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DUTCH PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING

(De) uitspraak click to hear ('pronunciation')

To The Words and Letters (below)
A - AA - AU - B - -B - C - CH - D - -D - E - EE - 'voiceless, unstressed E (schwa)' - EI - EU - F - G - H - I - IE - IJ - -IG - -ISCH - J - K - KN - L - -LIJK - M - N - NG - O - OO - OE - OU - P - Q - R - S - SCH - SCHR - T - -TIE - U - UU - UI - UW - V - W - WR - X - Y - Z - apostrophes and diaeresis
Names and Old Spelling

This is a reference page for looking up the pronunciation of Dutch words and names, or just to hear the simple beauty of Dutch. For learning the sounds and spelling of Dutch go to: Pronunciation Overview.

Hear the Dutchman say his alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z click to hear - KLM click to hear

The words in bold are more common ('Basic Dutch.')
The translations are short and may be incomplete - just meant to give you a rough idea of what the words mean.
An alphabetic list of almost all Dutch words on this page with English translation.

Introduction: Dutch 'Long' and 'Short' Vowels

Hear:
la click to hear
('drawer')
laat click to hear
('late')
lat click to hear
('slat')
laten click to hear
('to allow')
latten click to hear
('slats')
ha click to hear
('aha!')
haak click to hear
('hook')
hak click to hear
('heel')
(shoe)
haken click to hear
('hooks')
hakken click to hear
('heels')
Dutch vowels can be 'long' or 'short.' It's a traditional name - the difference is actually more a matter of tone than of length.
Double vowels are always long: maan click to hear ('moon') - slaap click to hear ('sleep')
But single vowels can be long or short: hel click to hear ('hell') - hele click to hear ('whole')
Diphthongs (AU EI EU IJ OE OU UI) are always long.
Usually, a single vowel is short when followed by more than one consonant, or by a single consonant that's the end of a word:
man click to hear
('a male')
mannen click to hear
('men')
hart click to hear
('heart')
harten click to hear
('hearts')
slap click to hear
('weak')
slappe click to hear
('weak' ->>)
slapte click to hear
('weakness')
A single vowel is usually long when followed by one consonant and another vowel (somewhat like English 'silent E') and a single vowel at the end of a word (except E) is also long:
manen click to hear
('moons')
slapen click to hear
('to sleep')
ma click to hear
("Mom")
sla click to hear
('lettuce')
But 'voiceless E' is a problematic exception to this rule (see under E - below.)
Double consonants are pronounced just like a single consonant; they're double just to show that a single vowel before them is short. At regular speaking speed, the single and double N's in manen click to hear ('moons') and mannen click to hear ('men, males') sound exactly alike. Griepprik click to hear ('flu shot')
grote click to hear
('big, tall
large, great')
grootte click to hear
('size,
dimensions')
grotten click to hear
('caves')
als click to hear
('if; when')
alles click to hear
('all, everything')
Babel click to hear
('Babylon')
babbel click to hear
('chat')
lade click to hear
('drawer')
ik laadde click to hear
('I loaded')
Compound words: in combinations of words, vowels usually keep their original pronunciation: slablaadje click to hear (sla-blaadje - 'a lettuce leaf')
When breaking up words in syllables, a single consonant usually goes to the second syllable: bloem click to hear 2 ('flower; white flour') / bloemist click to hear (bloe-mist - 'florist') ->>
Knowing Dutch vocabulary will help you recognize the parts of compound words.
It's of course not possible to list all foreign words used in Dutch that don't follow our spelling rules.

First Spelling Words at School - Traditional

[the old-style image used in the schools
 with pictures explaining the words]
(het) leesplankje click to hear ('reading board')

aap noot Mies Wim zus Jet click to hear 2
Teun vuur Gijs lam Kees bok click to hear
weide Does hok duif schapen click to hear 2
click to hear (translation see below)

aap click to hear 2 ('monkey') - noot click to hear 2 ('nut; note' - music) - Mies click to hear 2 (girls' name) - Wim click to hear (boys' name) - zus click to hear ('sister,' "Sis") - Jet click to hear (girls' name) - Teun click to hear 2 (boys' name) - vuur click to hear 2 ('fire') - Gijs click to hear 2 (boys' name) - lam click to hear ('lamb; paralyzed') - Kees click to hear 2 (boys' name) - bok click to hear 2 ('he-goat') - weide click to hear 2 ('meadow' - old-fashioned) - Does click to hear (dogs' name) - hok click to hear 2 ('shed, closet; pen, cage') - duif click to hear 2 ('pigeon, dove') - schapen click to hear 2 ('sheep' - plural)

Spelling Words Modern

ik maan roos vis
sok pen teen buik neus
oog aap doos poes eet
click to hear (translation below)
koek ijs zeep huis hek
weg bos tak hut reus
jas riem bijl hout vuur
geit uil pauw duif ei
click to hear
ik click to hear ('I' - "me") - maan click to hear 2 ('moon') - roos click to hear 2 ('rose') - vis click to hear ('fish') - sok click to hear ('sock, stocking') - pen click to hear ('pen' - writing) - teen click to hear ('toe') - buik click to hear ('belly, stomach') - neus click to hear ('nose') - oog click to hear ('eye') - aap click to hear 2 ('monkey') - doos click to hear ('small to medium box') - poes click to hear ('cat') - eet click to hear 2 ('(I) eat') - koek click to hear 2 ('a kind of cake') - ijs click to hear ('ice') - zeep click to hear ('soap') - huis click to hear 2 ('house') - hek click to hear ('fence') - weg click to hear ('road, way') - bos click to hear ('forest, wood') - tak click to hear ('branch') - hut click to hear ('cabin') - reus click to hear ('giant') - jas click to hear ('coat') - riem click to hear ('belt') - bijl click to hear ('axe') - hout click to hear ('wood' - material) - vuur click to hear 2 ('fire') - geit click to hear 2 ('goat') - uil click to hear 2 ('owl') - pauw click to hear 2 ('peacock') - duif click to hear 2 ('pigeon, dove') - ei click to hear 2 ('egg')

The Dutch Letters

A-short click to
  hear the tone of A in English STAR but shorter - hear Dutch: star click to hear ('rigid, inflexible')
af click to hear ('~off, ~out; ready') - al click to hear ('already') >> - acht click to hear ('8') - akker click to hear ('acre, field') - hart click to hear ('heart') - man click to hear 2 ('a man, a male') - pak click to hear ('package // formal suit for men') - slap click to hear ('weak') - strak click to hear 2 ('tight, rigid, fixed') - tak click to hear ('branch') - van click to hear 2 ('of') - vlam click to hear 'flame') - wat click to hear ('what? // some, a little') >> - want click to hear 2 ('for, because; a mitt') - zak click to hear ('bag') - Mars click to hear ('Mars') - stal click to hear 2 ('stable, animal housing') - harnas click to hear ('a knight's armor') - asbak click to hear ('ash tray') - gasvlam click to hear ('gas flame') - afwas click to hear ('dishes etc. to be cleaned') - grashark click to hear ('grass rake') - grapjas click to hear 2 ('a joker') - van de hand in de tand leven click to hear ('barely getting by, living with very little money - hand to mouth?') - bepakt en bezakt click to hear ('fully packed, ready to travel')
A-long click to
  hear like A in CHICAGO - hear: Robert Johnson - Paul Butterfield - Barry Goldberg - hear Dutch: ka click to hear 2 ('an aggressive woman') - Kaag click to hear ('a lakes area near Leyden')
aan click to hear ('~at, to') - ja click to hear ('yes') - na click to hear ('after') - maan click to hear 2 ('moon') - paar click to hear 2 ('a pair, a couple, a few') - zaag click to hear 2 ('a saw') - laag click to hear ('low') - lager click to hear ('lower') - graan click to hear 2 3 ('grain, cereal') - slaap click to hear 2 ('sleep')->> - staan click to hear ('to stand') - water click to hear 2 ('water') - maart click to hear ('March') - Maas click to hear ('Meuse (a river)') - ma click to hear ("Mom") - vaan click to hear ('small flag') - vaarwater click to hear ('water course,' "territory") - aardstraal click to hear 2 ("earth ray") - raar maar waar click to hear 2 ('strange but true') - water naar de zee dragen click to hear 2 ('carrying water to the sea, coals to Newcastle') - een aardje naar z'n vaartje click to hear 2 ('a character like his Dad') - maart roert z'n staart click to hear 2 ('March wags its tail, bad weather at the end of March')
exception: 'aa' in sinaasappel click to hear ('an orange') is often said as short A: "sinAsappel" click to hear ('an orange') - originally it was something like 'China-apple,' but over the centuries the long A wore down. sinaasappels click to hear ('oranges') - sinaasappelschillen click to hear ('orange peels') - sinaasappelpers click to hear ('orange juicer') - een glas sinaasappelsap click to hear ('a glass of orange juice')
Compare Compare short and long A: al click to hear ('already') / aal click to hear ('eel') - tal click to hear ('~number') / taal click to hear 2 ('language') - lat click to hear ('slat') / laat click to hear ('late') - as click to hear 2 ('ashes; axis') / aas click to hear ('ace; bait') - wal click to hear ('city wall') / Waal click to hear ('a river') - nar click to hear ('jester, fool') / naar click to hear ('~to; upset, sick') - padden click to hear ('toads') / paden click to hear ('paths')
short A
- un-
expected
Rather often, you'll find a short A at the beginning of a word where it should be long according to the general spelling rules (followed by one consonant and another vowel.) In these cases, the stress of the word is usually on the other vowel:
fabriek * click to hear 2 ('factory, plant') - familie click to hear ('family, relatives') - kanon click to hear ('cannon, big gun') - katoen click to hear ('cotton') - kwaliteit click to hear 2 ('quality') - manier click to hear ('manner, way of doing') - papier click to hear 2 ('paper (material)') - paraplu click to hear ('umbrella') - azijn click to hear ('vinegar') - Arabier click to hear ('an Arab') - fazant click to hear ('pheasant') - lawaai click to hear 2 ('noise') - kabaal click to hear 2 ('noise') - kanaal click to hear ('channel, canal') - kapot click to hear ('broken, not working') - tapijt click to hear ('carpet, tapestry') - april click to hear ('April') - balans click to hear 2 ('balance, equilibrium') - acuut click to hear ('acute')
Compare with 'regular,' long A: kapel click to hear ('chapel') / kabel click to hear ('cable') - adem click to hear ('breath') - kamer click to hear ('a room,' ('chamber') - avond click to hear ('evening') - averij click to hear ('damage to a ship') - alimentatie click to hear ('alimony, child support')
English A's baby click to hear ('baby, very small child') - tank click to hear ('tank') - manager click to hear ('manager') (English G) - tram click to hear ('streetcar, tram') - flat click to hear ('apartment; high-rise apartments building') - flatje click to hear (apartment') - flats click to hear ('high-rise apartment buildings')
ae In a few words of Latin origin AE is said as Dutch long E, English A as in FACE: praeses / quaestor click to
  hear ('president; treasurer') - laesie click to hear 2 ('lesion (medical jargon)')
but in old Dutch names AE is said as long A: Kersemaeker click to hear / click to hear (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
aai, ai after A and AA, I is pronounced as consonant Y:
maïs click to hear ('(Indian) corn, maize') - Thai click to hear ('a Thai person') - Thais click to hear ('Thai') - Thailand click to hear - pais en vree click to
      hear ("'very peaceful'") (to me, Dutch AI sounds very similar to English I)
saai click to hear ('boring') - taai click to hear ('tough') - kraai click to hear 2 ('crow') - haai click to hear ('shark') - baai click to hear ('bay') - zaaien click to hear ('to sow') - maaien click to hear ('to mow') - draai click to hear ('turn,' "spin") - vlaai click to hear ('fruit pie on bread dough')
French
aie
As in the original French: portemonnaie click to hear ('purse')
French
ail
As in the original French: detail click to hear ('detail') - failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt; bankruptcy') - medaille click to hear 2 ('a medal') - braille click to hear ('Braille') - taille click to hear 2 ('waist') - wespentaille click to hear ('a wasp's waist')
French
air
As in the original French: militair click to hear ('a soldier; military') - ordinair click to hear 2 ("common," 'vulgar') - vulgair click to hear 2 ('vulgar, cheap') - populair click to hear 2 ('popular, generally liked') - documentaire click to hear ('documentary')
ao A and O cannot be connected. There is a short vocal stop between them: aorta click to hear ('aorta') - chaotisch click to hear ('chaotic') - Laos click to hear
AU (=OU) click to hear like OU in LOUD, OW in NOW - hear Dutch: nauw click to hear ('narrow, tight')
blauw click to hear ('blue') - au! click to hear ('ouch!') - dauw click to hear ('dew') - gauw click to hear ('quick, quickly') - rauw click to hear ('raw') - grauw click to hear ('grey, dun, ashen') - klauw click to hear 2 ('claw') - pauw click to hear ('peacock') - flauw click to hear ('not enough salt; not funny') - paus click to hear ('(the) pope') - nauwelijks click to hear 2 ('barely, almost not') - nauwkeurig click to hear ('precise') - wenkbrauw click to hear ('eyebrow') - pauken click to hear ('kettledrums' - music) - augustus click to hear ('August') - Aukje click to hear ('girls' name') - Paulus click to hear ('boys' name') - kenau click to hear ('a fierce woman') - Maurits click to hear 2 ('boys' name') - blauwe houweel click to hear ("blue pickaxe")
French
au
Like Dutch long O: auto click to hear ('car') - automatisch click to hear ('automatic, automatically') - restaurant click to hear 2 ('restaurant') - aubergine click to hear 2 ('eggplant')
Some people say words like these with a Dutch AU: auto click to
  hear but to me that doesn't sound nice (some of my relatives say automaat click to hear ('something "automatic"') and autochtoon click to hear ('original inhabitant') but I don't like it) - the already ugly automatiek click to hear 2 ('fast-food vending machine') is acceptable
B bel click to hear ('bell' - door, signal) - been click to hear 2 ('leg') - berg click to hear ('mountain') - bus click to hear ('bus; type of jar') - boos click to hear ('angry') - bloed click to hear ('blood') - bord click to hear ('plate; board; sign') - brood click to hear ('bread') - bas click to hear ('bass (music)') - baars click to hear 2 ('bass (fish)') - baan click to hear ('job; lane') - boon click to hear ('bean') - laboratorium click to hear ('lab, laboratory') - Babel click to hear ('Babel, Babylon') - babbel click to hear ('chat, informal presentation') - dobbelen click to hear ('rolling dice') - dubbel click to hear ('double') - bibberen click to hear ('to shake, tremble, shiver') - ambitie click to hear ('ambtion') - bolleboos click to hear 2 ([slang] 'clever person') - bullebak click to hear ('bully') - bubbelbad click to hear ('jacuzzi') - binnenstebuiten click to hear 2 ('inside-out') - bar en boos click to hear 2 3 ('pretty bad (weather)') - bont en blauw click to hear ('[multicolored] black and blue') - blauwe boon click to hear 2 ('bullet' - crime fiction slang) - zonder blikken of blozen click to hear 2 (['without a second look or a blush'] - 'shameless and without hesitation') - geen boe of bah click to hear 2 (['neither boo nor yuck'] - 'without a word'') - buiten z'n boekje click to hear 2 ('outside of his [book] jurisdiction') - baas boven baas click to hear (['boss over boss'] - 'there's always something or someone superior')
MBT: B is dropped between M and T: ambtenaar click to hear ('civil servant, government worker') - beambte click to hear ('an official') - ambt click to hear (''office,' job title of official') - ambtelijk click to hear 2 ('official, 'bureaucratic')
end-of-word B end-of-word B is pronounced as P - also in parts of compound words
Compare: lab click to hear ('lab, laboratory') / lap click to hear ('a piece of cloth or land') - eb click to hear 2 ('ebbtide') / step click to hear 2 ('children's scooter') - Job click to hear ('Biblical and boys' name') / Bob click to hear ('boys' name') / stop click to hear 2 ('stop') - hebben click to hear ('to have') / ik heb click to hear ('I have') - hebzucht click to hear ('greed') - ebstroom click to hear ('ebbtide current') - labjas click to hear ('lab coat') / lapjes click to hear ('patches, pieces of fabric')
B before T is also pronounced as P: jij hebt click to hear ('you have') / jij mept click to hear ('you slap, you hit') / jij klopt click to hear ('you knock') / jij hapt click to hear ('you take a bite; you take the bait')
Compare Compare B and P: - baard click to hear 2 ('beard') / paard click to hear 2 ('horse') - brak click to hear 2 3 ('brackish; (I) broke') - prak click to hear ('mashed & mixed food') - slab/slabben click to hear ('bib/bibs') - slap click to hear ('weak') / slappe click to hear ('weak') - rib/ribben click to hear 2 ('rib/ribs') / lip/lippen click to hear ('lip/lips') - dubbel doppen click to hear 2 ("double shelling" fava beans) ->>
C C is pronounced either as K or as S, like in similar English words.
- K: before A, O, U and consonants:
bioscoop click to hear ('cinema') - camera click to hear ('(movie) camera') - commissie click to hear ('commission, subgroup') - compleet click to hear ('complete') - concurrentie click to hear ('competition') - contact click to hear ('contact,' "touch") - contract click to hear ('contract') - correct click to hear ('correct, right') - democratie click to hear ('democracy') - respect click to hear ('respect') - seconde click to hear 2 ('second, 1/60 minute') - structuur click to hear ('structure') - conflict click to hear ('conflict, struggle') - acteur click to hear 2 ('actor') - code click to hear ('code') - collega click to hear ('colleague') - combinatie click to hear 2 ('combination') - cultuur click to hear ('culture')
- S: before E, I, IJ and Y:
cijfer click to hear ('number, figure') - cirkel click to hear ('circle') - precies click to hear ('precisely, exactly') - proces click to hear ('lawsuit, court case') - centrum click to hear ('center') - centraal click to hear ('central') - recept click to hear 2 ('recipe; prescription') - cyanide click to hear ('cyanide') - narcissen click to hear ('daffodils') - cel click to hear 2 ('cell') - citroenen click to hear ('lemons') - fascinerend click to hear ('fascinating') - centimeter click to hear ('centimeter') - decimeter click to hear ('decimeter') - decibel click to hear ('decibel')
K/S: accijns click to hear 2 ('excise' (tax)) - gecompliceerd click to hear ('complicated') - concert click to hear ('concert') - actrice click to hear ('actress') - cyclus click to hear ('cycle')
Notice the pronunciation change in these Latin-like plurals: politicus/politici click to hear 2 ('politician/politicians') - criticus/critici click to hear 2 ('critic, reviewer/plural')
Some rebellious Dutchmen write K's or S's instead of C's: aksent sukses click to
     hear ('accent succes') ('succes' - French U)
CH (=G) click to hear "A sound like you clear your throat." There is no sound like it in English, but it is like J in European Spanish, and a similar sound is found in Hebrew.
chaos click to hear ('chaos') - cholera click to hear ('cholera') - chroom click to hear ('chrome') - chrysanten click to hear ('chrysanthemums') - echo click to hear ('echo') - lach click to hear ('a laugh') - toch click to hear 2 ('yet, still') - nacht click to hear ('night') - dicht click to
    hear ('closed') - lucht click to hear ('air') - rechts click to hear ('right (not left)') - rechter click to hear ('judge; on the right') - lichaam click to hear ('body') - zacht click to hear ('soft') - echt click to hear 2 ('real') - zicht click to hear ('visibility, view') - zucht click to hear 2 ('sigh') - bocht click to hear 2 3 ('turn (in road)') - tocht click to hear 2 ('journey; draft' - air movement) - ochtend click to hear ('morning') - huichelaar click to hear ('a hypocrite') - huichelachtig click to hear ('hypocritical') - lichtgewicht click to hear 2 ('lightweight') - tachtig click to hear ('80') - "achtentachtig prachtige grachten" click to hear 2 ('88 wonderful canals')
A single vowel followed by CH is always short.
Dutch CH and G do not sound exactly the same, but the difference is very small and foreign students shouldn't worry about it. lachen click to hear 2 ('to laugh') / vlaggen click to hear 2 ('flags')
Regional variation in G and CH pronunciation (See also under G.)
CH in -ISCH ending CH in the -ISCH ending is not pronounced (and the I is a long Dutch I, pronounced as English EE): as English EES, Dutch IES:
logisch click to hear ('logical') - chronisch click to hear ('chronic, chronical') - main examples under -ISCH
CH in SCHR CH in SCHR is not pronounced:
schraal click to hear 2 ('meager, dry, scant') - schrijver click to hear ('writer, author') - schreien click to hear ('to weep, cry tears' - old-fashioned) - main examples under SCHR-
French
CH
Several words from French have kept the French CH (like English SH):
charme click to hear ('charm') - charmant click to hear ('charming') - cheque click to hear ('check (money)') - chirurg click to hear ('surgeon') - chocola click to hear ('chocolate') - machine click to hear ('machine') 2 - manchet click to hear ('cuff') - manchetknopen click to hear ('cufflinks') - broche click to hear ('brooch') - douche click to hear ('shower') (also French OU)
Christus Most Dutchmen say a K for the CH in Christus click to hear ('Christ') and related names and words:
christelijk click to hear ("christian") - Christien click to hear ('girls' name') - Chris click to hear ('boys' name')
But there is a small group of very orthodox protestants who say these words and names with Dutch CH: christelijk click to hear ("christian")
D de click to hear 2 ('the') ->> - dat click to hear ('that') ->> - door click to hear ('by, through') - dom click to hear ('dumb, not intelligent') - dus click to hear ('so, therefore, thus') - donder click to hear ('thunder') - bedden click to hear ('beds') - gedrag click to hear ('behavior') - woorden click to hear ('words') - kelder click to hear 2 ('cellar') - handel click to hear 2 ('trade, commerce') - Daan click to hear ('boys' name') - dan click to hear ('then (future); than') ->> - adder click to hear ('adder (a snake)') - dubbeldekker click to hear 2 ('(double-decker) biplane') - middagdutje click to hear 2 ('afternoon nap') - dadendrang click to hear 2 ('the urge for action') - door dik en dun click to hear ('through thick and thin') - doordouwer click to hear (['through-pusher'] - 'tenacious person') - voor dag en dauw click to hear (['before day and dew'] - 'very early') - dubbel en dwars click to hear 2 (['double and diagonal'] - 'deservedly much') - dertien in een dozijn click to hear 2 (['13 in a dozen'] - 'nothing special')
end-of-word D D at the end of a word is pronounced as T: draad click to hear ('thread, string') - paard click to hear 2 ('horse') - naald click to hear ('needle') - dood click to hear ('death; dead') - strand click to hear ('beach') - zand click to hear 2 ('sand')
compare: bad click to hear ('bath') / gat click to hear ('hole') - bed click to hear 2 ('bed') / pet click to hear ('cap') - lood click to hear 2 ('lead' - metal) / boot click to hear 2 ('boat, ship') - luid click to hear ('loud') / luit click to hear 2 ('lute') - vod click to hear ('rag') / slot click to hear ('lock')
Final D is pronounced as D when a word gets an ending with a vowel, like -e, -el, -er, -en, -ig or the -in and -ing endings:
oud oude click to hear ('old') - daad click to hear ('action,' "deed") / daden click to hear ('actions,' "deeds") - tijd click to hear ('time') / tijden click to hear ->> ('times') - goud click to hear ('gold') / gouden click to hear ('golden') - brand click to hear ('fire') / branden click to hear ('fires; to burn') - tand click to hear ('tooth') / tanden click to hear ('teeth') - geld click to hear ('money') / geldig click to hear 2 ('valid') - mond click to hear ('mouth') / mondig click to hear ('having a say (in)') - ik leid click to hear ('I am leading, I'm in charge') / leiding click to hear ('leadership; pipe - water, gas etc.') - wond click to hear ('wound, injury') / verwonding click to hear ('injury') - eind click to hear 2 ('end') / einde click to hear 2 ('end') / oneindig click to hear ('endless, infinite') - ik bid, wij bidden click to hear ('I pray, we pray') - vriend click to hear ('friend') / vrienden click to hear ('friends') / vriendin click to hear ('female friend') - hard click to hear ('hard' - not soft) / hart click to hear ('heart') / "harde harten" click to hear ("hard hearts") - pet bed petten bedden click to
       hear ('cap bed caps beds') - lid click to hear ('member') / wit click to hear ('white') / midden click to hear 2 3 ('middle') / witte click to hear ('white')
- noord click to hear / het noorden click to hear 2 ('North/the North') - oost click to hear / het oosten click to hear 2 ('East/the East') - zuid click to hear / het zuiden click to hear 2 ('South/the South') - west click to hear / het westen click to hear 2 3 (West/the West'') - oost west, thuis best click to hear 2 ('Home sweet home')
Irregular plurals: - stad / steden click to hear ('town, city / towns, cities') - smid / smeden click to hear ('blacksmith / blacksmiths') - kind / kinderen click to hear ('child / children')
But final D's keep the T-pronunciation in compound words: kindje click to hear 2 ('little child') - hondje click to hear ('little dog') - brandhaard click to hear ('source of a fire') - tandsteen click to hear ->> ('tartar, tooth-stain') - bladzijde click to hear ('book page') - goedkeuring click to hear ('approval') - goedkoop click to hear 2 3 ('cheap, inexpensive') - handschoenen click to hear 2 ('[hand-shoes] gloves') - landbouw click to hear ('agriculture') - badkamer click to hear ('bathroom with shower or bath') - badhuis click to hear ('public bath-house') - windhandel click to hear ('fishy trading deals')
exception: aardappel click to hear ('potato') - aardappels click to hear ('potatoes') - aardappelpuree click to hear ('mashed potatoes') - it should sound like aarT-appel, but in pronouncing there is an (irregular) syllable split shift to aar-dappel; also in a word like: tandarts click to hear 2 tan-darts ('dentist') but it does not happen in similar words like: aardolie click to hear ('crude oil') or aardas click to hear ('the earth's axis')
Do note that geweld click to hear ('violence') ends in a T-sound, but in words like gewelddadig click to hear ('violent') that T-sound is dropped in favor of the second D, or you could say that double D always has the D-sound: monddood click to hear (['mouth-dead'] -'silenced, not having a say (in)')
ouwe dooie rooie goeie ik hou click to hear - there is a tendency to soften certain D's, but students shouldn't worry about it. (You'll hear it from Dutchmen, but it's perfectly all right to voice the full D's.) - oude ouwe click to hear ('old') - rode rooie click to hear ('red') - dode dooie click to hear 2 ('dead') - goede goeie click to hear 2 ('good') - ik houd / ik hou click to hear ("I hold") >>
DT At normal speaking speed, mid-word DT is pronounced as T. Only in deliberately slow speech are the letters pronounced separately: breedte click to hear ('width') - handtekening click to hear ('signature') - handtasje click to hear 2 ('ladies' handbag') - windtunnel click to hear 2 ('wind tunnel') - windtunnel badtas wind-tunnel bad-tas click to hear ('wind tunnel / bag for swimming stuff')
DT at the end of a word is always said as T. Compare: hij wordt click to hear 2 ("he becomes ...") - ik word click to hear ("I become ...") ('wordt' and 'word' sound exactly the same) - see also: The Passive Voice
- overdaad schaadt click to hear 2 ('excess is harmful')
E-short click to hear like E in TEST - hear Dutch: test click to hear ('test') or like A in HAT or FAT - hear Dutch: het click to hear 2 3 ('the; it') ->> - vet click to hear ('grease, fat') - en click to hear 2 ('and') - er click to hear ('~there; ~it') ->> - men click to hear ('~they') - net click to hear ('net; barely') - ver click to hear ('far') - zet click to hear ('a move - in a game') - spel click to hear ('play, game') - stem click to hear ('voice; vote') - ster click to hear ('star') - step click to hear 2 ('children's scooter') - lef click to hear ('courage,' "guts") - bes click to hear ('berry') - cel click to hear 2 ('cell') - merk click to hear ('brand') - vest click to hear ('fleece or wool jacket') - Let click to hear 2 ('a Latvian') - pech click to hear 2 ('bad luck; car trouble')
E-long click to hear like A in MALE, TAKE and CASE - hear Dutch: meel click to hear ('flour') - teek click to hear ('tick') - Kees click to hear 2 ('boys' name')
nee click to hear ('no') - keel click to hear ('throat') - veel click to hear 2 3 ('many, much') - zeep click to hear ('soap') - meer click to hear 2 ('more; a lake') - weer click to hear 2 ('again; weather') - geen click to hear ('no, zero quanitity') ->> - geest click to hear ('mind; spirit; ghost') - greep click to hear ('grip') - vreemd click to hear ('strange') - steek click to hear ('jab; stitch') - steen click to hear 2 ('stone') - neer click to hear ('down') - peet click to hear ('godparent') - neef click to hear ('nephew; male cousin') - mees click to hear ('titmouse' - a bird) - weer of geen weer click to hear 2 (['weather or no weather'] - 'rain or shine') - het leed is geleden click to hear 2 ("the suffering is over") - deze en gene click to hear ("'this or that person")
exception: the indefinite article: een click to hear ('a') is pronounced with voiceless E. It's also written as " 'n " which shows the pronunciation correctly. The number 1 is usually written with accents: één click to hear 2 ('one, 1')
Compare Compare short and long E: ten click to hear ('~at') / teen click to hear ('toe') - ter click to hear ('~at') / teer click to hear ('tender, fragile; tar') - ver click to hear ('far') / veer click to hear ('feather; ferry; spring') - ven click to hear ('small lake') / veen click to hear ('peat') - les click to hear ('lesson') / lees click to hear ('read!') - er click to hear ('~there; ~it') / eer click to hear 2 ('honor') - Gert click to hear / Geert click to hear ('boys' names')
E-voiceless click to hear UH, like A in ALIVE or AGO ('voiceless E' is also called 'unstressed E' or 'schwa')
de click to hear ('the') ->> - te click to hear ('at; too') - me click to hear ('me') ->> - je click to hear ('you') - ge click to hear (Flemish 'you') - we click to hear ('we') - ze click to hear ('she; they') - 'n click to hear ('a') - 't click to hear ('the; it') - m'n click to hear ('my') - z'n click to hear ('his') - 'r click to hear ('her; ~there') - d'r click to hear ('her; ~there')
The one-syllable words above are unique in having the stress (klemtoon click to hear 2) of the word on a voiceless E, and there are no words of two or more syllables that have voiceless E as their only vowels.
The single E's may be the biggest problem in Dutch pronunciation. Hear all three E's in each of these words:
spelregel click to hear 2
short/long/voiceless
('a game rule')
veldleger click to hear
short/long/voiceless
('army in the field')
berenvel click to hear
long/voiceless/short
('a bear skin')
medemens click to hear
long/voiceless/short
('a fellow human')
reservedeken click to hear
voiceless/short/voiceless/long/voiceless
('a spare blanket')
Spelling rules clearly indicate long and short vowels, but they do not apply to voiceless E.
There are a few simple rules for voiceless E, but they do not cover every possibility.
One thing you could say is that the stress of a word is rarely on the voiceless E - hear: regering click to hear ('government') - rekening click to hear ('bill, invoice; account') - try to memorize the sound patterns as you learn the words.

Single E after a consonant at the end of a word is almost always pronounced as voiceless E:
aarde click to hear ('the earth; soil, dirt') - alle click to hear ('all') - benzine click to hear ('gas, gasoline') - deze click to hear ('this, these') ->> - dezelfde click to hear ('the same') - hetzelfde click to hear ('the same') - eerste click to hear 2 ('first') - laatste click to hear 2 ('last') - einde click to hear 2 ('end') - groente click to hear ('vegetable, vegetables') - grootte click to hear ('size, dimensions') - hele click to hear ('whole') - kaartje click to hear 2 ('ticket' for event) - kopje click to hear ('cup, small cup') - liedje click to hear 2 ('song') - liefde click to hear ('love') - lieve click to hear ('dear') - lente click to hear ('Spring') - pakje click to hear ('small package') - ruimte click to hear ('space') - schade click to hear ('damage') - schande click to hear ('shame') - seconde click to hear 2 ('second, 1/60 of a minute') - sommige click to hear ('some') - welke click to hear 2 ('which') - woede click to hear ('anger') - ziekte click to hear ('sickness, disease') ->> - zijde click to hear ('side; silk') - zulke click to hear ('such') - zusje click to hear ('sister') - krukje click to hear 2 ('small stool') - Jantje click to hear (boys' name - 'Johnny') - koelte click to hear ('coolth') - wedde click to hear ('soldier's pay')
exception: The single E at the end of the city name Enschede click to hear is a long E.

BE-, GE-, TE- and VER- prefixes (word beginnings: be-, ge-, te- and ver- click to hear) have voiceless E:
begroot gekort tekort vergroot click to hear - belet gered terecht verlet click to hear - bericht click to hear ('message') - gerecht click to hear ('dish, meal item') - terecht click to hear ('found; justified') - verricht click to hear ("done") - bedoeling click to hear 2 ('intention, goal') - bedrijf click to hear 2 ('company') - bedroefd click to hear ('sad, saddened') - bedrog click to hear ('fraud, deception') - belasting click to hear ('tax, burden') - beleg click to hear ('sandwich filling; siege') - besluit click to hear ('decision') - bestaan click to hear 2 ('existence') - bestelling click to hear ('order' - trading') - betaling click to hear 2 ('payment') - bevrijding click to hear ('liberation') - beweging click to hear 2 ('movement') - bewust click to hear ('conscious') - bezetting click to hear ('occupation') - gebeurtenis click to hear ('event') - gebied click to hear 2 ('area') - gebruik click to hear 2 ('use') - gedicht click to hear ('poem') - gedrag click to hear ('behavior') - geheel click to hear ('whole, complete') - geheim click to hear 2 ('secret') - gehoor click to hear ('hearing' - sense; 'audience') - geluid click to hear ('sound') - gemak click to hear ('ease, convenience') - gereedschap click to hear ('tools') - gescheurd click to hear ('torn, ripped') - geschiedenis click to hear ('history') - geslacht click to hear ('gender, sex; butchered') - gesneden click to hear 2 ('cut, carved') - getrouwd click to hear ('married') - gevaar click to hear ('danger') - geval click to hear ('a case') - gevangenis click to hear ('prison') - gevecht click to hear ('fight, battle') - gevoel click to hear ('a feeling') - gevolg click to hear ('result, consequence') - geweer click to hear 2 ('rifle') - gezicht click to hear 2 ('face; view') - gezond click to hear ('healthy') - gebed click to hear ('a prayer') - terug click to hear ('back' - return) - tegoed click to hear ('credit, positive balance') - tevreden click to hear ('content, satisfied') - tehuis click to hear ('a home') - teleurstellend click to hear ('disappointing') - teleurstelling click to hear ('disappointment') - teveel click to hear 2 ('surplus, too much') - verandering click to hear ('change') - verbinding click to hear 2 ('connection') - verdampen click to hear ('to evaporate') - verdediging click to hear ('defense') - verdieping click to hear ('floor, storey') - vergadering click to hear ('meeting, conference') - vergif click to hear 2 ('poison') - vergissing click to hear ("an honest mistake") - verhuur click to hear ('the renting out') - verklaring click to hear ('declaration') - verlies click to hear ('loss') - vermaak click to hear ('amusement, entertainment') - vernietiging click to hear ('destruction') - verrassing click to hear ('surprise') - versiering click to hear ('decoration, embellishment') - verslag click to hear ('report') - verspreiding click to hear ('spread, dissemination') - verzekering click to hear ('insurance; assurance') - verzameling click to hear ('collection, set') - verzoek click to hear 2 ('request') - vertaling click to hear 2 ('translation')

-EN, -ER and -EL suffixes (word endings -en, -er and -el click to hear) have voiceless E:
wekken wekker wikkel click to hear 2 - planten winter wortel click to hear - benen click to hear 2 ('legs') - boven click to hear 2 ('up, upstairs; over') - buiten click to hear 2 ('outside') - binnen click to hear 2 ('inside') - even click to hear 2 ('for a moment') ->> - heden click to hear ('at present, today') - jongen click to hear ('boy') - kussen click to hear 2 ('pillow; to kiss') - mensen click to hear ('people, men, human beings') - negen click to hear ('9') - open click to hear ('open') - oven click to hear ('oven') - samen click to hear ('together') - tussen click to hear ('among, between') - varken click to hear 2 ('pig') - zelden click to hear ('seldom, rarely') - zeven click to hear ('7') - wedden click to hear ('to bet') - achter click to hear ('behind') - akker click to hear ('acre, agriculture field') - ander click to hear ('other') - boter click to hear ('butter') - emmer click to hear ('bucket') - hamer click to hear ('hammer') - helder click to hear ('bright, clear') - ieder click to hear ('every') - leger click to hear ('army') ->> - lekker click to hear 2 ('tasting good, enjoyable, pleasant') - mager click to hear ('skinny, thin') - moeder click to hear ('mother') - vader click to hear ('father') - dochter click to hear ('daughter') - minder click to hear ('less') - onder click to hear ('under, below') - onderzoek click to hear 2 ('investigation, research') - over click to hear 2 ('~in, over; leftover') - overeenkomst click to hear ('agreement') - overhemd click to hear ('dress shirt') - wakker click to hear ('awake') - zeker click to hear 2 ('certainly, sure') - zolder click to hear ('attic') - zonder click to hear ('without') - zomer click to hear ('Summer') ->> - winter click to hear ('Winter') - september click to hear ('September') - oktober click to hear ('October') - november click to hear ('November') - december click to hear ('December') - appel click to hear ('apple') - borstel click to hear ('brush') - deksel click to hear ('top of pan, jar, box') - enkel click to hear ('only; ankle') - fluitketel click to hear ('water kettle') - handel click to hear 2 ('trade, commerce') - hemel click to hear ('heaven; sky') - lepel click to hear ('spoon') - lepels click to hear ('spoons') - nagel click to hear ('nail'- human, animal) - regel click to hear 2 ('rule; line, sentence') - maatregel click to hear ('measure, action taken') - sleutel click to hear ('key') - tafel click to hear ('table') - vogel click to hear 2 ('bird') - winkel click to hear 2 ('shop') ->> - wortel click to hear ('root; carrot') - rommel click to hear ('garbage, a mess') - troffel click to hear 2 ('trowel') - Nederland click to hear 2 ("Holland," 'The Netherlands') ->>

But unfortunately, be, ge, te, ver, en, er or el are not always prefixes or suffixes. As mentioned above, there is only a small group of one-syllable words with voiceless E, but there are many one-syllable words (and names) beginning with be-, ge-, ter- or ver- or ending in -en, -er or -el that have 'short E,' for example:
en click to hear 2 ('and') - er click to hear ('~there') - bel click to hear ('bell' - not church) - gen click to hear ('gene') - tel click to hear ('count') - ver click to hear ('far') - vers click to hear 2 ('fresh') - verf click to hear ('paint') - den click to hear ('pine tree; old definite article') - ten click to hear ('~at') - ter click to hear ('~at') - der click to hear ('old definite article') - Ben click to hear (boys' name) - Ger click to hear (boys' name) - bek click to hear ('animal mouth') - berg click to hear ('mountain') - gek click to hear ('crazy, insane; a crazy person') - terp click to hear ('hill of refuge in floods') - tent click to hear ('tent') - terts click to hear ('tierce, third' - music)
You may hear words with two vowels that sound like 'voiceless E' because the Dutch 'short U' has that same sound (for instance: 'bussen' click to hear 2 3 ('busses, buses') - see also below) but there are no Dutch words that are combinations of only prefixes and/or suffixes.
beter click to hear 2 ('better') - beste click to hear ('best') - bende click to hear ('gang; mess') - geven click to hear 2 ('to give') - gevel click to hear ('gable' - house) - gesel click to hear ('whip' - old-fashioned) - gezel click to hear ('companion' - old-fahioned) - tegen click to hear ('against') - teken click to hear 2 ('sign') - verte click to hear 2 ('distance, in the distance') - bevel click to hear ('order, command') - beker click to hear 2 ('mug, large cup, beaker')
Carrying over into compound words: - tegenovergesteld click to hear ('opposite') - tekening click to hear 2 ('drawing' - pencil, ink) - gegeven click to hear 2 ('given, fact, information')
More exceptions: verkoop click to hear ('sale') - model click to hear ('model') - lucifer click to hear ('match' - fire) - lucifersdoosje click to hear ('matchbox')
Another exception is 'beha' click to hear 2 ('bra') but that would more properly be written as 'B.H.'

Words of 3 or more syllables may contain both a voiceless-E prefix and a suffix, or two voiceless-E prefixes or suffixes:
begeleiding click to hear 2 ('accompaniment') - afgevaardigde click to hear 2 ('delegate, representative') - bedrijfsleider click to hear ('manager') - begrijpen click to hear ('to understand') - behoefte click to hear ('a need') - besteden click to hear 2 ('to spend') - besturen click to hear ('to govern, to rule') - geboorte click to hear ('birth') - gedachte click to hear ('a thought') - gebarsten click to hear ('broken, cracked, burst') - gebroken click to hear ('broken, cracked') - geheugen click to hear 2 3 ('memory' - brain function) - gesneden click to hear 2 ('cut, carved') - verzinsel click to hear ('fiction') - beneden click to hear ('down, downstairs') - genoegen click to hear ('pleasure, enjoyment') - verlangen click to hear 2 ('to long (for); a desire') - verleden click to hear 2 ('the past') - verkiezingen click to hear ('elections') ->> - verschillend click to hear ('different') - verdampen click to hear ('to evaporate') - overmorgen click to hear 2 ('the day after tomorrow') - ondernemer click to hear ('entrepreneur, businessman') - winkelen click to hear 2 ('to shop') - tevergeefs click to hear 2 3 ('in vain') - verstandsverbijstering click to hear ('brain funcion shutdown')
Past participles often have a ge-/verb root/-en pattern: ik heb gelachen click to hear ('I have laughed') - ik heb gegeven click to hear ('I have given') - ik heb genomen click to hear ('I have taken') - see also: verbs - more on voiceless (unstressed) E

The -ES ending (indicating female) has short E: priester click to hear ('priest') / priesteres click to hear ('priestess') - onderwijzer click to hear / onderwijzeres click to hear ('elementary school teacher, male/female') - leraar click to hear / lerares click to hear ('secondary, 'high' school teacher, male/ female') - leraren click to hear / leraressen click to hear ('secondary, 'high' school teachers, male/female')
but: 'dames' click to hear ('ladies') is with voiceless E - it's the plural of 'dame' click to hear ('lady') - the plural ES-ending is a voiceless E.
The -ET ending has short E: opgelet! click to hear ('attention!') - loket click to hear ('office window, counter') - ballet click to hear ('ballet') - banket click to hear ('pastry; banquet') - bezet click to hear 2 ('occupied') - verzet click to hear ('resistance')
The prefixes HER- (her- click to hear meaning: 're') and TER- (ter- click to hear) have short E:
herinnering click to hear 2 ('a memory') - herhaling click to hear ('repetition') - herkennen click to hear ('to recognize') - herdenking click to hear ('remembrance ceremony') - heroverwegen click to hear 2 ('to reconsider') - herverdelen click to hear ('to (re-divide) reproportion') - herstel click to hear ('reparation, rebuilding') - herstellen click to hear ('to repair') - hernemen click to hear ('to re-take') - hersenen click to hear ('the brain') - hersens click to hear ("brains") - terwijl click to hear 2 ('while') - terdege click to hear 2 ('thoroughly, properly, solid') - terloops click to hear ('in passing, casually') - terzijde click to hear ('on the side, aside') - ternauwernood click to hear ('barely, almost not') - tergend click to hear ('annoyingly') - terrein click to hear 2 ('terrain') - terreur click to hear ('terror') - terrorisme click to hear ('terrorism') - hervorming click to hear 2 ('reformation') - hervormd click to hear ('reformed' - a main branch of Dutch Protestantism)

é as in French, Dutch long E: click to hear ('hey!') - één click to hear ('one, 1') - café click to hear 2 ('cafe, bar')
è as in French, Dutch short E: click to hear ('expression of disappointment') - appèl click to hear ('appeal') - première click to hear ('festive opening night') - carrière click to hear ('career') - kassière click to hear ('cashier (female)') - misère click to hear 2 ('misery')
ea a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect E and A:
reactie click to hear ('reaction') - creatie click to hear ('creation') - reageerbuis click to hear ('test tube') - kreatief, realiteit click to
     hear ('creative, reality') - Bea click to hear (girls' name)
exception: It's only a small difference, but a few not uncommon words pronounce the E before a long A as Dutch long I, English EE: ideaal click to hear 2 ('ideal') - idealen click to hear ('ideals') - idealist click to hear ('idealist') - lineaal click to hear ('ruler' - straight lines) - linealen click to hear ('rulers' - straight lines)
French
eau
French eau is just like Dutch long O click to hear
bureau click to hear ('office; office desk') - bureaustoel click to hear ('office chair') - politiebureau click to hear 2 ('police station') - cadeau click to hear ('a present') (also written as 'kado') - eau de Cologne click to hear ('inexpensive perfume')
eeuw Dutch long E click to hear + Dutch UW click to hear
eeuw click to hear ('century') - leeuw click to hear ('lion') - meeuw click to hear ('seagull') - sneeuw click to hear ('snow') - 't sneeuwt click to hear ('it is snowing') - geeuw click to hear ('a yawn') - Zeeuws click to hear 2 ('from the province of Zeeland')
EI (=IJ) click to hear "between FATE and FIGHT" - hear Dutch: feit click to hear ('fact') There is no sound like Dutch EI/IJ in English, but it's very similar to French EI, like in soleil click to hear 2 ('sun') or the city of Marseille click to hear
- ei click to hear ('egg') - geit click to hear 2 ('goat') - reis click to hear 2 ('journey, trip') - klein click to hear 2 3 ('small, little') - trein click to hear ('train') - meisje click to hear ('girl') - leider click to hear ('leader') - scheiding click to hear ('separation, divorce') - neiging click to hear ('tendency, inclination') - eigenaar click to hear ('owner') - eigendom click to hear ('property') - waarheid click to hear 2 ('truth') - bereidheid click to hear 2 ('readiness, willingness') - eis click to hear ('demand') - sein click to hear ('signal') - gein click to hear ('fun' - slang) - teil click to hear ('large zinc bowl') - teiltje click to hear ('zinc bowl') - zeil click to hear ('sail, tarp') - veil click to hear ('of no value' - very old-fashioned) - zeis click to hear ('scythe') - Hein click to hear (boys' name) - 'n heitje voor 'n karweitje click to hear 2 ('a quarter for a little job' - boy scouts fundraising slogan)
Compare EI with Dutch EE and AI:
- mees / meis / maïs click to hear - 2 ('titmouse (a bird) / 'girl' / Indian corn')
Compare EI with Dutch AAI:
- hei / haai / hij click to hear ('heath, moor / shark / he')
- mei / maai / mij click to hear ('May / (I) mow / me') - mei click to hear ('May') - zaaitijd click to hear ('sowing time')
Hear me say English 'mile' and 'lime:'
mile click to hear 2 ('mile') - meel click to hear ('flour') - mijl click to hear ('mile')
lime click to hear 2 ('lime') - leem click to hear 2 ('loam, clay, mud') - lijm click to hear ('glue') - see also
EI and IJ sound exactly the same:
- ei hei steil click to hear ('egg / moor, heath / steep')
- IJ hij stijl click to
   hear ('body of water near Amsterdam / he / style')
Dutch EI is different from German EI. Hear German (with Dutch accent): Reinheitsgesetz click to hear ('German: Law of Purity for beer ingredients') - Daß war einmal click to hear ('German: That once was, never coming back') - to me, German EI sounds like English I
eia-, eie-, eii- A faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect EI to a following A, E or I:
eieren click to hear ('eggs') - beiaard click to hear 2 ('church bells player') - heiig (heiïg) click to hear ('hazy') - van een leien dakje click to hear (['off a slate roof'] - 'very easy')
eo a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect E and O: Theo click to hear (boys' name) - aureool click to
  hear ('halo') - theocratie click to hear ('theocracy') - geoloog click to hear ('geologist')
EU click to hear There is no sound like Dutch EU in English, but French has a sound like it in words like deux click to hear (French: '2') and German has a sound like Dutch EU in some words with Ö or OE like Gödel click to hear (a mathematician) or schön click to hear 2 3 (German: 'beautiful, good') and you may have heard of the Swedish city of Göteborg click to
  hear It has also been suggested that Dutch EU is somewhat like ER in English HER - hear Dutch: 'heur' click to hear ('her' - slang)
- deur click to hear 2 ('door') - geur click to hear ('smell') - neus click to hear ('nose') - leuk click to hear 2 ('nice, entertaining') - breuk click to hear 2 ('crack, breach; fraction') - kleur click to hear 2 ('color') - steun click to hear ('support') - scheur click to hear ('a tear, a rip') - keuze click to hear ('choice') - leuze click to hear ('slogan') - reus click to hear ('giant') - beurs click to hear ('purse' - old-fashioned) - geus click to hear (Dutch 16th Century revolutionary) - heus click to hear ('really' - children's talk) - jeuk click to hear ('an itch') - leugen click to hear ('a lie') - Teun click to hear 2 (boys' name) - Teunis click to hear (boys' name) - deuntje click to hear ('a tune') - dreun click to hear ('a thud, a whack') - beuk click to hear ('beech (a tree)') - sleuf click to hear ('a dry ditch') - kleun click to hear ('a punch, a hit') - preuts click to hear ('prudish') - deugd click to hear 2 3 ('virtue') - beul click to hear ('hangman, executioner') - geul click to hear ('ditch, channel') - sneu click to hear 2 3 ('a pity') - spreuk click to hear ('a saying, stock expression') - heuvel click to hear ('a hill') - veulen click to hear ('a foal, young horse') - reuzel click to hear ('bacon fat') - deuk click to hear 2 ('') - peul click to hear 2 ('a pod' - peas, beans) - kreunen click to hear ('to moan, to groan') - kreupel click to hear 2 ('crippled, lame') - zeurpiet click to hear ('a nagging person') - meubels click to hear ('furniture') - kleuter click to hear ('a small child' - 4-6 yrs) - peuter click to hear 2 ('a small child' - 2-3 yrs) - dreumes click to hear ('a small child' - affectionately) - treurnis click to hear ('sadness, misery' - old-fashioned) - beurt click to hear ('turn - oportunity, obligation' - in a game, in a queue) - zeulen click to hear ('to carry with difficulty or displeasure') - feut click to hear ('new college student to be hazed' - slang) - in geuren en kleuren click to hear 2 (3) (['with smells and colors'] - 'a lively, extensive description') - tegen heug en meug click to hear ('under protest')
exception: -EUM ending in words from Latin, E and U pronounced separately: museum click to hear ('museum') - petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - the everyday cheap fuel / petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - engineers' crude oil - Atheneum click to hear ('high-level High School')
Greek eu as Dutch UI: click to hear Zeus Odysseus Theseus click to hear - eufemisme click to hear 2 ('euphemism') - euthanasie click to hear 2 ('euthanasia') - therapeut pseudodemocratie click to hear ('therapist pseudo-democracy')
French euille As in the original French: portefeuille click to hear ('wallet')
F - fiets click to hear 2 ('bicycle') - fles click to hear ('bottle') - fout click to hear ('error') - fruit click to hear ('fruits') - hoofd click to hear ('head') - zelfs click to hear ('even') - staaf click to hear ('bar, stick') - straf click to hear ('punishment') - brief click to hear 2 ('letter') - stof click to hear 2 ('dust; fabric') - vijf click to hear ('5') - verf click to hear ('paint') - twijfel click to hear ('doubt') - herfst click to hear ('Fall, Autumn') - olifant click to hear ('elephant') - telefoon click to hear 2 ('telephone') - fat click to hear ('a dandy') dof/doffe click to hear ('dull, muffled, not shiny') - laf/laffe click to hear 2 ('cowardly') - ofschoon click to hear ('although') - effen click to hear 2 ('in a moment' - slang / 'solid' - color) - liflafjes click to hear 2 ('small bites of food, nice but insubstantial') - frank en vrij click to hear (['free and frank'] - 'honest and free')
G (=CH) click to hear "A sound like you clear your throat." There is no sound like it in English, but it is like J in European Spanish and it is found in Hebrew and Arabic.
ga click to hear ('go!') - gal click to hear 2 ('gall') - ge click to hear (Flemish 'you') - eg click to hear ('agriculture tool') - geel click to hear 2 3 ('yellow') - god click to hear ('god') - glad click to hear ('smooth, slippery') - grijs click to hear 2 ('grey') - graag click to hear 2 ('yes, please') - boog click to hear ('bow, arch') - genoeg click to hear ('enough') - dag click to hear 2 ('day; goodbye') - dagen click to hear 2 ('days') - weg click to hear ('way, road') - wegen click to hear ('roads') - brug click to hear ('bridge') - bruggen click to hear ('bridges') - erg click to hear ('very; bad') ->> - begin click to hear ('beginning, start') - gaas click to hear ('meshed wire') - gas click to hear ('a gas') - heg click to hear ('hedge') - trog click to hear 2 ('manger, animals' food bin') - degen click to hear ('a sable' - sword type) - zegen click to hear ('blessing') - zeggen click to hear ('to say') - gezegde click to hear ('saying; the verbs in a sentence') - allergie click to hear ('allergy') - allergisch click to hear 2 ('allergic') - ginnegappen click to hear ('to snigger') - giechelen click to hear 2 ('to giggle') - verslaggever click to hear 2 ('reporter') - gevechtsvliegtuig click to hear ('fighter plane') - grootgrutter click to hear ('supermarket chain' - ironic) - gigantisch click to hear 2 ('gigantic, very large') - click to hear gorgelen click to hear 2 ('gargling, to gargle') - gegevens click to hear 2 ('data' - plural) - goed genoeg click to hear 2 ('good enough') - grote grutten! click to hear 2 ('good grief!') - doorslaggevend click to hear 2 ('determining, deciding' - factor) - graag gedaan click to hear ('you're welcome, my pleasure') - groot gelijk click to hear 2 ('you're absolutely right') - geld en goed click to hear (['money and property'] - 'the total of someone's possessions' - god noch gebod click to hear (['neither god nor commandment'] - 'lawless') - grijs en grauw click to hear (['grey and ashen'] - 'very bleak') - grillen en grollen click to hear ('a person's idiosyncrasies') - geld geven is goed click to hear 2 ('giving money (to Marco) is a good thing') >>
G and CH are pronounced somewhat differently in Belgium and in the South of The Netherlands: 'soft' G.
French
G
Several words from French have kept the French G: percentage click to hear (' % ') - energie click to hear 2 ('energy') - gel click to hear ('gel') - gênant click to hear ('embarrassing') - logeerkamer click to hear ('guest room') - passagier click to hear ('passenger') - slijtage click to hear ('wear and tear') - giraf click to hear ('giraffe') - corrigeren click to hear ('to correct') - marge click to hear 2 ('margin') - geste click to hear 2 ('gesture') - college click to
       hear ('class at college or university')
First G Dutch, second G French: garage click to hear ('car repair shop; car housing') - bagage click to hear 2 ('luggage')
French OU: bougie click to hear ('spark plug') - courgette click to hear ('zucchini')
A very small number of not very common words in Dutch have a 'hard' French G (very similar to G in English GO or BEGIN): guerilla click to hear 2 ('guerilla') - gouache click to hear ('gouache') - bigarreaux click to hear 2 ('candied cherries') - guillotine click to hear 2 ('guillotine') - gaullisme click to hear ('gaullism') - Grenoble click to hear ('a city in France')
French
GN
'French' GN is pronounced as N - Consonant Y (Dutch NJ):
signaal click to hear 2 ('a signal') - signaleren click to hear 2 ('to notice') - magnifiek click to hear ("magnificent") - vignet click to hear 2 ("certificate") - appelbeignet click to hear ('a type of apple cake') - In the often-used, common word champignons click to hear ('button mushrooms') the NG has disappeared. With difficulty I say (exaggerated!) champiGNons click to hear
Compare with 'regular' Dutch: magneet click to hear 2 ('magnet') - Agnes click to hear (girls' name)
G in NG helling click to hear ('slope, ramp') - see NG under N for more examples
H haak click to hear ('hook') - haar click to hear ('hair; her') - hand click to hear ('hand') - heel click to hear ('whole; very') ->> - hoed click to hear 2 ('hat') - hoop click to hear ('hope; heap') - hun click to hear 2 ('their') - hoek click to hear ('corner; angle') - hond click to hear ('dog') - hap click to hear ('bite of food') - behalve click to hear ('except') - Henk click to hear 2 (boys' name) - Hans click to hear (boys' name) - Han click to hear (boys' name) - Johan click to hear (boys' name) - gehakt click to hear ('ground meat') - behang click to hear ('wallpaper') - hooghartig click to hear 2 ('haughty') - heldhaftig click to hear 2 ('heroic') - houthakker click to hear 2 3 ('lumberjack, logger') - Hooghaarlemmerdijks click to hear ('~hypercorrect') - huizenhoog click to hear ('very high' - 'like houses') - bah! click to hear ('yuck!' - expression of disgust) - 'n heet hangijzer click to hear 2 ('a difficult problem that's not going away') - hebben en houden click to hear (['haves and holds'] - all of a person's possessions) - van hot naar her click to hear ('sent to many random places') - met huid en haar click to hear 2 (['with skin and hair'] '~completely')
H after T H in TH is not pronounced: thee click to hear ('tea') - theorie click to hear 2 ('theory') - apotheek click to hear 2 ('pharmacy') - thuis click to hear ('at home') - thema click to hear ('theme') - Thea click to hear (girls' name) - catharsis click to hear ('catharsis') - thee/teen click to hear ('tea/toe') - thans/tand click to hear ('at present/tooth') - ether/eter click to hear ('ether/eater') - theoloog theïne click to hear ('theologist/theine (=caffeine)')
Do note that (like in English 'pothole') T and H are pronounced separately in some compound words, for example: witheet (wit-heet) click to hear 2 ([white-] 'red-hot')
I-short click to hear like I in DIM or WIT - hear Dutch: wit click to hear ('white')
- ik click to hear 2 3 (' I ') - dit click to hear 2 ('~this') ->> - lip click to hear ('lip') - kin click to hear ('chin') - vis click to hear ('fish') - zich click to hear ("oneself") ->> - slim click to hear ('clever') - stil click to hear ('quiet, silent') - beslissing click to hear ('decision') - fris click to hear 2 ('fresh; chilly') - wil click to hear ('will, wishes') - vin click to hear ('fin') - stip click to hear ('dot') - tin click to hear ('tin' - metal) - pit click to hear ('seed, stone, pip') - lik click to hear ('lick' - tongue) - bit click to hear ('bit' - in horse mouth) - flink click to hear ('~brave, ~courageous') - mild click to hear ('mild') - niks click to hear ('nothing') - gis click to hear ('clever' - slang) - splitsing click to hear ('split; fork in road; fission') - mis click to hear ('not on target; (catholic) mass') - dis click to hear ('dish, meal item' - old-fashioned)
exceptions: Several common words have I as voiceless E in the -IS ending:
basis click to hear ('base') - kennis click to hear ('knowledge; acquaintance') - vuilnis click to hear ('garbage') - tennis click to hear ('tennis') - Teunis click to hear (boys' name)
exceptions: words from French:
gratis click to hear ('free, at no cast') - bis! click to hear ('encore!' - music) ('I' as Dutch long I where spelling rules say it should be short)
- compromis click to hear ('compromise') (long I, and S dropped)
I-long (IE) click to hear (often written as IE, but as I in words of foreign origin) like EE in SEE - hear Dutch: zie click to hear ('see!')
die click to hear ('that, those') ->> - idee click to hear ('idea') - wie click to hear 2 ('who') - niet click to hear 2 ('not') - ziek click to hear ('sick, ill') - lief click to hear ('sweet, dear') - vies click to hear ('dirty') - vier click to hear (' 4 ') - tien click to hear ('10') - wiel click to hear 2 ('wheel') - vriend click to hear 2 ('friend') - vlieg click to hear ('a fly') - nier click to hear ('kidney') - stier click to hear 2 ('bull') - hiel click to hear ('heel' - foot) - vlies click to hear ('film, skin, membrane') - tralie click to hear ('prison bar') - piepen click to hear ('to squeak') - Mies click to hear (girl's name) - Piet click to hear (boys' name) - gitaar click to hear ('guitar') - kilo click to hear 2 ('kilo, kilogram') - silo click to hear ('silo') - bizar click to hear ('bizarre') - vitrine click to hear ('display cabinet, window') - crimineel click to hear ('criminal; a criminal') - polikliniek click to hear 2 ('outpatient clinic')
ia, iaa a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and A:
piano click to hear ('piano') - via click to hear ('via, by way of') - triangel click to hear ('triangle' - music) - riant click to hear ('comfortable') - ammoniak click to hear ('ammonia') - triviaal click to hear 2 ('trivial') - Ria click to hear (girls' name) - Pia click to hear (girls' name) - ezels balken: 'ia' click to hear ('donkeys bray: "eeyo"')
exception: in many common words with -CIA- the I has become a consonant-Y (Dutch J): speciaal click to hear 2 ('special') ('special') - specialiteit click to hear ('specialty') - sociaal click to hear ('social') - asociaal click to hear 2 ('anti-social') - socialisme click to hear ('socialism') - but (a less common word:) cruciaal click to hear ('very important')
iau like in MEOW: miauw click to hear ('meow') - poezen/katten miauwen: 'miauw' click to hear ('cats meow: "meow"')
IE see mostly under 'I-long' - above - Tiel click to hear 2 (a small city in the Netherlands)
: Ons Indië click to hear ('our India' - Indonesia of the colonial era) - see more under 'trema' below ('')
French
ier
consonant Y + A like in FACE (Dutch J + long E) premier click to hear ('prime minister') - compare with regular Dutch kassier click to hear ('male cashier')
ieu IEU represents two somewhat different sounds:
when ending in W, it's like EW in English NEW: Dutch IE + Dutch UW:
nieuw click to hear ('new') - nieuwe click to hear 2 ('new') - nieuws click to hear ('news') - kieuw click to hear 2 ('gill' - fish breathing) - nieuwsgierig Aagje click to hear ('too curious a little girl')
but when ending in S or R: Dutch I (long I) + Dutch EU + S or R, with a faint consonant-Y (Dutch J) connecting I and EU:
serieus click to hear ('serious') - furieus click to hear ('furious, very angry') - ambitieus click to hear ('ambitious') (T as TS) - religieus click to hear ('religious') - superieur click to hear ('superior') - inferieur click to hear ('inferior') - ingenieur click to hear ('engineer') (French G) - curieus click to hear 2 ('strange, odd, makes you wonder')
-IG ending click to hear In the -IG ending, I is pronounced as voiceless E (like A in AGO) followed by Dutch G: luchtig click to hear ('airy, light, not serious') - twintig click to hear (' 20 ')
gezellig click to hear 2 3 (untranslatable: '~pleasant, ~nice, ~enjoyable, ~gregarious, ~cosy') ->> - aanwezig click to hear ('present,' "is here") - aardig click to hear 2 ('kind, nice') - droevig click to hear ('sad') - eenvoudig click to hear ('simple') - enig click to hear ('only, unique') - ernstig click to hear ('serious') - evenwijdig click to hear ('parallel') - kleverig click to hear ('sticky') - luidruchtig click to hear ('loud, noisy') - nuttig click to hear ('useful') - verstandig click to hear ('sensible') - onverstandig click to hear ('not sensible,' "a bad idea") - regelmatig click to hear ('regular') - veilig click to hear ('safe') - vorig click to hear ('previous') - weinig click to hear 2 ('little, few') - rustig click to hear ('quiet, calm') - geweldig! click to hear ('great!') - geestig click to hear ('witty') - armoedig click to hear ('looking poor') - heilig click to hear ('holy, saintly') - heilige click to hear ('a saint') - zalig click to hear ('blessed; delicious') - jolig click to hear 2 3 ('jolly') - grimmig click to hear 2 ('grisly, grim') - vermenigvuldigen click to hear 2 3 ('to multiply') -vertegenwoordiger click to hear 2 ('a representative, delegate; travelling salesman') - gulzig click to hear 2 ('feeling an eager, almost compulsive urge to eat') - De zuinige huisvrouw click to
 hear ('the frugal housewife') - vereniging click to hear ('association, club') - schietvereniging click to hear ('gun lovers' club')
Of course, one-syllable words don't have suffixes: wig click to hear ('wedge') - big click to hear ('young pig') - ik lig click to hear ('I'm lying down') - and another exception: vaandrig click to hear 2 ('army cadet officer')
IJ (=EI) click to hear "between MATE and MIGHT" - hear Dutch: mijt click to hear ('parasitic bug') (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
There is no sound like Dutch EI/IJ in English, but it's very similar to French EI, like in soleil click to hear 2 ('') ('sun') or Marseille click to hear - see also EI above
ijs click to hear ('ice') - bij click to hear ('~at, near') - gij click to hear 2 (Flemish 'you') - hij click to hear ('he') - mij click to hear ('me') - wij click to hear 2 ('we') - zij click to hear 2 ('she; they') - dijk click to hear 2 ('levee, dike') - pijn click to hear ('pain') - spijt click to hear ('remorse') - wijn click to hear 2 ('wine') - vrijheid click to hear ('freedom, liberty') - blijheid click to hear ('happiness, gladness') - blijde click to hear 2 ('large club (medieval weapon)') - wijk click to hear ('neighborhood') - krijt click to hear ('chalk') - strijd click to hear ('struggle, battle') - vlijt click to hear ('diligence, steady work') - Thijs click to hear (boys' name) - Gijs click to hear 2 (boys' name) - strijdbijl click to hear ('battle-axe') - strijkijzer click to hear ('ironing iron') - tijdverdrijf click to hear 2 ('pastime') - ijsvrij click to hear 2 ([ice-free] - 'school closing so kids can go skating') - rijstebrij click to hear ('type of rice pudding') - bij tijd en wijle click to hear ('from time to time') - wijd en zijd click to hear 2 ('far and wide') - Wie schrijft, die blijft click to hear ([he who writes, remains] - 'the person writing down the scores always remains in the game')
exception: - bijzonder click to hear ('special') - IJ pronounced as English EE (Dutch long I)
[handwritten 'ijstijd'] ijstijd click to hear 2 ('ice age') - Dutchmen often write the two dots on top of "ij" as a bar.
"IJ" is seen as one letter, and when appropriate, I and J are both capitalized: IJsselmeer, IJsland.
"Y" is called by its French name: i-Grèc click to hear 2 (French: 'Greek i')
To differentiate in spoken Dutch, 'ei' is called korte ei click to hear 2 ('short ei') and 'ij' is called lange ij click to hear 2 ('long ij')
-LIJK ending click to
   hear IJ like A in AGO ('voiceless E') rijkelijk click to hear ([richly] abundantly) - vrijelijk click to hear ('freely, liberally') - verrukkelijk click to
     hear ('delicious') - ijselijk click to hear ('[icely] dreadful, frightening')
afzonderlijk click to hear ('separate') - duidelijk click to hear ('clear') - gemakkelijk click to hear ('easy') - lelijk click to hear 2 ('ugly') - lichamelijk click to hear ('bodily, physical') - mannelijk click to hear 2 ('male') - mogelijk click to hear 2 ('possible') - persoonlijk click to hear ('personal') - stoffelijk click to hear 2 ('physical, material') - verantwoordelijk click to hear ('responsible') - vriendelijk click to hear ('kind, friendly') - vrouwelijk click to hear ('female') - billijk click to hear ('reasonable' - bookish) - olijk click to hear ('droll, funny') - belachelijk click to hear 2 ('ridiculous') - degelijk click to hear ('solid, robust, sensible') - natuurlijk click to hear ('natural, naturally; of course!')
Note that a few short words end in 'regular' -LIJK with IJ-sound:
- lijk click to hear ('dead body') - slijk click to hear 2 ('mire, sludge') - gelijk click to hear 2 ('equal') (voiceless E 'ge-' prefix) - gelijkheid click to hear ('equality') - gelijkwaardig click to hear ('of equal value') - soortgelijk click to hear ('similar')
ije-, iji- When connecting with a vowel, the consonant-Y sound at the end of the IJ-diphthong becomes a little stronger:
vrij / vrijer click to hear ('free / more free') - dij / dijen click to hear ('thigh / thighs') - gedijen click to hear ('to grow well' - plants) - Bulgarije click to hear ('Bulgaria') - zijig click to hear ('silky, slimy' - person)
-ING ending Just like in English RING: ring click to hear 2 ('ring') - ding click to hear ('thing') - dinges click to hear ('what's-its-name, what's-his-name') - main examples under NG below
io, ioo A faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and O:
pion click to hear ('a pawn') - trio click to hear ('trio') - riool click to hear 2 ('sewer') - radio click to hear 2 ('radio') - bioloog click to hear ('biologist') - prioriteit click to hear ('priority') - bastion click to hear ('stronghold' - a type of fortification)
exception: ion click to hear ('ion') - ionen click to hear ('ions') - here, I is pronounced as consonant Y; also note that O is short in the singular and long in the plural, very unusual for a 'modern' word
-ISCH ending click to hear pronounced as English EES, Dutch IES (Dutch long I followed by S, CH is dropped)
automatisch click to hear 2 ('automatic') (French AU) - chemisch click to hear ('chemical') - elektrisch click to hear ('electric') - medisch click to hear ('medical') - kritisch / fysisch click to hear ('critical / physical') - Slavisch / chemisch / Belgisch click to
     hear ('Slavic / chemical / Belgian') - compare with: Fries click to hear ('Frisian; a Frisian')
iu a faint consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect I and U:
geranium click to hear ('geranium' - a plant) - kalium click to hear ('Potassium') - lithium click to hear ('Lithium') - natrium click to hear ('Sodium') - jodium click to hear ('Iodine') - see also: chemistry
con-sonant I I is pronounced as 'consonant Y,' Dutch J (Y in AWAY) after A, AA, O, OO or OE:
kooi / roeien / vlaai click to
     hear ('cage / to row / fruit pie') - see also under ai/aai, oi/ooi and oei
J as English consonant Y (except in IJ of course)
jij click to hear ('you') - je click to hear 2 ('you') - jou click to hear 2 ('you') - jullie click to hear ('you') - more about Dutch 'you:' personal pronouns - je/jij - jaar click to hear ('year') - jas click to hear ('coat') - jasje click to hear ('small coat, jacket') - jurk click to hear ('dress') - jongen click to hear ('boy') - juli click to hear ('July') - Jan click to hear (boys' name) - Jan Jansen click to hear ("John Doe") - Jaap click to hear (boys' name) - Joop click to hear (boys' name) - joch click to hear ('boy' - somewhat negative) - oranje click to hear 2 ('orange' - color) - anjer click to hear 2 ('carnation' - a flower) - jajem click to hear (['Dutch gin'] - 'jenever' - slang) - sjouwer click to hear ('person carrying heavy loads') - jijen en jouen click to hear (addressing each other in an informal manner, 'on a first-name basis') - Jut en Juul click to hear ('a bunch of silly, useless people')
French J journalist click to hear ('reporter') (French OU) - journaal click to hear ('TV News') (French OU) - jam click to hear ('jelly, jam') (English A) - jus click to hear 2 ('gravy') (also French -US ending)
K ka click to hear 2 ('an aggressive woman') - Kaatje click to hear (girls' name) - kat click to hear ('cat') - kom click to hear 2 ('bowl; come!') - koper click to hear ('Copper; buyer') - koud click to hear ('cold') - kerk click to hear ('church') - kurk click to hear ('cork') - klok click to hear ('clock') - kind click to hear 2 ('child') - krant click to hear ('newspaper') - dak click to hear 2 ('roof') - dik click to hear ('fat, thick') - rijk click to hear ('rich') - broek click to hear 2 ('pants, trousers') - volk click to hear 2 ('a people, a nation') - markt click to hear ('market') - links click to hear ('left' - not right) - akker click to hear ('acre, agriculture field') - spijker click to hear ('carpentry nail') - koekoek click to hear 2 ('cuckoo' - a bird) - gek click to hear ('crazy, insane; a crazy person') - kwitantie click to hear ('receipt of money paid') - krik click to hear ('a jack' - for lifting cars) - kakelen click to hear ('to cackle' - like chickens) - kriskras click to hear ('criss-cross' - in random directions) - in kannen en kruiken click to hear (['in pitchers and jars'] - 'all ready') - zo klaar als een klontje click to hear 2 (['as cear as a piece of crystal sugar'] - 'very clear') - kant en klaar click to hear ('ready to go') - kort en klein click to hear ('smithereens') - de kogel door de kerk click to hear (['the bullet is through the church'] - 'the die is cast') - te kust en te keur click to
    hear ('a wide choice') - ons koude kikkerland click to hear 2 ('our chilly frog's country' - a wretched place but it's home)
KN Unlike in English, K before N is pronounced: - knie click to hear ('knee') - knokkel click to hear ('knuckle') knal click to hear ('a bang') - knoop click to hear 2 ('button; knot') - knop click to hear 2 ('a bud') - knippen click to hear ('to cut' - with scissors) - knaak click to hear 2 ('a guilder' - slang) - knoest click to hear ('a knot' - in wood) - knauw click to hear 2 ('bite, blow') - knecht click to hear 2 ('servant') - knul click to hear ('~boy') - knuppel click to hear ('club, bat') - knallen click to hear 2 ('to bang') - knarsen click to hear 2 ('to gnash') - knerpen click to hear ('to crunch' - sound) - knetteren click to hear 2 ('to crackle') - knikkers click to hear 2 ('marbles' - glass) - knikkeren click to hear ('to roll marbles') - knipperen click to hear 2 ('to blink') - knipperlicht click to hear 2 ('blinking light') - kneden click to hear 2 ('to knead') - knudde click to hear 2 ('not good, a failure' - slang) - knijpkat click to hear (['squeeze-cat'] 'flashlight with squueze dynamo') - knipselkrant click to hear ('newspaper cuttings service') - knap / knapper / knapst click to hear ('pretty, intelligent / more so / most so')
L el click to hear ('ell' - ancient length measure) - laat click to hear ('late, not in time') - leer click to hear 2 ('leather; doctrine') - licht click to hear ('light') - lijst click to hear ('list') - blad click to hear ('leaf') - fluit click to hear ('whistle, flute') - glas click to hear 2 ('glass; a glass') - klaar click to hear ('ready') - plank click to hear 2 ('board') - slaan click to hear ('to slap, to hit') - slag click to hear ('a great battle') - slecht click to hear ('bad') - vlag click to hear ('flag') - vlees click to hear ('meat') - melk click to hear 2 ('milk') - speld click to hear ('pin') - zelf click to hear ('self') - film click to hear 2 ('movie, film') - wolk click to hear ('cloud') - staal click to hear ('steel; fabric sample') - val click to hear ('a fall; a trap') - deel click to hear 2 ('part') - wel click to hear ('well;' positive amplifier) ->> - doel click to hear ('goal, objective') - hol click to hear ('hollow; a lair') - slak click to hear ('snail, slug') - lepel click to hear ('spoon') - vleugel click to hear ('wing; grand piano') - lat click to hear ('slat') - lied click to hear ('song') - Let click to hear ('a Latvian') - sla click to hear ('lettuce') - altijd click to hear ('always') - wal click to hear ('city wall') - wals click to hear ('waltz; steamroller') - tolk click to hear 2 ('interpreter') - elleboog click to hear 2 ('elbow') - ellenlang click to
      hear ('terribly long' - length) - Ellen click to hear (girls' name) - luilak click to hear ('lazy person') - galblaas click to hear ('gall bladder') - alvleesklier click to hear ('pancreas') - loodlijn click to hear ('perpendicular line') - zwelgen click to hear 2 ('to wallow, live immersed in dirt and misery; to guzzle') - blik click to hear ('tin, tinplate; a tin can; a look') - lichterlaaie click to hear ("burning hot, in full flame") - leerlooier click to hear ('leather preparation worker') - luilekkerland click to hear 2 ('Cockaigne' - mythical place of free, good food) - Goejanverwellesluis click to hear (a hamlet near Gouda) - leven en laten leven click to hear 2 ('live and let live') - lekker lui liggen lezen click to hear ('enjoying a relaxed read') - lap en leur click to hear ('bad, undesirable people') - lief en leed click to hear (['love and suffering'] '(sharing) good times and bad') - Leiden in last click to hear ([Leyden] 'in trouble') - De laatste loodjes wegen het zwaarst click to hear ('the final stages of a job are the hardest') - more L
exception: in 'bibliotheek' click to hear ('library') the L is usually dropped (and H of TH is never pronounced)
-LIJK ending click to
   hear IJ like A in AGO ('voiceless E') vreselijk click to hear ('horrible') - gevaarlijk click to hear ('dangerous') - walgelijk click to hear 2 ('disgusting') - main examples under IJ above
French LL like consonant Y (Dutch J) failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt') - faillisement click to hear 2 3 ('bankruptcy') - portefeuille click to hear ('wallet') - fouilleren click to hear 2 ('to frisk, body-search') - vanille click to hear 2 ('vanilla')
M maat click to hear 2 ('measure, size;' "comrade") - macht click to hear ('power') - mand click to hear ('basket') - met click to hear ('with') - middag click to hear ('afternoon') - mier click to hear ('ant') - morgen click to hear 2 ('morning; good morning!') - mijn click to hear ('my, mine; mine' - coal etc.') - smaak click to hear ('taste') - smal click to hear 2 ('narrow') - naam click to hear 2 ('name') - kam click to hear 2 ('comb') - hem click to hear ('him') - zoom click to hear 2 3 ('hem') - bloem click to hear 2 3 ('flower; white flour') - bom click to hear 2 ('bomb') - bommen click to hear 2 ('bombs') - bomen click to hear ('trees') - warm click to hear ('warm') - kammen click to hear ('combs; to comb') - bezem click to hear ('broom') - met man en macht click to hear ('with everything available') - met man en muis click to hear ('with man and mouse' - a ship sunk with everything and all on board) - min of meer click to hear ([less or more] 'more or less')

N naar click to hear ('to; sick, upset') - nat click to hear ('wet') - nek click to hear ('neck') - niets click to hear ('nothing') - noot click to hear 2 ('nut'- fruit; 'note' - music) - snel click to hear ('quick, fast') - maand click to hear ('month') - land click to hear ('land, country') - kans click to hear ('chance') - mens click to hear 2 ('a human being, a man') - grens click to hear ('border, limit') - brons click to hear ('bronze') - tien click to hear ('10') - lijn click to hear ('line') - zoon click to hear ('son') - zon click to hear ('sun') - nijd click to hear ('anger') - inmiddels click to hear 2 ('by now') - niet voor niks click to hear ('not for nothing' - there is a reason -or- the effort was not wasted) - nooit ofte nimmer click to hear ([never or never] - 'never') - nu of nooit click to hear ('now or never')
-N ending Many people in Holland, especially in the West of the country, don't pronounce the N in the -EN ending of plurals and verbs. I consider that sloppy and incorrect, but I have to admit to a certain softening of some my final N's, as you may have noted when I read longer texts. But my recommendation to students is to pronounce those final N's, because they are written and dropping them would just add another rule to learn.
wij lopen click to hear / wij lope click to hear ('we walk') - De mensen praten plat. click to hear / De mense prate plat. click to hear ('the people talk sloppily') >>
NG like NG in SINGER ('vocalist') or HANGER, never like in LINGER or DANGER - hear: ringvinger click to hear ('ring finger')
- eng click to hear ('scary, creepy') - engerd click to hear ('a creep') lang click to hear ('long, tall') - slang click to hear ('snake; hose') - angst click to hear ('fear, dread') - sprong click to hear ('a jump') - tong click to hear 2 ('tongue' - in mouth) - jong click to
    hear ('young') - jongen click to hear ('boy') - vingers click to hear ('fingers') - bengel click to hear ('naughty boy') - honing click to hear 2 ('honey') - botsing click to hear 2 ('crash') - koningin click to hear 2 ('queen') - honger click to hear ('hunger') - gemengd click to hear 2 3 ('mixed') - belang click to hear ('interest') - belangrijk click to hear 2 ('important') - belangstelling click to hear ('interest') - als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear ('when the days get longer, the nights get more severe' - i.e. colder)
Also in compound words N gets a faint NG-sound before G: ingewikkeld click to hear ('complicated') - ongeluk click to hear 2 ('accident') - ongeveer click to hear 2 ('about, roughly')
NK Like in English, NK sounds like NGK
inkt click to hear 2 ('ink') - enkel click to hear ('only, single; ankle') - winkel click to hear 2 ('a shop') ->> - donker click to hear 2 ('dark') - afhankelijk click to hear ('dependent') - onafhankelijk click to hear ('independent') - onafhankelijkheid click to hear ('independence')
compare: bang click to hear ('afraid') / ban click to hear ('spell; excomunication') / bank click to hear ('bank; bench') - zink click to hear ('zinc' - metal) / zin click to hear ('sense; desire; sentence, line') / zing click to hear ('(I) sing') - zinken click to hear ('to sink') / zingen click to hear ('to sing') / zinnen click to hear ('senses; desires; sentences') - drinken click to hear ('to drink') / dringen click to hear ('to push, press forward') - wankel click to hear 2 ('not stable') / wangen click to hear ('cheeks') - koning click to hear ('king') / koninkje click to hear ('little king' - note G not written)
- klinker click to hear ('vowel; clinker' - street paving) - medeklinker click to hear ('consonant') - klank click to hear ('sound') - stank click to hear 2 ('stink, a bad smell') - stinken click to hear ('to smell bad') - vink click to hear ('finch' - a bird) - pink click to hear ('little finger, pinky') - een kink in de kabel click to hear 2 ('a kink in the cable, a problem came up')
In compound words N also gets a faint NG-sound before K:
steenkool click to hear ('coal, cokes') - overeenkomst click to hear 2 ('agreement') - inkomsten click to hear ('income') - onkruid click to hear ('weeds')
O-short click to hear the tone of A in HALL but shorter - hear Dutch: hol click to hear ('lair; hollow')
of click to hear ('or') - om click to hear ('around; ~to; about; ~because') ->> - op click to hear ('on top of; finished, out of') - ons click to hear 2 ('us; 100 gram, ~3 oz.') - los click to hear ('loose') - nog click to hear ('still, yet') - rok click to hear ('skirt') - pot click to hear ('pot, jar') - wol click to hear ('wool') - krom click to hear 2 ('bent, crooked') - rond click to hear 2 ('round' - like a circle) - worm click to hear ('worm') - vonk click to hear ('spark') - drop click to hear ('Dutch liquorice') - nor click to hear ('prison' - slang) - mos click to hear ('moss') - mol click to hear 2 3 ('mole/mol' - digging animal/music/chemistry) - ton click to hear 2 ('barrel; measurement') - polder click to hear 2 ('polder, reclaimed land') ->> - belofte click to hear 2 ('promise') - ontploffing click to hear ('explosion') - rolmops click to hear ('a type of pickled herring') - onder ons gezegd en gezwegen click to hear 2 ('just between you and me')
O-long click to hear like O in GO or BONE - hear Dutch: Co click to hear ('boys' name; business partner') - boon click to hear ('bean')
Note that Dutch OO and long O is pronounced as English OE, and vice versa: boot click to hear 2 ('boat') - loot click to hear ('new, young branch') - boor click to hear ('a drill' - making holes)
oog click to hear ('eye') - oor click to hear ('ear') - ook click to hear ('also, too') - boom click to hear ('tree') - doos click to hear ('box') - poot click to hear 2 ('leg' - animal, table or chair) - hoog click to hear ('high') - hoger click to hear ('higher') - koper click to hear ('Copper; buyer') - foto click to hear ('picture, photograph') - olie click to hear 2 ('oil') - sloot click to hear ('ditch') - Noor click to hear 2 ('girl's name; a Norwegian') - Moos click to hear (boys' name) - Toos click to hear (girls' name) - toon click to hear 2 3 ('tone') - molen click to hear ('windmill') - stomerij click to hear 2 ([steamery] 'dry cleaner') - chromosoom click to hear ('cromosome') - zo click to hear ('such; like this; in a moment') ->>
Compare Compare short and long O:
rok lot ton click to hear ('skirt; fate//lottery ticket; barrel')
/ rook loot toon click to hear ('smoke; shoot; tone')
- kok bon hor rot click to hear ('a cook; a coupon//ticket, fine; a bug screen; off, rotten') /
kook boon hoor rood click to hear
('(I) cook; bean; listen!; red')
French O roze click to hear ('pink') compare with Dutch short O: ros click to hear ('a type of horse') - rossig click to hear ('reddish')
and Dutch long O: - roos click to hear 2 ('rose') rozen click to hear 2 ('roses') ->>
- roze rozen click to hear ('pink roses') - roze roos click to hear 2 ('pink rose') - roze ros click to hear ("pink horse")
also French O: katastrofe click to hear 2 ('catastrophe') - zone click to hear 2 ('area') compare with: - zonnen click to hear 2 ('suns') - zonen click to hear ('sons')
second O is French: trombone click to hear ('trombone') - controle click to hear 2 ('checking on, verification of')
OE click to hear like OO in BOOK - hear Dutch: boek click to hear ('book') - or a little shorter
Note that Dutch OE is pronounced as English OO, and vice versa: - stoep click to hear 2 ('sidewalk,' "stoop") - koekje click to hear ('cookie')
hoe click to hear ('how')
koe click to hear ('cow') - toe click to hear ('~towards; come on!') - goed click to hear ('good, well') - stoel click to hear ('chair') - ploeg click to hear ('plow; team') - vloer click to hear ('floor, surface') - groen click to hear ('green') - snoep click to hear ('candy') - broer click to hear ('brother') - poeder click to hear ('powder') - koel click to hear 2 ('cool' - moderately low temperature) - moes click to hear ('something mashed') - hoef click to hear ('horse iron') - spoed click to hear ('urgent, urgency') - groet click to hear 2 ('greeting') - oefening click to hear 2 ('exercise') ->> - doezelen click to hear 2 ('to slumber, half-sleep') - stroef click to hear ('with difficulty, not easy' - not lubricated) - floep! click to hear (exclamation: something happening quickly)
Greek OE Pronounced as Dutch EU: click to hear
oecumenisch click to hear 2 ('ecumenical') - Oedipus click to hear ('Oedipus') (Latin -US ending pronounced as OOS, Dutch OES) - oedipaal click to hear ('like Oedipus')
Frech OEU Pronounced much like 'voiceless E' or Dutch short U click to hear but longer: oeuvre click to hear ('an artist's body of work') - manoeuvre click to hear 2 ('maneuver, strategic move') - but the OEU of the Dutchified verb manoeuvreren click to hear 2 ('to maneuver') is pronounced as OO (Dutch OE.)
oei, oi, ooi After O, OE and OO, I is pronounced as consonant Y (Dutch J)
boei click to hear ('buoy') - moeilijk click to hear ('difficult') - moeite click to hear 2 ('difficulty, trouble, effort') - koe koeien click to
  hear ('cow cows') - groei groeien groeit click to
  hear ('growth; to grow; [it] grows') - het boeide me niet click to hear ([it didn't grip me] 'I wasn't interested, I didn't care for it') - al wat groeit en bloeit en ons telkens weer boeit click to hear 2 ('everything that grows and flowers and fascinates us again and again')
hoi click to hear ('hurrah!; hello; goodbye' - slang) - toi-toi-toi click to hear ('good luck! - knock on wood)
- mooi click to hear / mooie click to hear ('beautiful, pretty') - mooi / mooier / mooist click to hear ('beautiful, pretty/more so/most so') - nooit click to hear ('never') - ooit click to hear ('ever, sometime') - ooi click to hear ('ewe' - sheep) - ooievaar click to hear ('stork' - a bird) - hooivork click to hear ([hay-] 'pichfork') - hooiwagen click to hear 2 ([haycart] 'Daddy Longlegs spider') - rotzooi click to hear 2 ('a mess, garbage') - fooi click to hear ('tip' - to server) - 't Gooi click to hear ('the area around Hilversum, South-East of Amsterdam') - 't dooit click to hear ([it is thawing] - 'it stopped freezing') - 't Kan vriezen en 't kan dooien click to
 hear ([it may freeze or it may thaw] - things can go either way)
French oi As in French: toilet click to hear ('toilet, bathroom') - dressoir boudoir click to
       hear ('fancy dining room cabinet; a lady's dressing room')
OU (=AU) click to hear like OU in LOUD, OW in NOW - hear Dutch: nou click to hear ('now') There's always a Dutch W sound after OU; when the W is written it could be a little more pronounced. jou click to hear 2 ('you' - singular, informal) and jouw click to hear ('your' - singular, informal) ->> sound alike (both have the Dutch W-sound)
oud click to hear ('old') - hout click to hear ('wood' - the material) - touw click to hear ('rope, string') - vouw click to hear ('fold') - zout click to hear 2 ('salt') - gebouw click to hear 2 ('building') - berouw click to hear ('remorse') - Gouda click to hear ('city in Holland') - Gouke click to hear (boys' name) - houweel click to hear ('pickaxe') - woud click to hear 2 ('wood, deep forest') - oubollig click to hear ('droll, funny') - louter click to hear ('pure') - koud mouw stouwen click to
     hear ('cold; sleeve; to stack tightly')
French OU French OU is like English OO, Dutch OE: gouverneur click to hear ('governor') - route click to hear ('route, way, course') - routine click to hear ('routine, habit') - troubadour click to hear 2 ('troubadour, minstrel') - coureur click to hear ('race car driver, motorcycle racer') - rouge click to hear ('make-up item, red') (French G) - bouillonblokje click to hear 2 ('beef cube') - souffleur click to hear ('stage whisperer') - zouaaf click to hear ('zouave' - Papal soldier) - zouaven click to hear ('zouaves')
P pa click to hear ('Dad') - paars click to hear 2 ('purple') - pan click to hear 2 ('pot, pan' - cooking) - pen click to hear ('pen' - writing) - plant click to hear ('plant' - nature) - pijp click to hear ('pipe') - pomp click to hear ('pump') - spier click to hear 2 ('muscle') - aap click to hear 2 ('monkey') - stap click to hear ('step') - kip click to hear ('chicken') - kop click to hear ('animal head') - diep click to hear 2 ('deep') - groep click to hear ('group') - pap click to hear 2 ('porridge') - pop click to hear ('doll') - poppen click to hear 2 ('dolls') - griepprik click to hear ('flu shot') - pimpelpaars click to hear ('very purple') - ophaalbrug click to hear 2 ('drawbridge') - ophef click to hear ("fuss, ado") - ophouden click to hear 2 ('to stop, cease') - ophangen click to hear ('to hang something;' also: 'to kill a person by hanging') - rasphuis click to hear 2 ('16th/17th Century poorhouse or place of punishment where inmates ground or pulped wood') - paal en perk stellen click to hear ('to set limits, to take measures to stop') - van Pontius naar Pilatus click to hear ([(sent on) 'pointless errands') - pracht en praal click to hear ('pomp and circumstance') - als puntje bij paaltje komt click to hear ('at the moment of truth, when push comes to shove')
As mentioned above, a B at the end of a Dutch word sounds like a P.
In Dutch Names (see below) PH is often pronounced as F.
PS Unlike in English, P before S is pronounced: psychiater click to hear ('psychiatrist') - psycholoog click to hear 2 ('psychologist') - pseudoniem click to hear ('pseudonym, pen name') - psalm click to hear 2 ('psalm')
Q In writing always followed by U - Dutch KW represents the same sound
quasi click to hear ('quasi') - queeste click to hear ('serious quest, like for the Holy Grail') - quiz click to hear ('quiz show') - (also: kwis click to hear) - quorum click to hear ('required number of voters')
compare with: kwik click to hear ('mercury, quicksilver') - kwibus click to hear ('silly, headstrong person') - kwart click to hear ('a quart, ¼')
Only recent French imports like quiche click to hear ('quiche, an oven dish') and quitte click to hear ('even, no debts towards each other') do not have the W sound after K.
R Dutch R is quite different from English R:
er click to hear ('~there') ->> - raam click to hear 2 ('window') - rand click to hear ('edge') - rijst click to hear ('rice') - rug click to hear ('back' - body part) - borst click to hear ('breast') - drie click to hear (' 3 ') - gras click to hear ('grass') - graad click to hear ('degree') - kraag click to hear ('collar') - droog click to hear ('dry') - broederschap click to hear ('brotherhood') - rit click to hear ('a ride, a drive') - rits click to hear ('zipper') - rook click to hear ('smoke') - brood click to hear 2 ('bread') - hart click to hear ('heart') - kerk click to hear ('church') - kleren click to hear ('clothes') - herrie click to hear ('noise') - in rep en roer click to hear ('in an uproar, everyone's upset') - rust roest click to hear ([rest rusts] - 'inactivity leads to stagnation') - more R
At the beginning of a word, English R starts with the tongue touching the top of the palate, and then moving down; it's a 'rolling' sound formed in the middle of the mouth.
Dutch R keeps the tongue flat, its tip touching the lower teeth, and it's formed in the back of the mouth.
Compare English and Dutch R:
English road
click to hear
room
click to hear
ram
click to hear
price
click to hear
Dutch rood
click to hear
roem
click to hear
rem
click to hear
prijs
click to hear
meaning red fame a brake price
English great
click to hear
fern
click to hear
deer
click to hear
star
click to hear
Dutch Greet
click to hear
varen
click to hear
dier
click to hear
star
click to hear
meaning (girls'
name)
fern,
to sail
animal,
mammal
inflexible,
rigid
English rat
click to hear
fries
click to hear
Dutch rat
click to hear
red
click to hear
frietjes
click to hear
Fries
click to hear
meaning rat (I) save fries Frisian
S sok click to hear ('sock') - soep click to hear ('soup') - slot click to hear 2 ('lock; castle') - spons click to hear ('sponge') - staart click to hear ('tail') - sterk click to hear ('strong') - kast click to hear 2 ('cabinet, cupbpard, shelves system') - naast click to hear ('next to') - post click to hear ('the mail') - barst click to hear ('a crack') - kunst click to hear ('art') - gas click to hear 2 ('a gas') - kaas click to hear 2 3 ('cheese') - mes click to hear 2 3 ('knife') - messen click to hear 2 ('knives') - kies click to hear 2 ('back tooth, molar') - dus click to hear ('so, therefore, thus') - wijs click to hear ('wise') - als click to hear ('if, when') ->> - plaats click to hear ('place; town') - beslissing click to hear ('decision') - spits click to hear ('sharp, pointed shape; clever') - stokstijf click to hear ('frozen, without movement, stock-still') - spiksplinternieuw click to hear ('brand-new') - sla je slag click to hear ('grab the opportunity') - zonder slag of stoot click to hear ('without a battle') - stut en steun click to hear 2 ([prop and stay] - 'support')
SCH click to hear see also - CH above ("a sound like you clear your throat")
schaal click to hear 2 3 ('shallow bowl; scale') - schaap click to hear ('sheep' - singular) - schapen click to hear 2 ('sheep' - plural) - schaar click to hear ('scissors') - schep click to hear ('shovel, spade; scoop') - scherp click to hear ('sharp; spicy') - schip click to hear ('ship') - schoen click to hear ('shoe') - schoon click to hear ('clean') - school click to hear ('school') - schok click to hear ('shock') - schuld click to hear ('guilt') - schade click to hear 2 3 ('damage') - schande click to hear ('shame') - schaduw click to hear ('shadow') - schaamte click to hear ('shame, ashamedness') - schop click to hear ('shovel, spade; a kick') - schuit click to hear 2 ('ship, boat - somewhat negative) - schetsje click to hear ('sketch, rough drawing') - scherts click to hear 2 ('humor, jest') - scheikunde click to hear ('chemistry') - schuur click to hear 2 ('large shed') - beschaafd click to hear ('civilized, cultured') - heggeschaar click to hear ('hedge clipper') - schimpscheuten click to hear ('unpleasant remarks, mild cursing') - 'n scheve schaats click to hear ([a crooked skate] 'immoral behavior') - schots en scheef click to hear ('in a jumble, not well-aligned') - door schade en schande click to hear ([by damage and shame] 'the school of hard knocks')
SCHR CH in SCHR is not pronounced:
schrik click to hear ('fright') - schroef click to hear ('a screw') - schroeven click to hear ('to screw in screws') - schreeuw click to hear ('a cry, a shout') - schreeuwen click to hear ('to shout') - schrobber click to hear ('hard broom') - ik schrijf click to hear ('I'm writing') ->> - ik schreef click to hear ('I wrote') ->> - schrander click to hear ('clever') - schram click to hear ('scratch') - schrammetje click to hear 2 ('a very small scratch')
Compare Compare SCH and SCHR:
schaal schraal click to hear ('~bowl / ~poor, ~dry') - schil schril click to hear ('~skin, ~layer / shrill') - schiften schriften click to hear ('~to separate notebooks') - schap schrap click to hear ('shelf / ~firmly') - schikken schrikken click to hear 2 (-not enough space-) - schoot schroot click to hear 2 ('lap / scrap metal') - schijven schrijven click to hear 2 ('discs / to write')
-ISCH ending As English EES, Dutch IES (CH in -ISCH is not pronounced) lyrisch click to hear 2 ('lyrical') - organisch click to hear ('organic' - chemistry) - anorganisch click to hear ('inorganic' - chemistry) - biologisch click to hear ('biological,' "organic" - agriculture) - main examples under I (above)
T tand click to hear ('tooth, front tooth') - teen click to hear ('toe') - toen click to hear 2 3 ('then' - past) ->> - tot click to hear ('till, until') - taart click to hear ('cake') ->> - stijf click to hear ('stiff') - stok click to hear ('stick') - stoom click to hear ('steam') - straal click to hear ('ray') - iets click to hear ('something') - haat click to hear ('hate') - heet click to hear ('hot, warm') - wit click to hear 2 ('white') - bot click to hear ('bone') - mist click to hear ('fog, mist') - boter click to hear ('butter') - eten click to hear ('food, a meal; to eat') ->> - straat click to hear ('street') - tante click to hear ('aunt') - boomstronk click to hear 2 ('tree stump') - taal noch teken click to hear ([word nor sign] - 'no communications at all') - van top tot teen click to hear ([from head to toe] - 'completely')
Note that end-of-word D sounds like T in Dutch (see under D) ('') and that a mid-word T in Dutch is 'sharper,' not a sound like D as in American English:
water click to hear 2 ('water') - beter click to hear 2 ('better') - bitter click to hear ('bitter') - otter click to hear ('otter') - Otto click to hear 2 (boys' name)
CHTJ, STJ, STZ - In between certain letters, T is usually dropped:
postzegel click to hear ('stamp' - mail) - - postzegels click to hear ('stamps' - mail) - tochtje click to hear ('small trip') - It's just too hard to say: pos-t-zegel click to hear 2 or toch-t-je click to hear
zachtjes click to hear ('softly') - nichtje click to hear ('cousin (female); niece') - luchtje click to hear ('a smell; something fishy') - nestje click to hear ('a bird's nest') - feestje click to hear 2 ('small party') - kastje worstje click to hear 2 ('small cabinet / small sausage')
TD At normal speaking speed, mid-word TD is pronounced as D. Only in deliberately slow speech are the letters pronounced separately. There is no difference in the pronunciation of ontd- and ond-: ontdekt ondier ont-dekt click to
    hear ('discovered monster')
TH H after T is not pronounced: therapie click to hear ('therapy') - thermometer click to hear ('thermometer') - mythe click to hear ('myth') - main examples under H (above)
-TIE ending after C, P and R: SEE (Dutch SIE): reactie click to hear ('reaction') - infectie click to hear ('infection') - frictie click to hear 2 ('friction') - adoptie click to hear ('adoption') - proportie click to hear ('proportion') - selectie functie fractie click to hear 2 ('selection function fraction')
after vowels and N: TSEE (Dutch TSIE): conditie click to hear ("shape"; 'condition') - democratie click to hear ('democracy') - advertentie click to hear ('ad, advertisement') - operatie click to hear ('operation; surgery') - organisatie click to hear ('organisation') - positie click to hear ('position') - tolerantie click to hear ('tolerance') - clementie gratie click to hear ('clemency / a pardon') - natie traditie garantie click to hear ('nation / tradition / guarantee, warranty')
after S: not irrregular, TEE (Dutch TIE): - suggestie click to hear ('suggestion') - hostie click to hear 2 ('the holy wafer')
other -TIE endings like -TIEF, TIEK and -TIER are not irregular, compare: politie click to hear / politiek click to hear ('police/politics') - actie / actief click to hear 2 ('action/active') - optie / optiek click to hear ('option / view') - portie / portier click to hear 2 ('serving/doorman; car door') - motie / motief click to hear 2 ('motion, resolution / motive')
TJ, TSJ Somewhat like CH in CHIRP or CHILL (No S in TJ) tjalk click to hear ('a ship type') - tjokvol click to hear ('very full (room)') - tjilpen click to hear / tjirpen click to hear / tsjilpen click to hear / tsjirpen click to hear ('making that birds' sound')
U-short click to hear UH, like A in ALIVE or AGO - sounds the same as 'voiceless E' - dubbeltje click to hear 2 ('dime - 10¢) - gummetjes click to hear ('erasers')
dun click to hear ('skinny, thin') - nul click to hear ('zero') - hulp click to hear ('help, assistance') - punt click to hear ('point') - druk click to hear ('pressure; busy') - stuk click to hear ('piece; broken, not working') - vlucht click to hear ('flight; escape') - spul click to hear ("stuff") - lus click to hear ('loop') - krul click to hear ('curl') - krullen click to hear ('curls') - tulp click to hear ('tulip') ->> - tulpen click to hear ('tulips') - rust click to hear ('rest, quiet') - gerucht click to hear 2 ('rumor') - blussen click to hear 2 ('to extinguish fire') - plunjezak click to hear 2 ('duffel bag') - blut click to hear ('broke, out of money' - slang) - smurrie click to hear ('dirty, mudlike stuff, sludge')
Dutch short U sounds exacly like voiceless E. Above I mentioned that except for de, te, me, je, ge, ze, we, 'n, 't, m'n, z'n, 'r and d'r >> there are no words with voiceless E as their only vowel, and there are no words of two or more syllables with voiceless E as their only vowels. However, short U is a regular vowel, and words can have short U and voiceless E as their only vowels, as for instance: tunneltje click to hear ('a small tunnel') - verrukkelijk click to hear 2 / verrukkelijke click to hear 2 ('delicious, very enjoyable')
U-long click to hear There is no sound in English similar to Dutch 'long U,' but is is found in French, like in cru or dur click to hear and in German, like in Hügel and Muesli click to hear
U click to hear ('you' - formal) - uur click to hear ('hour') - nu click to hear 2 ('now') - duur click to hear ('expensive') - puur click to hear 2 ('pure') - vuur click to hear 2 ('fire') - muziek click to hear 2 ('music') - unie click to hear ('union') - uniform click to hear ('uniform') - fusie click to hear ('companies merging; fusion') - juni click to hear ('June') - stuur click to hear ('steering wheel') - bruut click to hear ('brutal; a brute') - bruusk click to hear 2 ('impolitely quick, abrupt') - fuut click to hear ('grebe' - a bird) - molecuul click to hear ('molecule') - spugen click to hear ('to spit') - guur click to hear 2 ('very unpleasant, harsh' - weather) - uniek click to hear 2 ('unique, one of a kind') - Utrecht click to hear 2 ('a major city in The Netherlands')
ua, ue, uo a faint Dutch W-sound is inserted to connect U to A, E or O: (In most words, this W is not written.)
situatie click to hear ('situation') - januari click to hear ('January') - februari click to hear ('February') - dualiteit click to hear ('duality') - fluctuatie click to hear ('fluctuation') - duel click to hear ('duel') - minuet click to hear ('minuet') - duo click to hear 2 ('duo')
UEE and UWEE sound the same, compare: ritueel click to hear ('ritual; a ritual') - fluweel click to hear ('velvet')
UI click to hear There is no sound like Dutch UI in English, but French has it in a word like l'oeil click to hear ('the eye') - hear Dutch: lui click to hear ('lazy')
ui click to hear 2 ('onion') - uit click to hear 2 ('out') - buik click to hear ('belly') - duim click to hear 2 ('thumb') - huid click to hear 2 ('skin') - huis click to hear 2 ('house') - tuin click to hear 2 ('yard, garden') - vuil click to hear ('dirt, dirty stuff; dirty') - bruin click to hear 2 3 ('brown') - juist click to hear ('right, correct; exactly!') - suiker click to hear ('sugar') - bui click to hear 2 ('rainshower') - buit click to hear ('loot, booty') - duin click to hear ('dune') - muis click to hear ('mouse') - ruim click to hear ('roomy, spacious; well over; a ship's hold') - bruid click to hear ('bride') - bruidegom click to hear ('bridegroom') - snuit click to hear ('snout - pointy animal face, mouth') - spuit click to hear ('spout, hose end') - ruit click to hear 2 3 ('windowpane; equilateral parallellogram') - ruiten click to hear ('windowpanes; diamonds' - cards) - struik click to hear 2 ('bush') - kluif click to hear 2 ('bone for gnawing') - kluit click to hear 2 ('clod') - kruit click to hear ('gunpowder') - schuim click to hear ('foam') - - sluik click to hear ('straight, thin' - hair; 'hidden, fishy' - trading) - Pruis click to hear ('a Prussian') - buil click to hear ('a bump' - swelling) - ruig click to hear ('rough') - huilen click to hear ('to cry, to weep,') - uil click to hear 2 ('owl') - zuil click to hear 2 ('pillar') - ruis click to hear ('static, noise') - gruis click to hear ('grit, dust') - kruis click to hear ('cross') - sluis click to hear 2 ('sluice') - duivel click to hear ('devil') - zuivel click to hear ('dairy') - zuiver click to hear ('pure') - huiveren click to hear 2 ('to shiver') - Duitser click to hear ('a German') ->> - stuiver click to hear ('a nickel, 5¢') - kruipen click to hear ('to crawl') - huilbui click to hear ('crying fit') - huisvuil click to hear 2 ('household garbage') - bruidssuiker click to hear ('wedding candy') - buitenshuis click to hear ([out of the house] - 'outside') - kruipruimte click to hear ('crawlspace' - under house floor)
When there is no consonant ending the word, some Dutchmen say UI with a consonant-Y-sound (Dutch J) at the end: ui(j) click to hear ('onion') - but I prefer the pronunciation with a Dutch W: ui(w) click to
    hear - but the plural uien click to hear ('onions') has the consonant-Y-sound (Dutch J) - see also the next paragraph
uia, uie a consonant-Y sound (Dutch J) is inserted to connect UI to A or E: (See also above under UI)
luiaard click to hear 2 3 ('lazy person; sloth') - buien click to hear ('rainshowers') - uier click to hear ('udder' - cow) - luier click to hear ('diaper, nappy') - sluier click to
       hear ('a veil') - grauwsluier click to hear ('a gray veil' - detergent commercial)
UW The U in Dutch UW is always long - it's an exception.
Uw click to hear ('your (formal)') - duw click to hear ('a push') - duwen click to hear ('to push') - zenuw click to hear ('nerve') - ruw click to hear 2 / ruwe click to hear ('rough') - juweel click to hear ('a jewel') - juwelen click to hear ('jewels, jewelry') - zwaluw click to hear ('swallow' - a bird) - ruwaard click to hear ('a medieval ruler') - gruwelen click to hear ('horrors; to be horrified') - ruwweg click to hear ('roughly' - estimating) - sluw click to hear ('sly, clever') - ruwheid click to hear ('roughness') - Veluwe Betuwe click to hear (areas in the East of The Netherlands)
U click to hear ('you' - formal) and Uw click to hear ('your' - formal) sound different, but jou click to hear 2 ('you' - singular, informal) and jouw click to hear ('your' - singular, informal) ->> sound alike (both have a W-sound)
V vak click to hear 2 ('compartment; trade, profession, subject') - vaak click to hear 2 ('often, frequent') - vast click to hear ('solid; fixed') - veer click to hear ('feather; ferry; a spring') - veld click to hear ('field') - vol click to hear ('full') - voor click to hear 2 ('for; before') ->> - voet click to hear 2 ('foot') - vraag click to hear 2 ('question') - vroeg click to hear ('early') - vrees click to hear ('fear') - vrede click to hear ('peace') - levend click to hear ('live, alive') - lieve click to hear ('dear, sweet') - golven click to hear 2 ('waves') - veevoer click to hear ('animal fodder') - vervoer click to hear ('transportation') - verven click to hear 2 ('to paint') - vijver click to hear ('pond') - visvangst click to hear ('catch,' - fish caught) - veelvlak click to hear 2 ([multiplane] - 'polyhedron') - rivieroever click to hear ('river bank') - vogelverschrikker click to hear ([scare-bird] - 'scarecrow') - voortvarend click to hear ('energetic, forging ahead') - voetvolk click to hear 2 ('foot soldiers') - vorstverlet click to hear ('no construction work because of freezing weather') - vliegensvlug click to hear ([flying-] 'lightning-quick') - in vogelvlucht click to hear 2 ([in birds' flight] - 'a bird's eye view, quickly') - vies en voos click to hear 2 ('very dirty') - vriend en vijand click to hear ([friend and enemy] - 'everyone') - in vuur en vlam click to hear ([in fire and flame] - 'fired up') - vorm of vent click to hear 2 ('personality of the author or structure of the book?' - schools of literary criticism) - vrouw en vriend click to hear 2 ('woman and friend' - a book title) - vorst en vaderland click to hear 2 ('king and country')
W Keep lips relaxed, not rounded like in English W; Dutch W starts with the top of the lower lip touching the front upper teeth, but not clearly blowing out air like for a V or F. The sound is formed in the back of the mouth, and not in the front like English W.
waar click to hear ('where; true') ->> - was click to hear ('laundry; wax; (I/you/he) was') - week click to hear 2 ('week') - wet click to hear ('law') - wens click to hear ('wish, desire') - wijd click to hear ('wide') - winst click to hear ('profit') - woord click to hear ('word') - dwaas click to hear ('a fool') - kwast click to hear 2 ('paintbrush') - kwijt click to hear 2 ('lost, missing') - twee click to hear (' 2 ') - zwak click to hear 2 ('weak') - zwaar click to hear ('heavy') - zwavel click to hear ('Sulphur') - geweld click to hear ('violence') - gewicht click to hear ('weight') - gewoon click to hear ('common, normal, usual') - bewust click to hear ('conscious') - hoewel click to hear ('although') - eiwit click to hear ('protein; egg-white') - bouwval click to hear 2 ('a building in bad shape, about to collapse') - winkelwagentje click to hear 2 ('shopping cart') - welwillend click to hear ('benevolent') - wipwap click to hear ('seesaw' - children's talk) - wirwar click to hear ('a jumble, things mixed up') - windwijzer click to hear 2 ('windvane') - witwas click to hear ('"white" laundry') - wijwater click to hear ('holy water') - werkwoord click to hear ([work-word] - 'verb') - winterwortel click to hear ('large carrot') - wittebroodsweken click to hear 2 ('a couple's first weeks after marriage') - wij willen water click to hear ('we want water') - wie wat waar welke click to hear ('who what where which') - wijze woorden click to hear ('words of wisdom') - van wanten weten click to hear ('being knowledgeable, knowing how to do things') - wel en wee click to hear 2 ([health and illness] - 'well-being') - wis en waarachtig click to hear 2 ('it's true') - wikken en wegen click to hear 2 ([deliberating and weighing] - 'pondering a decision') - weer en wind click to hear ([weather and wind] - 'in all kinds of weather') - Ik werd wakker van de wekker click to hear ('I was woken up by the alarm clock') - Wereldwijde week van de veiligheid click to hear 2 ('global safety week' - a company slogan I thought up) - more W
exception: a rare silent W: erwt click to hear ('pea') - erwt erwten click to hear 2 ('pea peas') - kekererwten click to hear ('chickpeas, garbanzo beans') - in Dutch it's rare that letters are not pronounced.
another exception: W pronounced as F: murw click to hear ('beaten down, spirit broken') - compare: smurf click to hear ('smurf')
WR W before R is said as V:
wrede click to hear ('cruel') - compare with: vrede click to hear ('peace') - the sound is identical. - wreed click to hear ('cruel') - wreedheid click to hear ('cruelty') - wrijven click to hear ('to rub') - wrijving click to hear 2 ('friction') - wrak click to hear ('wrecked ship') - wrik click to hear ('(I) pry, jiggle') - wrok click to hear ('grudge, rancor') - wervel / wrevel click to hear ('vertebra (backbone) / irritation, mild anger') - vraag click to hear 2 ('question') / wraak click to hear ('revenge') - weerwraak / verwrongen click to hear 2 ('~revenge / twisted') - wrat / vrat click to hear 2 ('wart / (I/you/he) ate' - slang) - wang / wrang click to
    hear ('cheek / unpleasant taste, wry') - wok / wrok click to
  hear ('wok / rancor, grudge')
Compare Compare V and W:
val click to hear ('a fall; a trap') / wal click to hear 2 ('city wall') - vaas click to hear ('vase') / waas click to hear ('haze') - vacht click to hear ('furry skin') / wacht click to hear ('guard') - vel click to hear ('skin') / wel click to hear ('positive amplifier') ->> - vee click to hear 2 ('cattle') - wee click to hear ('contraction' - birth) - vilt click to hear ('felt') / wild click to hear ('wild') - vol click to hear ('full') / wol click to hear ('wool') - vorst click to hear 2 ('frost, freezing; king') / worst click to hear ('sausage') - volk click to hear 2 ('a people, a nation') / wolk click to hear 2 ('cloud') - bevolking click to hear ('population') / bewolking click to hear 2 ('clouds, cloud cover') - toeval click to hear ('coincidence') - hoewel click to hear ('although') - houweel click to hear ('pickaxe') - hoeveel click to hear ('how much, how many') - vadem click to hear ('old depth measure, about 1.7M, 6 feet') - waden click to hear ('to wade') - vaarwel! click to hear ('farewell!') - welvaart click to hear ('prosperity') - wuiven click to hear 2 ('to wave') - walvis click to hear ('whale') - voorwaarde click to hear ('precondition') - veelwijverij click to hear ('polygamy') - vrijwilliger click to hear 2 ('volunteer')
X always like X in AXE - hear Dutch: ex click to hear ('ex-wife or ex-husband') - Dutch KS represents the same sound - hear Dutch: heks click to hear ('witch') - ekster click to hear ('magpie' - a bird)
x + y = z (x plus y is z) click to hear 2 3 - experiment click to hear ('experiment') - explosie click to hear ('explosion') - flexibel click to hear ('flexible') - xenon click to hear ('xenon' - a noble gas) - xylofoon click to hear ('xylophone') - saxofoon click to hear ('saxophone') - hexagonaal click to hear ('hexagonal') - extra click to hear 2 ('extra') - extract click to hear 2 ('extract, essence') - luxaflex click to hear 2 ('French blinds') - Lex click to hear ('boys' name') - Trix click to hear (girls' name) - Xantippe click to hear ('Mrs Socrates')
Y almost always pronounced as Dutch I (either long or short) (see also Old Spelling in Names below)
systeem click to hear ('system') - cylinder click to hear ('cylinder') - hypercorrect click to hear ('hypercorrect') - symfonie click to hear ('symphony') - symptoom click to hear ('symptom') - synthetisch click to hear ('synthetic') - polypiep click to hear ([poly-squeak] a fun word for 'squeak-foam,' styrofoam, polyurethane) - cynisme hygiëne hysterisch click to
    hear ('cynicism hygiene hysterical')
exception: nylon click to hear ('nylon') - nylons click to hear ('sheer stockings') (like Dutch EI/IJ, somewhat imitating the English word)
In a very small number of Dutch words, usually between two vowels, Y is like English 'consonant Y' as in YES:
yoghurt click to hear 2 ('yogurt') - royaal click to hear 2 ('generous, ample') - loyaal click to hear 2 ('loyal') - loyaliteit click to hear 2 ('loyalty') - rayon click to hear 2 ("area")
Z zaad click to hear ('seed') - zand click to hear 2 ('sand') - zee click to hear ('sea') - zes click to hear (' 6 ') - zilver click to hear ('silver') - zien click to hear ('to see') - zijn click to hear ('his; to be') ->> - zoet click to hear ('sweet') - zuur click to hear 2 ('sour, acid; an acid') - zwart click to hear 2 3 ('black') - glazen click to hear ('glasses (for drinking); made of glass') - gezin click to hear ('basic family') - wezen click to hear 2 ('orphans; to be - slang; the essence, the nature') - ijzer click to hear 2 ('iron') - zwager click to hear ('brother-in-law') - zwanger click to hear ('pregnant') - zwijg! click to hear 2 ('be silent! shut up!') - sperziebonen click to hear ('French (green) beans') - zigzag click to hear 2 ('zigzag') - zwanenzang click to hear 2 ('swan's song') - ziel en zaligheid click to hear ('soul and eternall bliss') - de Zeven Zeeën click to hear 2 ('the Seven Seas') - 't Vogeltje zit zo zoet op z'n nestje click to hear ('the little bird is sitting on its nest so sweetly') - ik zag de zon in de zee zinken click to hear ('I saw the sun sink into the sea') - in Amsterdam: ik sag de son in de see sinke click to hear
'n pronounced as voiceless E - N:
'n click to hear is short for the indefinite article een ('a') with the same, there irregular pronunciation - 'n beetje click to hear ('a little')
m'n click to hear is short for the first person singular possessive mijn click to hear ('my')
z'n click to hear is short for the third person male singular possessive zijn click to hear ('his') - z'n lust en z'n leven click to hear ([his passion and his life] something very important to him')
exception: zo een click to hear 2 ('such a') is often shortened to zo'n click to hear 2 - no voiceless E, it sounds exactly the same as zoon click to hear ('son') - zo'n mooie dag click to hear 2 ('such a beautiful day') - zo'n sombere zomer click to hear ('such a dark, sad summer')
'r pronounced as voiceless E - Dutch R: 'r click to hear ('her; ~there') - for ease of pronunciation, often said a bit slangy as: d'r click to hear ('her; ~there')
- either short for the third person female singular possessive haar click to hear ('her')
- or the word of many meanings er click to hear ('~there') >>
Fairy tales often start out with: 'Once upon a time there was ...' - in Dutch:
er was 'r 'ns ... click to hear 2 or:
d'r was 'ns ... click to hear 2 or:
d'r was 'r 's ... click to hear
- d'r op of d'r onder click to hear ([on top of it or under it] - 'do or die')
's pronounced as S - apostrophe-s can be:
1. an indication of time: 's morgens click to hear ('in the morning') - 's middags click to hear ('in the afternoon') - 's avonds click to hear ('in the evening') - 's nachts click to hear ('at night') - 's zomers click to hear ('in Summer') - 's winters click to hear ('in Winter') - see also the 'Time' page
2. for S-plurals of words ending in single A, I, O or U, to keep that single vowel long: foto's click to hear ('pictures, photographs') - risico's click to hear ('risks') (if we would write "fotos" or "risicos" OS would be pronounced with a short O, which is not correct, and to write "fotoos" or "risicoos" would look silly.)
3. an incorrect possessive: Jan's vrienden click to hear ("Jan's friends") (following the English, a very common mistake; it should be: "Jans vrienden.")
't pronounced as 'voiceless E' - T:
't click to hear ('the' (#2); 'it') is short for het click to hear 2 which can either be 'it' or 'the' ->> - the other, more frequently used definite article is de click to hear ('the' (#1))
't regent click to hear 2 ('it is raining') - regent 't? click to hear ('is it raining?') - 't Spui click to hear 2 (square or street name) - 't is niet waar! click to hear ([it's not true!] - 'you don't say!') - 't Hart click to hear (last name, famous author Maarten 't Hart) - 't Sufferdje click to hear (nickname for small-town newspaper)
AÄ, EË
EÏ, EÜ
IË, OË
UÏ, UÜ
Diaeresis (dieresis) - two dots on top of a vowel indicate that the vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel(s), not forming a long vowel or a diphtong. In Dutch, it's called trema click to hear - it may look somewhat similar to the German Umlaut, but its meaning is completely different.
Kanaän / kanaal click to hear ('Canaan / channel') - beëdigd / beet click to hear ('sworn in, board-certified / animal bite; gotcha!') - geïnd / gein click to hear ('money collected / fun' - slang) - reünie / reuma click to hear ('reunion / rheumatism') - piëteit / pieten click to hear ('piety / Peters') - agrariër / gier click to hear ('agriculturist, farmer / vulture') - poëten / poezen click to hear ('poets / cats') - bedoeïen / loeien click to hear ('bedouin / to moo') - coördinatie / koord click to hear ('co-ordination / cord, rope') - ruïne / ruime click to hear ('ruin / roomy, spacious') - vacuüm / buur click to hear ('vacuum / neighbor') - geëerd click to hear 2 ('honored, respected') - weeën click to hear ('contractions' - birth) - kopiëren click to hear 2 ('to copy, xerox') - ingrediënt click to hear ('ingredient') - België click to hear 2 ('Belgium') - De Zeven Provinciën click to hear ('The Seven Provinces' - official name of the Dutch Republic ca. 1600-1795) - De Verenigde Provinciën click to hear ('The United Provinces' - official name of the Dutch Republic ca. 1600-1795) - Nederlands-Indië click to hear 2 ('The Dutch Indies' - Indonesia of the Dutch colonial era) - Californië click to hear ('California') - Oekraïne click to hear ('Ukraine') - Israël click to
  hear ('Israel') - Sinaï click to hear ('Sinai') - Rafaël click to hear (boys' name) - Daniël click to hear (boys' name)
(In a recent minor spelling reform, most of the trema's in compound words have been scrapped (except in numbers.) I used to write zoëven click to hear 2 ('just a moment ago') to differentiate it from zoeven click to hear ('~to move quickly, zoom, whiz') - nowadays both should be written 'zoeven.' Likewise, I would write (if it came up) eendeëi click to hear 2 ("ducks' egg") but the rules for the 'connecting N' that even I don't pronounce were changed, and nowadays it's supposed to be spelled 'eendenei.')
I've seen the trema used in Dutchified English words, like geüpdate ('updated') but it looks extremely silly to me, and makes me pronounce it like the German U with Umlaut. Why not simply write ge-update?

Dutch has the almost identical vooruit click to hear 2 ('forward! come on!') and voorruit click to hear 2 ('windshield, front window') - the difference is not in how the R's are said, but in the stress of the words: "voorUIt" click to hear 2 or "vóórruit." click to hear 2
Similarly, a very small number of words with identical spelling get a different meaning with a shift of the stress or which E's are voiceless, unstressed:

'uh' stands for 'voiceless (unstressed) E' (schwa)
bedelen: bedelen click to hear ("bedélen - buhdéluhn" - to apportion, distribute)
bedelen click to hear ("bédelen - béduhluhn" - to beg, ask for things) - bedelaar click to hear 2 - 'beggar'
voornaam: voornaam click to hear ("voornáám" - 'important')
voornaam click to hear ("vóórnaam" - 'first name, Christian name')
sterkers: sterkers click to hear ("stèrkuhrs" - [something] stronger)
sterkers click to hear ("stèr-kèrs" - a kind of bean sprouts)
regent: 't regent click to hear (" 't régent - uht réguhnt" - 'it is raining')
de regent click to hear ("de regènt - duh ruhgènt" - 'a high official in the Dutch East Indies colonial administration')
kantelen: kantelen click to hear ("kàntelen - kàntuhluhn" - 'to cant, tilt, tip over')
kantelen click to hear ("kantélen - kantéluhn" - 'battlements,' the blocks atop medieval castle walls and towers ->>)
legering: legering click to hear ("légering - léguhring" - 'the housing of an army, encampment')
legering click to hear 2 ("legéring - luhgéring" - 'a mixture of metals')

Ik heb gezegd click to hear 2 - I have spoken . . . All examples translated on a separate page - or hold your mouse over a Dutch word or phrase to see a rough translation.

Helpful related pages: Hear All Vowels and Diphthongs Side-by-Side - Slow Dutch - English with Dutch Accent for the stage

EXERCISES: Overview - test what you've learned on this page

Names and Old Spelling

Dutch spelling is revised every 50 years or so, but names often retain features no longer found in Modern Dutch, like unusual letter combinations and superfluous characters. For instance, 'Huydecooper' would nowadays be written as "Huidekoper" click to hear

Note that double consonants are usually pronounced as single, not longer or with a pause in between: Van Poll, Verhoeff, De Witt, Wolff click to hear

AAIJ, AAY long A, consonant Y as in YES: Kraaijkamp, Van Waay click to hear
AE as long A: Clauwaerts, Daendels, Maetsuycker, Van der Zaen click to hear - Kersemaeker click to hear 2 / click to hear 2
EIJ, EY,
UIJ, UY
in Modern Dutch written as EI or UI:
Breydel, Van Eijbergen, Den Heyer, Meyers, Schey, Van Speijck click to hear 2
Buys, Van Duyn, Ruygers, Van Uylenburg, Van Zuylen van Nijevelt click to hear
CH after S (usually at the end of the name or root word): often not pronounced: Bosch, Van Asschendelft, Musschenbroek click to hear
CK K(K): Bicker, Van den Broecke, Van Eyck, Luyck, Ockenburg, Schimmelpeninck, Vonck click to hear
CX, CKX X: Asselincx, Dierickx, Sterckx click to hear
-DT (at the end of a name) T: Heldt, Van Slingelandt click to hear
H after G,
H after T
often not pronounced: Van Bomberghen, Van Gogh, De Hoogh, Leeghwater, Tullingh, De With click to hear
OEIJ, OEY OO as in BOOT, IJ or Y as consonant Y in Yes: Boeijen, Van Roey click to
      hear
OY, OOY,
OIJ, OOIJ
IJ and Y as consonant Y in YES: Van Ooijen, Plockhoy, Roy, Van Royen, Verlooy click to hear
OU in names sometimes as Engl. OO in BOOT, (the Dutchman recognizes the root word); in Modern Dutch as OU in LOUD: Ruys de Beerenbrouck, Snouck Hurgronje -but- Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Woutersen click to hear
PH F when as first letters of name or syllable: Philips, Zutphen click to hear
separate P and H in 'compound names:' Koophuis, Opheusden click to hear 2
-SZ at the end of a name: S (short for -szoon, 'son of'): Florisz, Van Heutsz click to hear
WT- a few families write their name with Wt as the first letters. Many Dutchmen will insert an I, as if it says 'wit,' (white) for instance "Wittewaal" click to hear but it should be pronounced somewhat like EWT- (EW somewhat like in DEW): Freule Wttewaall van Stoetwegen, Wterwijck click to hear
Y - as a vowel: As Modern Dutch EI and IJ. Rare: Hymans, Nyssens click to hear
- after consonant, at end of name: as Engl. EE in SEE: Gerbrandy, Lely click to hear

Occasionally, a name is said in way that diverges from standard pronunciation, for instance: Bruegel, Baron Van Lynden click to hear
Dutchmen will attempt to pronounce foreign names as in the original language: Brüggen, Lumey, Zimmerman click to hear

More Dutch names: First and Last Names - Vermeer's World - Rembrandt
- 17th Century Sailors and Ships - - Old New York
- Names by Request - The Dutch in Sports - Geography

Search Names in Holland
A beautiful website for searching Dutch last (and first) names is 'Het Meertens Instituut': English version - Dutch version, which has maps showing the distribution of names over the country, both for the 1947 census and for the 2007 national population registry.
You could also search for your distant Dutch relatives in The Netherlands Phone Directory. It's all in Dutch. 'Wat zoekt U?' = What are you looking for? - Enter a name.

Names Corrupted
I was asked about 'Fami(t)cha,' the first name of a Dutch greatn-grandmother who came to America in the 1700s. It didn't look Dutch to me, but after some reflection and looking through Van der Schaar (the Dutch Dictionary of First Names) I think it's most likely: Femmetje click to hear 2 as written down phonetically by an English-speaking clerk. Try it for yourself: how would you write it down as you hear it? That clerk didn't do a bad job: when you say 'Famicha' as if it were an English name, doesn't it come out like I say 'Femmetje'?

Further Study: Basic Dutch Words - Pictures Dictionary - Easy Dutch - Lessons - Exercises - Listening - Reading - Grammar

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2015. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2