uncommon words pronounce the E before a long A as Dutch long I, English EE: ideaal click to hear 2 - idealen click to hear - idealist click to hear - lineaal click to hear - linealen click to hear
French eau French eau is just like Dutch long O:
bureau click to hear - bureaustoel click to hear - politiebureau click to hear 2 - cadeau click to hear (also written as 'kado') - eau de Cologne click to hear
eeuw eeuw click to hear - leeuw click to hear - meeuw click to hear - sneeuw click to hear - 't sneeuwt click to hear - geeuw click to hear - Zeeuws click to hear 2
The sound is actually Dutch long E + Dutch UW
EI (= IJ) click to hear "between FATE and FIGHT" - hear Dutch: feit click to hear ('fact.') There is no sound like Dutch EI/IJ in English, but it's very similar to French EI, like in soleil click to hear 2 ('sun') or Marseille click to hear
ei click to hear - geit click to hear 2 - reis click to hear 2 - klein click to hear 2 3 - trein click to hear - meisje click to hear - leider click to hear - scheiding click to hear - neiging click to hear
eigenaar click to hear - eigendom click to hear click to hear 2 - bereidheid click to hear 2 - eis click to hear - sein click to hear - gein click to hear - teil click to hear - teiltje click to hear - zeil click to hear - veil click to hear
zeis click to hear Hein click to hear - 'n heitje voor 'n karweitje click to hear 2
Compare EI with Dutch EE and AI: mees meis maïs click to hear - 2
Compare EI with Dutch AAI: hei haai hij click to hear - mei maai mij click to hear - mei click to hear
EI and IJ sound exactly the same: ei hei steil click to hear - IJ hij stijl click to hear
Dutch EI is different from German EI. Hear German (with Dutch accent): Reinheitsgesetz click to hear - Daß war einmal click to hear - to me, German EI sounds like English 'I'
eia-, eie-, eii- A faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect EI to a following A, E or I:
eieren click to hear - beiaard click to hear 2 - heiig (heiïg) click to hear - van een leien dakje click to hear
eo a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect E and O: Theo click to hear - aureool click to
  hear - theocratie click to hear - geoloog click to hear
EU click to hear There is no sound like Dutch EU in English, but French has a sound like it in words like deux click to hear ('2') and German has a sound like Dutch EU in some words with Ö or OE like Gödel click to hear or schön click to hear 2 3, and you may have heard of the Swedish city of Göteborg click to hear
deur click to hear 2 - geur click to hear - neus click to hear - leuk click to hear 2 - beurt click to hear - breuk click to hear 2 - kleur click to hear 2 - steun click to hear - scheur click to hear - keuze click to hear
leuze click to hear - reus click to hear - beurs click to hear - geus click to hear - heus click to hear - feut click to hear - jeuk click to hear - leugen click to hear - Teun click to hear 2 - Teunis click to hear - deuntje click to hear
dreun click to hear - beuk click to hear - sleuf click to hear - kleun click to hear - preuts click to hear - deugd click to hear - beul click to hear - geul click to hear - sneu click to hear 2 3 - spreuk click to hear
heuvel click to hear - veulen click to hear - reuzel click to hear - zeulen click to hear - deuk click to hear 2 - peul click to hear 2 - kreunen click to hear - kreupel click to hear 2 - zeurpiet click to hear
meubels click to hear - kleuter click to hear - peuter click to hear 2 - dreumes click to hear - treurnis click to hear - geuren en kleuren click to hear - tegen heug en meug click to hear
exception: -EUM ending: words from Latin, E and U pronounced separately:
museum click to hear - petroleum click to hear (the everyday cheap fuel) / petroleum click to hear (engineers' crude oil) - Atheneum click to hear
Greek eu as Dutch UI: Zeus Odysseus Theseus click to hear - therapeut pseudodemocratie click to hear - eufemisme click to hear 2 - euthanasie click to hear 2
French euille As in the original French: portefeuille click to hear
F fiets click to hear 2 - fles click to hear - fout click to hear - fruit click to hear - hoofd click to hear - zelfs click to hear - staaf click to hear - straf click to hear - brief click to hear 2
stof click to hear 2 - vijf click to hear - verf click to hear - twijfel click to hear - herfst click to hear - olifant click to hear - telefoon click to hear 2
fat click to hear - dof doffe click to hear - laf laffe click to hear 2 - effen click to hear 2 - ofschoon click to hear - liflafjes click to hear 2 - frank en vrij click to hear
G (= CH) click to hear "A sound like you clear your throat." There is no sound like it in English, but it is like J in European Spanish and it is found in Hebrew and Arabic.
ga click to hear - gal click to hear 2 - ge click to hear - eg click to hear - geel click to hear 2 3 - god click to hear - glad click to hear - grijs click to hear 2 - graag click to hear 2 - boog click to hear - genoeg click to hear
dag click to hear 2 - dagen click to hear 2 - weg click to hear - wegen click to hear - brug click to hear - bruggen click to hear - erg click to hear - begin click to hear - gaas click to hear - gas click to hear
heg click to hear - trog click to hear 2 - degen click to hear - zegen click to hear - zeggen click to hear - gezegde click to hear - allergie click to hear - allergisch click to hear 2 - ginnegappen click to hear
giechelen click to hear 2 - verslaggever click to hear 2 - doorslaggevend click to hear 2 - gevechtsvliegtuig click to hear - grootgrutter click to hear - gigantisch click to hear 2
click to hear gorgelen click to hear 2 - gegevens click to hear 2 - goed genoeg click to hear 2 - graag gedaan click to hear - groot gelijk click to hear 2 - geld en goed click to hear
god noch gebod click to hear - grijs en grauw click to hear - grillen en grollen click to hear - grote grutten! click to hear 2 - geld geven is goed click to hear 2 >>
G and CH are pronounced somewhat differently in Belgium and in the South of The Netherlands: 'soft' G.
French G Several words from French have kept the French G: percentage click to hear - energie click to hear 2 - gel click to hear - gênant click to hear
logeerkamer click to hear - passagier click to hear - slijtage click to hear - college click to hear - giraf click to hear - corrigeren click to hear - marge click to hear 2 - geste click to hear 2
- first G Dutch, second G French: garage click to hear - bagage click to hear 2 - French OU: bougie click to hear - courgette click to hear
A very small number of not very common words in Dutch have a 'hard' French G (very similar to G in English GO or BEGIN): guerilla click to hear 2 - gouache click to hear - bigarreaux click to hear 2 - guillotine click to hear 2 - gaullisme click to hear - Grenoble click to hear
French GN 'French' GN is pronounced as N - Consonant Y (Dutch NJ):
signaal click to hear 2 - signaleren click to hear 2 - magnifiek click to hear - vignet click to hear 2 - appelbeignet click to hear - In the often-used, common word champignons click to hear the NG has disappeared. With difficulty I say champiGNons click to hear
Compare with 'regular' Dutch: magneet click to hear 2 - Agnes click to hear
G in NG helling click to hear - see under N for more examples
H haak click to hear - haar click to hear - hand click to hear - heel click to hear - hoed click to hear 2 - hoop click to hear - hun click to hear 2 - hoek click to hear - hond click to hear - hap click to hear
behalve click to hear - Henk click to hear 2 - Hans click to hear - Han click to hear - Johan click to hear - gehakt click to hear - behang click to hear - bah! click to hear
hooghartig click to hear 2 - heldhaftig click to hear 2 - huizenhoog click to hear - Hooghaarlemmerdijks click to hear - 'n heet hangijzer click to hear 2
hebben en houden click to hear - van hot naar her click to hear - met huid en haar click to hear 2
H after T H of TH is not pronounced: thee click to hear - theorie click to hear 2 - apotheek click to hear 2 - thuis click to hear - thema click to hear - Thea click to hear
catharsis click to hear - theoloog theïne click to hear - thee/teen click to hear - thans/tand click to hear - ether/eter click to hear
Do note that T and H are pronounced separately in some compound words, for example: witheet (wit-heet) click to hear 2
I-short click to hear like I in DIM or WIT - hear Dutch: wit click to hear
ik click to hear 2 3 - dit click to hear 2 - lip click to hear - kin click to hear - vis click to hear - zich click to hear - slim click to hear - stil click to hear - beslissing click to hear - splitsing click to hear - fris click to hear 2
wil click to hear - vin click to hear - mis click to hear - stip click to hear - tin click to hear - pit click to hear - lik click to hear - bit click to hear - flink click to hear - mild click to hear - niks click to hear - dis click to hear - gis click to hear
exceptions: Several common words have I as voiceless E in the -IS ending:
basis click to hear - kennis click to hear - vuilnis click to hear - tennis click to hear - Teunis click to hear
exceptions: words from French:
gratis click to hear - bis! click to hear (I as Dutch long I where spelling rules say it should be short)
compromis click to hear (long I, and S dropped)
I-long click to hear (often written as IE, but as I in words of foreign origin) like EE in SEE - hear Dutch: zie click to hear
die click to hear - idee click to hear - wie click to hear 2 - niet click to hear 2 - ziek click to hear - lief click to hear - vies click to hear - vier click to hear - tien click to hear - wiel click to hear 2 - vriend click to hear 2
vlieg click to hear - nier click to hear - tralie click to hear - piepen click to hear - Mies click to hear - Piet click to hear - gitaar click to hear - kilo click to hear 2 - silo click to hear - bizar click to hear - vitrine click to hear
crimineel click to hear - Ier kien die spier click to hear 2 - stier piek hiel vlies click to hear
ia, iaa a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and A:
piano click to hear - via click to hear - triangel click to hear - riant click to hear - ammoniak click to hear - triviaal click to hear 2 - Ria click to hear - Pia click to hear - ezels balken: 'ia' click to hear
exception: in many common words with -CIA- the I has become a consonant-Y (Dutch J): speciaal click to hear 2 ('special')
specialiteit click to hear - sociaal click to hear - asociaal click to hear 2 - socialisme click to hear - but (a less common word) cruciaal click to hear
iau like in MEOW: miauw click to hear - poezen/katten miauwen: 'miauw' click to hear
IE see mostly under 'I-long' above - Tiel click to hear 2 // : Ons Indië click to hear - see under 'trema' below
French ier consonant Y + A like in FACE (Dutch J + long E) premier click to hear ('prime minister') - compare with regular Dutch kassier click to hear
ieu IEU represents two somewhat different sounds:
when ending in W, it's like EW in NEW: Dutch IE + Dutch UW:
nieuw click to hear - nieuwe click to hear 2 - nieuws click to hear - kieuw click to hear 2 - nieuwsgierig Aagje click to hear
but when ending in S or R: Dutch I (long I) + Dutch EU + S or R, with a faint consonant-Y (Dutch J) connecting I and EU
serieus click to hear - furieus click to hear - ambitieus click to hear (T as TS) - religieus click to hear - curieus click to hear 2
superieur click to hear - inferieur click to hear - ingenieur click to hear (French G)
-IG ending click to hear In the -IG ending, I is pronounced as voiceless E (like A in AGO) followed by Dutch G - luchtig click to hear - twintig click to hear
gezellig click to hear 2 3 - aanwezig click to hear - aardig click to hear 2 - droevig click to hear - eenvoudig click to hear - enig click to hear - ernstig click to hear - evenwijdig click to hear
kleverig click to hear - luidruchtig click to hear - nuttig click to hear - verstandig click to hear - onverstandig click to hear - vertegenwoordiger click to hear 2
regelmatig click to hear - veilig click to hear - vorig click to hear - weinig click to hear 2 - rustig click to hear - geweldig! click to hear - geestig click to hear - armoedig click to hear
heilig click to hear - heilige click to hear - gulzig click to hear 2 - beeldig zalig bochtig click to hear - duchtig prachtig click to hear - grimmig jolig kranig click to hear
De zuinige huisvrouw click to hear - vereniging click to hear - schietvereniging click to
    hear
Of course, one-syllable words don't have suffixes: wig click to hear - big click to hear - ik lig click to hear - and another exception: vaandrig click to hear 2
IJ (= EI) click to hear "between MATE and MIGHT" - hear Dutch: mijt click to hear (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
There is no sound like Dutch EI/IJ in English, but it's very similar to French EI, like in soleil click to hear 2 ('sun') or Marseille click to hear
ijs click to hear - bij click to hear - gij click to hear 2 - hij click to hear - mij click to hear - wij click to hear 2 - zij click to hear 2 - dijk click to hear 2 - pijn click to hear - spijt click to hear - wijn click to hear 2
vrijheid click to hear - blijheid click to hear - blijde click to hear 2 - wijk click to hear - krijt click to hear - strijd click to hear - vlijt click to hear - Thijs click to hear - Gijs click to hear 2
strijdbijl click to hear - ijsvrij click to hear 2 - strijkijzer click to hear - rijstebrij click to hear - bij tijd en wijle click to hear - wijd en zijd click to hear 2 - Wie schrijft, die blijft click to hear
exception: bijzonder click to hear ('special') - IJ pronounced as English EE (Dutch long I)
[handwritten 'ijstijd'] ijstijd click to hear 2 - Dutchmen often write the two dots on top of "ij" as a bar.
"IJ" is seen as one letter, and when appropriate, I and J are both capitalized: IJsselmeer, IJsland.
"Y" is called by its French name: i-Grèc click to hear 2
To differentiate in spoken Dutch, 'ei' is called korte ei click to hear 2 ('short ei') and 'ij' is called lange ij click to hear 2 ('long ij')
-LIJK ending click to
   hear IJ like A in AGO ('voiceless E') rijkelijk click to hear - vrijelijk click to hear - ijselijk click to hear - verrukkelijk click to hear
afzonderlijk click to hear - degelijk click to hear - duidelijk click to hear - gemakkelijk click to hear - lelijk click to hear 2 - lichamelijk click to hear - mannelijk click to hear 2
mogelijk click to hear 2 - natuurlijk click to hear - persoonlijk click to hear - stoffelijk click to hear 2 - verantwoordelijk click to hear - vriendelijk click to hear
vrouwelijk click to hear - billijk click to hear - olijk click to hear - belachelijk click to hear 2
Note that a few short words end in 'regular' -LIJK with IJ-sound:
lijk click to hear - slijk click to hear 2 - gelijk click to hear 2 (voiceless E 'ge-' prefix) - gelijkheid click to hear - gelijkwaardig click to hear - soortgelijk click to hear
ije-, iji- When connecting with a vowel, the consonant-Y sound at the end of the IJ-diphthong becomes a little stronger:
vrij vrijer click to hear - dij dijen click to hear - gedijen click to hear - Bulgarije click to hear - zijig click to hear
-ING ending Just like in English: ring click to hear 2 - ding click to hear - dinges click to hear - main examples under NG
io, ioo A faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and O:
pion click to hear - bastion click to hear - trio click to hear - riool click to hear 2 - radio click to hear 2 - bioloog click to hear - prioriteit click to hear
exception: ion click to hear - ionen click to hear - here, I is pronounced as consonant Y; also note that O is short in the singular and long in the plural, very unusual for a 'modern' word
-ISCH ending click to hear pronounced as EES (Dutch long I followed by S, CH is dropped) - there have been plans to change this spelling to -IES - automatisch click to hear 2 (French AU) - chemisch click to hear - elektrisch click to hear - medisch click to hear
Slavisch chemisch Belgisch click to hear - kritisch fysisch click to hear - compare: Fries click to hear
iu a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and U:
geranium click to hear - kalium click to hear - lithium click to hear - natrium click to hear - jodium click to hear - chemistry
consonant I I is pronounced as consonant Y' (Y in AWAY) after A, AA, O, OO or OE: kooi roeien vlaai click to
     hear (see also under ai/aai, oi/ooi and oei)
J as English consonant Y (except in IJ of course)
jij click to hear - je click to hear 2 - jou click to hear 2 - jullie click to hear >> - jaar click to hear - jas click to hear - jasje click to hear - jurk click to hear - jongen click to hear - juli click to hear
Jan click to hear - Jan Jansen click to hear - Jaap click to hear - Joop click to hear - joch click to hear - jajem click to hear - sjouwer click to hear - oranje click to hear 2 - anjer click to hear 2
jijen en jouen click to hear - Jut en Juul click to hear
French J journalist click to hear (French OU) - journaal click to hear (French OU) - jam click to hear (English A) - jus click to hear 2 (French -US too)
K ka click to hear 2 - Kaatje click to hear - kat click to hear - kom click to hear 2 - koper click to hear - koud click to hear - kerk click to hear - kurk click to hear - klok click to hear - kind click to hear 2 - krant click to hear
dak click to hear 2 - gek click to hear - dik click to hear - rijk click to hear - broek click to hear 2 - volk click to hear 2 - markt click to hear - links click to hear - kwitantie click to hear - akker click to hear
spijker click to hear - krik click to hear - kakelen click to hear - kriskras click to hear - koekoek click to hear 2 - in kannen en kruiken click to hear - zo klaar als een klontje click to hear 2
kant en klaar click to hear - kort en klein click to hear - de kogel door de kerk click to hear - ons koude kikkerland click to hear 2 - te kust en te keur click to hear
KN Unlike in English, K before N is pronounced: knal click to hear - knie click to hear - knoop click to hear 2 - knippen click to hear - knop click to hear 2
knaak click to hear 2 - knoest click to hear - knauw click to hear 2 - knecht click to hear 2 - knul click to hear - knuppel click to hear - knijpkat click to hear - knipselkrant click to hear
knap knapper knapst click to hear - knallen click to hear 2 - knarsen click to hear 2 - knerpen click to hear - knetteren click to hear 2 - knikken knokken knul click to
       hear
knokkel click to hear - knikkers click to hear 2 - knikkeren click to hear - knipperen click to hear 2 - knipperlicht click to hear 2 - knudde click to hear 2 - kneden click to hear 2
L el click to hear - laat click to hear - leer click to hear 2 - licht click to hear - lijst click to hear - blad click to hear - blik click to hear - fluit click to hear - glas click to hear 2 - klaar click to hear - plank click to hear 2
slaan click to hear - slag click to hear - slecht click to hear - vlag click to hear - vlees click to hear - melk click to hear 2 - speld click to hear - zelf click to hear - film click to hear 2 - wolk click to hear - staal click to hear
val click to hear - deel click to hear 2 - wel click to hear - doel click to hear - hol click to hear - slak click to hear - lepel click to hear - vleugel click to hear - lat click to hear - lied click to hear
Let click to hear - sla click to hear - altijd click to hear - wal click to hear - wals click to hear - tolk click to hear 2 - elleboog click to hear 2 - ellenlang click to
      hear - Ellen click to hear - luilak click to hear
zwelgen click to hear 2 - galblaas click to hear - alvleesklier click to hear - loodlijn click to hear - lichterlaaie click to hear - leerlooier click to hear - luilekkerland click to hear 2
Goejanverwellesluis click to hear - leven en laten leven click to hear 2 - lekker lui liggen lezen click to hear - lap en leur click to hear - lief en leed click to hear
Leiden in last click to hear - De laatste loodjes wegen het zwaarst click to hear - more L
exception: in bibliotheek click to hear the L is usually dropped (and H of TH is never pronounced)
-LIJK ending click to
   hear IJ like A in AGO ('voiceless E') - vreselijk click to hear - gevaarlijk click to hear - walgelijk click to hear 2 - main examples under IJ
French LL like consonant Y (Dutch J) - failliet click to hear 2 - faillisement click to hear 2 3 - portefeuille click to hear - fouilleren click to hear 2
M maat click to hear 2 - macht click to hear - mand click to hear - met click to hear - middag click to hear - mijn click to hear - mier click to hear - morgen click to hear 2
smaak click to hear - smal click to hear 2 - naam click to hear 2 - kam click to hear 2 - hem click to hear - bloem click to hear 2 3 - bom click to hear 2 - bommen click to hear 2 - bomen click to hear
warm click to hear - kammen click to hear - bezem click to hear
met man en macht click to hear - met man en muis click to hear - min of meer click to hear
N naar click to hear - nat click to hear - nek click to hear - niets click to hear - noot click to hear 2 - snel click to hear - maand click to hear - land click to hear - kans click to hear - mens click to hear 2 - grens click to hear
brons click to hear - tien click to hear - lijn click to hear - zoon click to hear - zon click to hear - nijd click to hear - inmiddels click to hear 2
niet voor niks click to hear - nooit ofte nimmer click to hear - nu of nooit click to hear
-N ending Many people in Holland, especially in the West of the country, don't pronounce the N in the -EN ending of plurals and verbs. I consider that sloppy and incorrect, but I have to admit to a certain softening of my final N's, as you may have noted when I read longer texts. But my recommendation to students is to pronounce those final N's, because they are written and dropping them would just add an exception.
wij lopen click to hear - wij lope(n) click to hear - De mensen praten plat. click to hear - De mense(n) prate(n) plat. click to hear >>
NG like NG in SINGER (vocalist) or HANGER, never like in LINGER or in DANGER - hear ringvinger click to hear
lang click to hear - slang click to hear - angst click to hear - sprong click to hear - tong click to hear 2 - jong click to hear - jongen click to hear - vingers click to hear
gemengd click to hear 2 3 - belang click to hear - belangrijk click to hear 2 - belangstelling click to hear - eng click to hear - engerd click to hear - bengel click to hear
honing click to hear 2 - koningin click to hear 2 - honger click to hear - als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear
Also in compound words N gets a faint NG-sound before G: ingewikkeld click to hear - ongeluk click to hear 2 - ongeveer click to hear 2
NK Like in English, NK sounds like NGK
inkt click to hear 2 - enkel click to hear - winkel click to hear 2 - donker click to hear 2 - afhankelijk click to hear - onafhankelijk click to hear - onafhankelijkheid click to hear
compare: bang click to hear - ban click to hear - bank click to hear // zink click to hear - zin click to hear - zing click to hear // zinken click to hear - zingen click to hear - zinnen click to hear
drinken click to hear - dringen click to hear // wankel click to hear 2 - wang click to hear // koning click to hear - koninkje click to hear (note that G is not written)
klinker click to hear - medeklinker click to hear - klank click to hear - stank click to hear 2 - stinken click to hear - vink click to hear - pink click to hear - een kink in de kabel click to hear 2
Also in compound words N gets a faint NG-sound before K:
steenkool click to hear - overeenkomst click to hear 2 - inkomsten click to hear - onkruid click to hear
O-short click to hear the tone of A in HALL but shorter - hear Dutch: hol click to hear ('lair')
of click to hear - om click to hear - op click to hear - ons click to hear 2 - los click to hear - nog click to hear - rok click to hear - pot click to hear - wol click to hear - krom click to hear 2 - rond click to hear 2
worm click to hear - vonk click to hear - drop click to hear - nor click to hear - mos click to hear - mol click to hear 2 3 - ton click to hear 2 - polder click to hear 2 - rolmops click to hear
onder ons gezegd en gezwegen click to hear 2
O-long click to hear like O in GO or BONE - hear Dutch: Co click to hear - boon click to hear
Note that Dutch OO and long O is pronounced as English OE, and vice versa: boot click to hear 2 - loot click to hear - boor click to hear
oog click to hear - oor click to hear - ook click to hear - zo click to hear - boom click to hear - doos click to hear - poot click to hear 2 - hoog click to hear - hoger click to hear - koper click to hear - foto click to hear
olie click to hear 2 - sloot click to hear - Noor click to hear 2 - Moos click to hear - Toos click to hear - toon click to hear 2 3 - molen click to hear - stomerij click to hear 2 - chromosoom click to hear
Compare Compare short and long O: rok lot ton click to hear - rook loot toon click to hear - kok bon hor rot click to hear - kook boon hoor rood click to hear
French O roze click to hear ('pink') - compare with Dutch short O: ros click to hear - rot click to hear and Dutch long O: rozen click to hear 2 - roos click to hear 2
roze rozen click to hear - roze roos click to hear 2 - roze ros click to hear
- also French O: katastrofe click to hear 2 - zone click to hear 2 compare with: zonnen click to hear 2 - zonen click to hear
- second O French: trombone click to hear - controle click to hear 2
OE click to hear like OO in BOOK - hear Dutch: boek click to hear ('book')
Note that Dutch OE is pronounced as English OO, and vice versa: stoep click to hear 2 - koekje click to hear - hoe click to hear
koe click to hear - toe click to hear - goed click to hear - stoel click to hear - ploeg click to hear - vloer click to hear - groen click to hear - snoep click to hear - broer click to hear - poeder click to hear
stroef click to hear - floep! click to hear - koel click to hear 2 - moes click to hear - hoef click to hear - spoed click to hear - groet click to hear 2 - oefening click to hear 2 - doezelen click to hear 2
doe stoep poel koek click to hear
Greek OE Pronounced as Dutch EU:
oecumenisch click to hear 2 - Oedipus click to hear (Latin -US ending pronounced as OOS, Dutch OES) - oedipaal click to hear
Frech OEU Pronounced much like 'voiceless E' or Dutch short U, but longer: oeuvre click to hear - manoeuvre click to hear 2
But the OEU of the Dutchified verb manoeuvreren click to hear 2 is pronounced as OO (Dutch OE.)
oei, oi, ooi After O, OE and OO, I is pronounced as consonant Y (Dutch J)
hoi click to hear - toi-toi-toi click to hear
mooi click to hear - mooie click to hear - mooi mooier mooist click to hear - nooit click to hear - ooit click to hear - ooi click to hear - ooievaar click to hear - hooivork click to hear
hooiwagen click to hear 2 - rotzooi click to hear 2 - fooi click to hear - 't Gooi click to hear - 't dooit click to hear - 't Kan vriezen en 't kan dooien click to hear
boei click to hear ('buoy') - moeilijk click to hear - moeite click to hear 2 - koe koeien click to hear - groei groeien groeit click to
  hear
het boeide me niet click to hear - al wat groeit en bloeit en ons telkens weer boeit click to hear 2
French oi As in the original: toilet click to hear - dressoir boudoir click to hear
OU (= AU) click to hear like OU in LOUD, OW in NOW - hear Dutch: nou click to hear ('now.') There's always a Dutch W sound after OU; when the W is written it's a little stronger.
jou click to hear 2 - jouw click to hear - oud click to hear - hout click to hear - touw click to hear - vouw click to hear - zout click to hear 2 - gebouw click to hear 2 - berouw click to hear - Gouda click to hear
Gouke click to hear - houweel click to hear - woud click to hear 2 - oubollig click to hear - louter click to hear - koud mouw stouwen click to
     hear
jou click to hear 2 and jouw click to hear both have a (Dutch) W and sound alike, but U click to hear and Uw click to hear sound different
French OU French OU is like English OO, Dutch OE: gouverneur click to hear - route click to hear - routine click to hear - troubadour click to hear 2 - coureur click to hear
rouge click to hear (French G) - bouillonblokje click to hear 2 - souffleur click to hear - coulant couplet foudraal click to hear - zouaaf click to hear - zouaven click to hear
P pa click to hear - paars click to hear 2 - pan click to hear 2 - pen click to hear - plant click to hear - pijp click to hear - pomp click to hear - spier click to hear 2 - aap click to hear 2 - stap click to hear
kip click to hear - kop click to hear - diep click to hear 2 - groep click to hear - pap click to hear 2 - pop click to hear - poppen click to hear 2 - griepprik click to hear - pimpelpaars click to hear
ophaalbrug click to hear 2 - ophangen click to hear - ophef click to hear - ophouden click to hear 2 - rasphuis click to hear 2 - see also PH in Names below
paal en perk stellen click to hear - van Pontius naar Pilatus click to hear - pracht en praal click to hear - als puntje bij paaltje komt click to hear
PS Unlike in English, P before S is pronounced: psychiater click to hear - psycholoog click to hear 2 - pseudoniem click to hear - psalm click to hear 2
Q In writing always followed by U - Dutch KW represents the same sound
quasi click to hear - queeste click to hear - quiz click to hear (also: kwis click to hear) - quorum click to hear - compare with: kwik click to hear - kwibus click to hear - kwart click to hear
Only recent French imports like quitte click to hear and quiche click to hear do not have the W sound after K.
R
Dutch R is quite different from English R:
er click to hear - raam click to hear 2 - rand click to hear - rijst click to hear - rug click to hear - borst click to hear - drie click to hear - gras click to hear - graad click to hear - kraag click to hear - droog click to hear
broederschap click to hear - rit click to hear - rits click to hear - rook click to hear - brood click to hear 2 - hart click to hear - kerk click to hear - kleren click to hear - herrie click to hear
in rep en roer click to hear - rust roest click to hear - more R
At the beginning of a word, English R starts with the tongue touching the top of the palate, and then moving down; it's a 'rolling' sound formed in the middle of the mouth.
Dutch R keeps the tongue flat, its tip touching the lower teeth, and it's formed in the back of the mouth.
Compare English and Dutch R:
English
Thank you, Cody!
road
click to hear
room
click to hear
ram
click to hear
rat
click to hear
price
click to hear
fries
click to hear
great
click to hear
fern
click to hear
deer
click to hear
star
click to hear
Dutch rood
click to hear
roem
click to hear
rem
click to hear
rat
click to hear
red
click to hear
prijs
click to hear
frietjes
click to hear
Fries
click to hear
Greet
click to hear
varen
click to hear
dier
click to hear
star
click to hear
meaning of
Dutch word
red fame a brake rat (I) save price fries Frisian (girls'
name)
fern animal,
mammal
inflexible,
rigid
S sok click to hear - soep click to hear - slot click to hear 2 - spons click to hear - staart click to hear - sterk click to hear - kast click to hear 2 - naast click to hear - post click to hear - barst click to hear - kunst click to hear
gas click to hear 2 - kaas click to hear 2 3 - mes click to hear 2 3 - messen click to hear 2 - kies click to hear 2 - dus click to hear - wijs click to hear - als click to hear - plaats click to hear - beslissing click to hear
spits click to hear - stokstijf click to hear - spiksplinternieuw click to hear - sla je slag click to hear - zonder slag of stoot click to hear - stut en steun click to hear 2
SCH see also CH above ("a sound like you clear your throat")
schaal click to hear 2 3 - schaap click to hear - schapen click to hear 2 - schaar click to hear - schep click to hear - scherp click to hear - schip click to hear - schoen click to hear - school click to hear
schok click to hear - schoon click to hear - schuld click to hear - schade click to hear - schande click to hear - schaduw click to hear - schaamte click to hear - schop click to hear
schuit click to hear 2 - schetsje click to hear - scherts click to hear 2 - scheikunde click to hear - beschaafd click to hear - heggeschaar click to hear
schaaf schier schok schoof click to hear - schulp schuilen schuur click to hear
schimpscheuten click to hear - 'n scheve schaats click to hear - schots en scheef click to hear - door schade en schande click to hear
SCHR CH in SCHR is not pronounced:
schrik click to hear - schroef click to hear - schroeven click to hear - schreeuw click to hear - schreeuwen click to hear - schrobber click to hear - ik schrijf click to hear - ik schreef click to hear
schrander click to hear - schram click to hear schrammetje click to hear 2
schaal schraal click to hear - schil schril click to hear - schiften schriften click to hear - schap schrap click to hear - schikken schrikken click to hear 2
schoot schroot click to hear 2 - schijven schrijven click to hear 2 - schikken schrikken, schoot schroot, schijven schrijven click to hear
-ISCH ending As English EES (CH in -ISCH is not pronounced) - lyrisch click to hear 2 - organisch click to hear - anorganisch click to hear - main examples under I
T tand click to hear - teen click to hear - toen click to hear 2 3 - tot click to hear - taart click to hear - stijf click to hear - stok click to hear - stoom click to hear - straal click to hear - iets click to hear - haat click to hear
wit click to hear 2 - bot click to hear - mist click to hear - boter click to hear - eten click to hear - straat click to hear - tante click to hear - boomstronk click to hear 2
Note that end-of-word D sounds like T in Dutch (see under D) and a mid-word T in Dutch is 'sharper' than in American English: water click to hear 2 - beter click to hear 2 - bitter click to hear - otter click to hear - Otto click to hear 2
taal noch teken click to hear - van top tot teen click to hear
CHTJ, STJ, STZ - In between certain letters, T is usually dropped. It's just too hard to say.
postzegel click to hear - postzegels click to hear - tochtje click to hear - It goes too far to say pos-t-zegel click to hear 2 or - toch-t-je click to hear
zachtjes click to hear - nichtje click to hear - luchtje click to hear - kastje worstje click to hear 2 - nestje click to hear - feestje click to hear 2
TD At normal speaking speed, mid-word TD is pronounced as D. Only in deliberately slow speech are the letters pronounced separately. There is no difference in the pronunciation of ontd- and ond-: ontdekt ondier ont-dekt click to hear
TH H after T is not pronounced therapie click to hear - thermometer click to hear - mythe click to hear - main examples under H
-TIE ending after C, P and R: SEE: reactie click to hear - infectie click to hear - frictie click to hear 2 - adoptie click to hear - proportie click to hear - selectie functie fractie click to hear 2
after vowels and N: TSEE: conditie click to hear - democratie click to hear - advertentie click to hear - operatie click to hear - organisatie click to hear - positie click to hear
tolerantie click to hear - natie traditie garantie click to hear - clementie gratie click to hear
after S: not irrregular, TEE: suggestie click to hear - hostie click to hear 2
other -TIE endings like -TIEF, TIEK and -TIER are not irregular:
politie click to hear - politiek click to hear - actie actief click to hear 2 - motie motief click to hear 2 - optie optiek click to hear - portie portier click to hear 2
TJ, TSJ Somewhat like CH in CHIRP or CHILL (in TJ without the S-sound)
tjalk click to hear - tjokvol click to hear - tjilpen click to hear - tjirpen click to hear - tsjilpen click to hear - tsjirpen click to hear
U-short click to hear UH, like A in ALIVE or AGO - sounds the same as 'voiceless E' - dubbeltje click to hear 2 - gummetjes click to hear
dun click to hear - nul click to hear - hulp click to hear - punt click to hear - druk click to hear - stuk click to hear - vlucht click to hear - spul click to hear - blut click to hear - lus click to hear - krul click to hear - krullen click to hear
tulp click to hear - tulpen click to hear 2 - rust click to hear - gerucht click to hear 2 - smurrie click to hear - blussen click to hear 2 - plunjezak click to hear 2
Dutch short U sounds exacly like voiceless E. Above I mentioned that except for de, te, me, je, ge, ze, we, 'n, 't, m'n, z'n, 'r and d'r (>>) there are no words with voiceless E as their only vowel, and there are no words of two or more syllables with voiceless E as their only vowels. However, short U is a regular vowel, and words can have short U and voiceless E as their only vowels, as for instance verrukkelijk click to hear 2 - verrukkelijke click to hear 2 - tunneltje click to hear
U-long click to hear
There is no sound in English similar to Dutch 'long U,' but is is found in French, like in cru or dur click to hear and in German, like in Hügel and Muesli click to hear
U click to hear - uur click to hear - nu click to hear 2 - duur click to hear - puur click to hear 2 - vuur click to hear 2 - muziek click to hear 2 - unie click to hear - uniek click to hear 2 - uniform click to hear
fusie click to hear juni click to hear - stuur click to hear - bruut click to hear - bruusk click to hear 2 - guur click to hear 2 - fuut click to hear - molecuul click to hear - spugen click to hear - Utrecht click to hear 2
ua, ue, uo a faint Dutch W-sound is inserted to connect U to A, E or O: (In most words, this W is not written.)
situatie click to hear - januari click to hear - februari click to hear - dualiteit click to hear - fluctuatie click to hear - duel click to hear - minuet click to hear
compare: ritueel click to hear - fluweel click to hear (UEE and UWEE have the same sound) - duo click to hear 2
UI click to hear There is no sound like Dutch UI in English, but French has it in a word like l'oeil click to hear ('the eye') - hear Dutch: lui click to hear
ui click to hear 2 - uit click to hear 2 - buik click to hear - duim click to hear 2 - huid click to hear 2 - huis click to hear 2 - tuin click to hear 2 - vuil click to hear - bruin click to hear 2 3 - juist click to hear
suiker click to hear - bui click to hear 2 - buit click to hear - duin click to hear - muis click to hear - ruim click to hear - bruid click to hear - bruidegom click to hear - snuit click to hear - spuit click to hear
ruit click to hear 2 3 - ruiten click to hear - struik click to hear 2 - kluif click to hear 2 - kluit click to hear 2 - kruit click to hear - sluik click to hear - Pruis click to hear - buil click to hear - ruig click to hear
huilen click to hear - uil click to hear 2 - zuil click to hear 2 - ruis click to hear - gruis click to hear - kruis click to hear - sluis click to hear 2 - zuivel click to hear - zuiver click to hear - huiveren click to hear 2
Duitser click to hear - stuiver click to hear - kruipen click to hear - kruipruimte click to hear - buitenshuis click to hear - huilbui click to hear - bruidssuiker click to hear
When there is no consonant ending the word, some Dutchmen say UI with a Y-sound (Dutch J) at the end: ui(j) click to hear, but I prefer the pronunciation with a Dutch W: ui(w) click to hear
uia, uie a consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect UI to A or E: (See also above under UI)
uien click to hear - buien click to hear - uier click to hear - luier click to hear - sluier click to hear - grauwsluier click to hear - luiaard click to hear 2 3
UW long U + Dutch W (somewhat like EW in DEW)
Uw click to hear - duw click to hear - duwen click to hear - zenuw click to hear - ruw click to hear 2 - ruwe click to hear - juweel click to hear - juwelen click to hear
zwaluw click to hear - ruwaard click to hear - gruwelen click to hear - ruwweg click to hear - sluw click to hear - ruwheid click to hear - Veluwe Betuwe click to hear
U click to hear and Uw click to hear sound different, but jou click to hear 2 and jouw click to hear both have a W and sound alike
V vak click to hear 2 - vaak click to hear 2 - vast click to hear - veer click to hear - veld click to hear - vol click to hear - voor click to hear 2 - voet click to hear 2 - vraag click to hear 2 - vroeg click to hear
vrees click to hear - vrede click to hear - levend click to hear - lieve click to hear - golven click to hear 2 - veevoer click to hear - vervoer click to hear - verven click to hear 2 - vijver click to hear
visvangst click to hear - vorstverlet click to hear - rivieroever click to hear - vogelverschrikker click to hear - voortvarend click to hear - voetvolk click to hear 2
vliegensvlug click to hear - in vogelvlucht click to hear 2 - vies en voos click to hear 2
vriend en vijand click to hear - in vuur en vlam click to hear - vorm of vent click to hear 2 - vrouw en vriend click to hear 2 - vorst en vaderland click to hear 2
W Keep lips relaxed, not rounded like in English W; Dutch W starts with the top of the lower lip touching the front upper teeth, but not clearly blowing out air like for a V or F. The sound is formed in the back of the mouth, and not in the front like English W.
waar click to hear - was click to hear - week click to hear 2 - wet click to hear - wens click to hear - wijd click to hear - winst click to hear - woord click to hear - dwaas click to hear - kwast click to hear 2
kwijt click to hear 2 - twee click to hear - zwak click to hear 2 - zwaar click to hear - zwavel click to hear - geweld click to hear - gewicht click to hear - gewoon click to hear - bewust click to hear
hoewel click to hear - eiwit click to hear - bouwval click to hear 2
winkelwagentje click to hear 2 - welwillend click to hear - wipwap click to
    hear - wirwar click to
    hear - windwijzer click to hear 2 - witwas click to hear - wijwater click to hear
werkwoord click to hear - winterwortel click to hear - wittebroodsweken click to hear 2 - wij willen water click to hear - wie wat waar welke click to hear
wijze woorden click to hear - van wanten weten click to hear - wel en wee click to hear 2 - wis en waarachtig click to hear 2 - wikken en wegen click to hear 2
weer en wind click to hear - Wereldwijde week van de veiligheid click to hear 2 - Ik werd wakker van de wekker click to hear - more W
exception: a rare silent W: erwt click to hear - erwt erwten click to hear 2 - letters are rarely dropped in Dutch - kekererwten click to hear
exception: murw click to hear - this 'F' pronunciation is a rare exception - smurf click to hear
WR
W before R is said as V:
wrede click to hear - compare with vrede click to hear (it sounds the same) - wreed click to hear - wreedheid click to hear - wrijven click to hear - wrijving click to hear 2
wrak click to hear - wrik click to hear - wrok click to hear - wervel wrevel click to hear - vrees wreed vraag wraak click to hear - weerwraak verwrongen click to hear 2
wrat vrat click to hear 2 - wang wrang click to hear - wok wrok click to hear - wikken wrikken, wak wrak, weken wreken click to hear
Compare Compare V and W: val click to hear - wal click to hear 2 // vaas click to hear - waas click to hear // vacht click to hear - wacht click to hear // vel click to hear - wel click to hear // vee click to hear 2 - wee click to hear
vilt click to hear - wild click to hear // vol click to hear - wol click to hear // vorst click to hear 2 - worst click to hear // volk click to hear 2 - wolk click to hear 2 // bevolking click to hear - bewolking click to hear 2
toeval click to hear - hoewel click to hear // houweel click to hear - hoeveel click to hear // vadem click to hear - waden click to hear
vaarwel! click to hear - wuiven click to hear 2 - welvaart click to hear - walvis click to hear - voorwaarde click to hear - veelwijverij click to hear - vrijwilliger click to hear 2
X always like X in AXE - hear Dutch: ex click to hear - Dutch KS represents the same sound - hear Dutch: heks click to hear - ekster click to hear
x + y = z (x plus y is z) click to hear 2 3 - experiment click to hear - explosie click to hear - flexibel click to hear - xenon click to hear - xylofoon click to hear - saxofoon click to hear
hexagonaal click to hear - extra click to hear 2 - extract click to hear 2 - luxaflex click to hear 2 - Lex click to hear - Trix click to hear - Xantippe click to hear
Y almost always pronounced as Dutch I (either long or short) (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
systeem click to hear - cylinder click to hear - hypercorrect click to hear - symfonie click to hear - symptoom click to hear - synthetisch click to hear - polypiep click to hear
cynisme hygiëne hysterisch click to hear
exception: nylon click to hear - nylons click to hear (like Dutch EI/IJ, somehow imitating the English word)
In a very small number of Dutch words, between two vowels, Y is like English 'consonant Y' as in YES:
yoghurt click to hear 2 - royaal click to hear 2 - loyaal click to hear 2 - loyaliteit click to hear 2 - rayon click to hear 2
Z zaad click to hear - zand click to hear 2 - zee click to hear - zes click to hear - zilver click to hear - zien click to hear - zijn click to hear - zoet click to hear - zuur click to hear 2 - zwart click to hear 2 3
glazen click to hear - gezin click to hear - wezen click to hear 2 - ijzer click to hear 2 - zwanger click to hear - zwager click to hear - zwijg! click to hear 2 - sperziebonen click to hear
zigzag click to hear 2 - zwanenzang click to hear 2 - ziel en zaligheid click to hear - de zeven zeeën click to hear 2 - 't Vogeltje zit zo zoet op z'n nestje click to hear
ik zag de zon in de zee zinken click to hear - in Amsterdam: ik sag de son in de see sinke click to hear
'n pronounced as voiceless E - N:
'n click to hear is short for the indefinite article een ('a') with the same, there irregular pronunciation - 'n beetje click to hear
m'n click to hear is short for the first person singular possessive mijn click to hear ('my')
z'n click to hear is short for the third person male singular possessive zijn click to hear ('his') z'n lust en z'n leven click to hear
exception: zo een click to hear 2 is often shortened to zo'n click to hear 2 (no voiceless E, it sounds exactly the same as zoon click to hear)
zo'n mooie dag click to hear 2 - zo'n sombere zomer click to hear
'r pronounced as voiceless E - Dutch R: 'r click to hear - for ease, often said as: d'r click to hear - a bit of slang, not entirely proper Dutch:
- either short for the third person female singular possessive haar click to hear ('her')
- or the somewhat indefinable er click to hear ('~there') - er was 'r 'ns click to hear 2 - d'r was 'ns ... click to hear 2 - d'r was 'r 's ... click to hear
d'r op of d'r onder click to hear
's pronounced as S - apostrophe-s can be:
- an indication of time: 's morgens click to hear - 's middags click to hear - 's avonds click to hear - 's nachts click to hear - 's zomers click to hear - 's winters click to hear
- for S-plurals of words ending in single A, I, O or U, to keep that single vowel long: foto's click to hear - risico's click to hear (if we would write "fotos" or "risicos" OS would be pronounced as short O, which is not correct, and to write "fotoos" or "risicoos" would look silly.)
- an incorrect possessive: Jan's vrienden click to hear (following the English, a very common mistake; it should be: "Jans vrienden.")
't pronounced as voiceless E - T:
't click to hear is short for het click to hear 2 which can either be 'it' or 'the' - the other, more frequently used definite article is de click to hear
't regent click to hear 2 - regent 't? click to hear - 't is niet waar! click to hear // 't Spui click to hear 2 - 't Hart click to hear - 't Sufferdje click to hear
AÄ, EË
EÏ, EÜ
IË, OË
UÏ, UÜ
Diaeresis (dieresis) - two dots on top of a vowel indicate that the vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel(s), not forming a long vowel or a diphtong. In Dutch, it's called trema click to hear - it may look somewhat similar to the German Umlaut, but its meaning is completely different.
Kanaän - kanaal click to hear
beëdigd - beet click to hear
geïnd - gein click to hear
reünie - reuma click to hear
piëteit - pieten click to hear

agrariër - gier click to hear
poëten - poezen click to hear
bedoeïen - loeien click to hear
coördinatie - koord click to hear
ruïne - ruime click to hear

vacuüm - buur click to hear
geëerd click to hear 2
weeën click to hear
kopiëren click to
 hear 2
ingrediënt click to hear
België click to hear 2
De Zeven Provinciën click to hear
De Verenigde Provinciën click to hear
Nederlands-Indië click to hear 2
Californië click to hear
Oekraïne click to hear
Israël click to hear
Sinaï click to hear
Rafaël click to hear
Daniël click to
   hear
(In a recent minor spelling reform, most of the trema's in compound words have been scrapped (except in numbers.) I used to write zoëven click to hear 2 ('just a moment ago') to differentiate it from zoeven click to hear ('~to move quickly, zoom, whiz') - nowadays both should be written 'zoeven.' Likewise, I would write (if it came up) eendeëi click to hear 2 ("ducks' egg") but the rules for the 'connecting N' that even I don't pronounce were changed, and nowadays it's supposed to be spelled 'eendenei.')
I've seen the trema used in Dutchified English words, like geüpdate ('updated') but it looks extremely silly to me, and makes me pronounce it like the German U with Umlaut. Why not simply write ge-update?

Dutch has the almost identical vooruit click to hear 2 ('forward! come on!') and voorruit click to hear 2 ('windshield, front window') - the difference is not in how the R's are said, but in the stress of the words: "voorUIt" click to hear 2 - "vóórruit." click to hear 2
Similarly, a very small number of words with identical spelling get a different meaning with a shift of the stress:

'uh' stands for 'voiceless (unstressed) E' (schwa)
bedelen: bedelen click to hear ("bedélen - buhdéluhn" - to apportion, distribute)
bedelen click to hear ("bédelen - béduhluhn" - to beg, ask for things) - bedelaar click to hear 2 - 'beggar'
voornaam: voornaam click to hear ("voornáám" - 'important')
voornaam click to hear ("vóórnaam" - 'first name, Christian name')
sterkers: sterkers click to hear ("stèrkuhrs" - [something] stronger)
sterkers click to hear ("stèr-kèrs" - a kind of bean sprouts)
regent: 't regent click to hear (" 't régent - uht réguhnt" - 'it is raining')
de regent click to hear ("de regènt - duh ruhgènt" - 'a high official in the Dutch East Indies colonial administration')
kantelen: kantelen click to hear ("kàntelen - kàntuhluhn" - 'to cant, tilt, tip over')
kantelen click to hear ("kantélen - kantéluhn" - 'battlements,' the blocks atop medieval castle walls and towers)
legering: legering click to hear ("légering - léguhring" - 'the housing of an army, encampment')
legering click to hear 2 ("legéring - luhgéring" - 'a mixture of metals')

Hear the Dutchman say his alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z click to hear - KLM click to hear

ik heb gezegd click to hear 2 - I have spoken . . . . All examples translated on a separate page - or hold your mouse over a Dutch word or phrase to see a rough translation.

Related pages: Hear All Vowels and Diphthongs Compared - Slow Dutch - English with Dutch Accent for the stage

EXERCISES: Pronunciation - - Listening - A New Pronunciation Exercise - to test what you've learned on this page

Numbers

1 2 3 ...

[The Face of a Biking Dutchman, with Helmet]

Hear Dutch Names

Overview

Old New York

Sailors and Ships

Vermeer's World

Rembrandt

Anne Frank's Diary

Market Garden

Hans Brinker

Names from Books

Names by Request

'First' Names

Maps

Place Names

Tulip Names

[a house]
huis click to hear

[living room]
zitkamer click to hear

[garden]
tuin click to hear

[tree]
boom click to hear

[dog]
hond click to hear

[mountain path]
bergpad click to hear

[rainbow]
regenboog click to hear

Everyday Words

Adjectives and Adverbs

Man, Animals,
The Mind and Body

Tools, Materials,
Buildings,
House & Home

Transportation,
Agriculture, Food

Time, Weather,
Qualities

Media, Science

Business, Government,
Military

The Little Words #1
(prepositions, conjunctions etc.)

The Little Words #2

The Little Words #3

The Little Words
Alphabetically (E-D)

The Little Words
Alphabetically (D-E)

Everyday Verbs

Movement, Operations

[flag]
vlag click to hear

[grapes]
druiven click to hear

[potatoes]
aardappels click to hear

[small saucepan]
steelpannetje click to hear

[food]
eten click to hear

[rose]
roos click to hear

All examples translated
on a separate page
- or hold your mouse
over a Dutch word or phrase
to see a rough translation.

Hear Longer Dutch Texts

Poems and Songs

From my Short Stories

Readings from The Bible

[books]
boeken click to hear

[jacket]
vest click to hear

[a mirror]
spiegel click to hear

[bicycle]
ik fiets click to hear

[bus]
bus click to hear

[candle]
kaars click to hear

[power outlet]
stopcontact click to hear

[a 50s radio]
radio click to hear

[ring]
ring click to hear

[money]
geld click to hear

[playing cards]
kaarten click to hear

[chess]
schaakstukken click to hear

[family tree]
stamboom click to hear

[birthday cake]
taart met kaarsjes click to hear

[world map]
de wereld click to hear

EXERCISES:
Pronunciation
Listening
A New Pronunciation Exercise

[violin]
viool click to hear

[crucifix]
kruisbeeld click to hear

[bunsen burner]
bunsenbrander click to hear

[kilo]
gewicht click to hear

[clothespins]
wasknijpers click to hear

[soccer balls]
't is weer bruin
of gespikkeld click to hear

[swimming]
zwemmen click to hear

[ice skates]
schaatsen click to hear

[tools]
gereedschap click to hear

Dutch Grammar

Overview

Verbs
- Verbs Collection

Personal Pronouns
- Sample Sentences

Word Order

Plurals

[snail]
slak click to hear Slow Dutch

[(picture) camera]
fototoestel click to hear

Dutch Alliterations

More Vocabulary

[a variety of items]
pictures dictionary

Numbers, Time and Days

Food

Family Tree - Birthday
Family & Relatives

Medical Conversations

Music Vocabulary

Words of Religion

Chemistry

Weather
Grammar
Sports
News and Politics

False Friends

Vocabulary Overview

Names and Old Spelling

Dutch spelling is revised every 50 years or so, but names often retain features no longer found in Modern Dutch, like unusual letter combinations and superfluous characters. For instance, 'Huydecooper' would nowadays be written as "Huidekoper" click to hear

Note that double consonants are usually pronounced as single, not longer or with a pause in between: Van Poll, Verhoeff, De Witt, Wolff click to hear

AAIJ, AAY long A, consonant Y as in YES: Kraaijkamp, Van Waay click to hear
AE as long A: Clauwaerts, Daendels, Maetsuycker, Van der Zaen click to hear - Kersemaeker click to hear 2 / click to hear 2
EIJ, EY,
UIJ, UY
in Modern Dutch written as EI or UI:
Breydel, Van Eijbergen, Den Heyer, Meyers, Schey, Van Speijck click to hear 2
Buys, Van Duyn, Ruygers, Van Uylenburg, Van Zuylen van Nijevelt click to hear
CH after S (usually at the end of the name or root word): often not pronounced: Bosch, Van Asschendelft, Musschenbroek click to hear
CK K(K): Bicker, Van den Broecke, Van Eyck, Luyck, Ockenburg, Schimmelpeninck, Vonck click to hear
CX, CKX X: Asselincx, Dierickx, Sterckx click to hear
-DT (at the end of a name) T: Heldt, Van Slingelandt click to hear
H after G,
H after T
often not pronounced: Van Bomberghen, Van Gogh, De Hoogh, Leeghwater, Tullingh, De With click to hear
OEIJ, OEY OO as in BOOT, IJ or Y as consonant Y in Yes: Boeijen, Van Roey click to
      hear
OY, OOY,
OIJ, OOIJ
IJ and Y as consonant Y in YES: Van Ooijen, Plockhoy, Roy, Van Royen, Verlooy click to hear
OU in names sometimes as Engl. OO in BOOT, (the Dutchman recognizes the root word); in Modern Dutch as OU in LOUD:
Ruys de Beerenbrouck, Snouck Hurgronje -but- Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Woutersen click to hear
PH F when as first letters of name or syllable: Philips, Zutphen click to hear
separate P and H in 'compound names:' Koophuis, Opheusden click to hear 2
-SZ at the end of a name: S (short for -szoon, 'son of'): Florisz, Van Heutsz click to hear
WT- a few families write their name with Wt as the first letters. Many Dutchmen will insert an I, as if it says 'wit,' (white) for instance "Wittewaal" click to hear but it should be pronounced somewhat like EWT- (EW like in DEW): Freule Wttewaall van Stoetwegen, Wterwijck click to hear
Y - as a vowel: As Modern Dutch EI and IJ. Rare: Hymans, Nyssens click to hear
- after consonant, at end of name: as Engl. EE in SEE: Gerbrandy, Lely click to hear

Occasionally, a name is said in way that diverges from standard pronunciation, for instance: Bruegel, Baron Van Lynden click to hear
Dutchmen will attempt to pronounce foreign names as in the original language: Brüggen, Lumey, Zimmerman click to hear

More Dutch names: Vermeer's World - Rembrandt - 17th Century Sailors and Ships - Old New York - Names by Request - First Names - Geography

Search Names in Holland
A beautiful website for searching Dutch last (and first) names is 'Het Meertens Instituut': English version - Dutch version, which has maps showing the distribution of names over the country, both for the 1947 census and for the 2007 national population registry.
You could also search for your Dutch relations in The Netherlands Phone Directory. It's all in Dutch. 'Wat zoekt U?' = What are you looking for? - Enter a name.

Names Corrupted
I was asked about 'Fami(t)cha,' the first name of a Dutch greatn-grandmother who came to America in the 1700s. It didn't look Dutch to me, but after some reflection and looking through Van der Schaar (the Dutch Dictionary of First Names) I think it's most likely: Femmetje click to hear 2 as written down phonetically by an English-speaking clerk. Try it for yourself: how would you write it down as you hear it? That clerk didn't do a bad job: when you say 'Famicha' as if it were an English name, doesn't it come out like I say 'Femmetje'?

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2