Search my site: 'Like' the Hear Dutch Here website on Facebook

Lesson 11 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

The Simple Past Tense of Hebben ('to Have') and Zijn ('to Be') - Adjectives and Adverbs (Sentences, Word Order 1) - Walkabout - Feet, Yards and Miles to Meters and Kilometers - The Education System in Holland

Listen
The Simple Past of Dutch 'to Be' and 'to Have'
Adjectives and Adverbs
Walkabout: The House
'Erg'
Metric and Imperial: Length (2)
The Education System in Holland

The separation of Church and State in the West is in part based on this very sensible Bible text. (Also in Mark 12:13-17 and Luke 20:20-26.)

Matthew 22:15-21 'Render Unto Caesar'
The Taxes to The Emperor De Belasting aan De Keizer click to hear 2
Then the Pharisees went and plotted how they might entangle Him in His talk. Daarop gingen de farizeeën heen, en beraadslaagden, hoe ze hem in zijn eigen woorden zouden verstrikken. click to hear
And they sent him their disciples with the Herodians, saying "Teacher, we know that You are true, and teach the way of God in truth; nor do you care about anyone, for You do not regard the person of men." Ze zonden hun leerlingen met de aanhangers van Herodes op Hem af met de vraag: Meester, we weten dat Gij oprecht zijt, de weg van God naar waarheid leert, en niemand naar de ogen ziet, want Gij kent geen aanzien des persoons. click to hear
"Tell us, therefore, what do You think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" Zeg ons dus: wat dunkt U; is het geoorloofd de keizer belasting te betalen, of niet? click to hear
But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites?" Jezus kende hun boosheid, en sprak, Huichelaars, wat stelt gij Mij op de proef? click to hear
"Show me the tax money." So they brought him a denarius. Laat mij de cijnspenning zien. Ze hielden hem een tienling voor. click to hear
And he said to them: "Whose image and inscription is this?" Jezus zeide hun: Wiens beeld en randschrift is dit? click to hear
They said to him: "Caesar's." And He said to them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" Ze zeiden: Van de keizer. Hij sprak tot hen: Geeft dan de keizer, wat de keizer toekomt; en geeft aan God, wat God toekomt. click to hear
When they had heard these words, they marveled, and left him and went their way. Toen ze dit hoorden, waren ze verwonderd; ze lieten Hem met rust, en gingen heen. click to hear
more readings from the Bible

Note At the time of the Bible translations, Dutch boosheid and het boze still meant 'evil, wickedness,' while nowadays it means 'anger.'

The Simple Past Tense of Hebben ('to Have') and Zijn ('to Be')

For your convenience, the present tense is repeated (already shown in lessons 7 and 8.) Again, note how similar to English these verb forms are.

present tense past tense present tense past tense
hebben
ik heb
jij hebt
hij heeft
wij hebben
jullie hebben
zij hebben
U heeft
click to hear
to have
I have
you have
he has
we have
you have
they have
you have


ik had
jij had
hij had
wij hadden
jullie hadden
zij hadden
U had
click to hear

I had
you had
he had
we had
you had
they had
you had

zijn
ik ben
jij bent
hij is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn
U bent
click to hear
to be
I am
you are
he is
we are
you are
they are
you are


ik was
jij was
hij was
wij waren
jullie waren
zij waren
U was
click to hear

I was
you were
he was
we were
you were
they were
you were



(you - singular informal)


(you - plural informal)

(you - singular polite)
'U hebt' click to hear is also said.

Note that the A in the past tense of zijn is short in the singular, but long in the plural: ik was / wij waren click to hear. You'll see that often in the past tense of strong verbs with A.

<< previous - verbs central - next >>

Adjectives, Adverbs and Nouns: Word Order 1

I am not a grammarian, and don't plan to be one. In these lessons I'm just trying to explain structures to people who want to learn a little Dutch. Grammatical terms are used in a loose sense.
zelfstandig naamwoord click to hear 2 3 (['independent name-word'] - 'noun') - bijvoeglijk naamwoord click to hear 2 ('adjective') - bijwoord click to hear 2 ('adverb') - more Dutch grammar words
Adjectives and Adverbs, Word Order
Spelling Changes
Systematic Examples
Exceptions
As Nouns

You have seen adjectives with nouns several times already in these lessons. Adjectives are almost always in front of, directly before the nouns they modify.

adjective noun
rode rozen click to hear red roses
een half ei click to hear half an egg
een halve theelepel click to hear ½ teaspoon
een hoge katterug click to hear a cat's arched back
droog brood click to hear 2 dry bread (no cheese etc.)
wilde aardbeien click to hear wild strawberries
openbaar vervoer click to hear public transportation
maartse buien click to hear 2 March showers
absoluut gehoor click to hear perfect pitch
elektrische gitaar click to hear electric guitar
elektronisch orgel click to hear 2 3 electronic organ
akoestische bas click to hear acoustic bass
staande bas click to hear upright bass
wijze woorden click to hear words of wisdom
de vrije wereld click to hear 2 the free world
gelijke rechten click to hear equal rights

De Zeven Zeeën click to hear 2 The Seven Seas
Het Zwarte Woud click to hear 2 The Black Forest (Germany)
De Grote Muur click to hear 2 The Great Wall (of China)
De Verenigde Staten click to hear 2 The United States
Nieuw Guinea click to hear 2 New Guinea
het nieuwe land click to hear 2 the new, reclaimed land
Nederlands-Indië click to hear 2 The Dutch Indies
Karel de Grote click to hear 2 [Charles the Great] Charlemagne
Dutch adverbs don't have something like the -LY ending in English. Adverbs are the 'root' form you'll find in dictionaries and words lists.
Adjectives usually add an -E ending (a 'voiceless E' click to hear ) to the root word, except ... ranzig click to hear 2 ('rancid' - stale, old, off) / ranzig vet click to hear 2 ('rancid fat') - het vet ('fat, grease') / ranzige olie click to hear 2 ('rancid oil') - de olie ('oil')

noun zijn - ('to be')
is / was / zijn / waren - ('is / was / are / were')
adverb
de mars was lang click to hear the march was long
de lange mars click to hear the long march
een lange mars click to hear a long march
geen lange mars click to hear not a long march
het verhaal was lang click to hear the story was long
het lange verhaal click to hear the long story
een lang verhaal click to hear a long story
geen lang verhaal click to hear not a long story
het houten schip click to hear the wooden ship
een houten schip click to hear a wooden ship
het verdronken land click to hear the flooded, drowned land
dit stopcontact
is niet geaard
click to hear this power outlet
is not grounded
een geaard stopcontact click to hear a grounded power outlet
de geaarde stekker click to hear the grounded power plug
de lelijke eend click to hear the ugly duck
een lelijke eend click to hear an ugly duck
het lelijke eendje click to hear the ugly duckling
een lelijk eendje click to hear an ugly duckling
geen lelijk eendje click to hear 2 not an (no) ugly duckling
The Citroën '2CV' model is affectionately known as de lelijke eend click to hear ('the ugly duck') or simply eend click to hear ('duck') - more Citroën [a Citroën car]
het was slecht weer click to hear it was bad weather
het slechte weer click to hear the bad weather
het was zwaar weer click to hear It was [heavy] very bad weather
as an adverb:
het weer was slecht
click to hear 2 the weather was bad

[orange oranges]
de sinaasappels zijn oranje
- de oranje sinaasappels click to hear
[pink skin]
de huid is roze
- de roze huid
click to hear
[scuffle hoe] [scuffle hoe]
Amerikaanse schoffel click to hear 'American (scuffle) hoe'
me with long hair, ca. 1974
In die tijd hadden we allemaal lang haar. click to hear
At the time, all of us had long hair
[broken sword]
(het) gebroken zwaard click to hear 2
('broken sword')

The Beauty and Logic of Dutch Spelling

In slow speech, words break up in syllables: let-ter-gre-pen click to hear 2 (lettergrepen click to hear singular: lettergreep click to hear) In Dutch, syllables are organized around vowels. Syllables come in two types: Dutch spelling rules say that: See and hear long and short vowels again in Lesson 1

Adding the E's for adjectives does not further change the pronunciation of the root word much, but it adds a syllable. If there was only one consonant at the end of the root word, there may be a problem, because that consonant will go to the new syllable of the E-ending, leaving a previously 'closed' syllable 'open,' but the length of the previously last vowel of the root word is not going to change.

slap
click to hear
laf
click to hear 2
vol
click to hear
los
click to hear
wit
click to hear 2
slappe
(slap-pe)
click to hear
laffe
(laf-fe)
click to hear 2
volle
(vol-le)
click to hear 2
losse
(los-se)
click to hear
witte
(wit-te)
click to hear
laag
click to hear 2
hoog
click to hear
leeg
click to hear
groot
click to hear 2
heel
click to hear 2
lage
(la-ge)
click to hear
hoge
(ho-ge)
click to hear
lege
(le-ge)
click to hear 2
grote
(gro-te)

click to hear 2
hele
(he-le)
click to hear
But adding the adjectives-E does not always further change the spelling of the word:
mager
click to hear
wankel
click to hear 2
heilig
click to hear
duidelijk
click to hear
redelijk
click to hear 2
magere
(ma-ge-re)
click to hear 2
wankele
(wan-ke-le)
click to hear 2
heilige
(hei-li-ge)
click to hear
duidelijke
(dui-de-lij-ke)
click to hear
redelijke
(re-de-lij-ke)
click to hear
diep
click to hear 2
klein
click to hear 2
rijk
click to hear
flauw
click to hear
goed
click to hear 2
diepe
(die-pe)
click to hear
kleine
(klei-ne)
click to hear
rijke
(rij-ke)
click to hear
flauwe
(flau-we)
click to hear
goede
(goe-de)
click to hear
lang
click to hear 2
kort
click to hear 2 3 4
vast
click to hear
hard
click to hear
zacht
click to hear
lange
(lan-ge)
click to hear
korte
(kor-te)
click to hear 2
vaste
(vas-te)
click to hear 2
harde
(har-de)
click to hear 2
zachte
(zach-te)
click to hear 2

Vlaams
click to hear
meest
click to hear
naakt
click to hear 2
gevreesd
click to hear 2
geslaagd
click to hear 2
Vlaamse
(Vlaam-se)
click to hear 2
meeste
(mees-te)
click to hear
naakte
(naak-te)
click to hear
gevreesde
(ge-vrees-de)
click to hear 2
geslaagde
(ge-slaag-de)
click to hear

Systematic Examples

Short Vowel
dik / dikke click to hear 2 3 fat, thick
dun / dunne click to hear 2 skinny, thin
dom / domme click to hear stupid, dumb
krom / kromme click to hear crooked, bent
los / losse click to hear 2 loose
slim / slimme click to hear 2 clever
vol / volle click to hear full
wit / witte click to hear 2 3 white
stil / stille click to hear 2 silent, quiet
vet / vette click to hear 2 fat, greasy
laf / laffe click to hear cowardly
dof / doffe click to hear 2 dull, not shiny
snel / snelle click to hear quick, fast
al / alle click to hear all
Long Vowel
breed / brede click to hear 2 wide
bloot / blote click to hear naked, nude
groot / grote click to hear 2 big, large, tall, great
hoog / hoge click to hear high
laag / lage click to hear low
waar / ware click to hear 2 true
zwaar / zware click to hear heavy
geel / gele click to hear yellow
rood / rode click to hear red
sloom / slome click to hear 2 slow, indolent
schoon / schone click to hear clean / (beautiful)
duur / dure click to hear 2 expensive, dear
zuur / zure click to hear 2 sour, acid
gewoon / gewone click to hear 2 common, usual
dankbaar / dankbare click to hear grateful
vruchtbaar / vruchtbare click to hear 2 fertile
goedkoop / goedkope click to hear cheap, inexpensive
algemeen / algemene click to hear general
langzaam / langzame click to hear 2 slow
'Last Syllable with Voiceless E'
mager / magere click to hear 2 skinny, thin
ander / andere click to hear 2 other
ieder / iedere click to hear every
bijzonder / bijzondere click to hear special
helder / heldere click to hear clear
donker / donkere click to hear dark
beter / betere click to hear better
lekker / lekkere click to hear 2 enjoyable
enkel / enkele click to hear single; a few
edel / edele click to hear noble
lelijk / lelijke click to hear 2 ugly
duidelijk / duidelijke click to hear clear, obvious
vriendelijk / vriendelijke click to hear kind, friendly
enig / enige click to hear only; any; some
zuinig / zuinige click to hear frugal
ernstig / ernstige click to hear serious
veilig / veilige click to hear safe
vorig / vorige click to hear previous
grappig / grappige click to hear funny, entertaining
Diphthongs
blauw / blauwe click to hear 2 blue
klein / kleine click to hear 2 small, little
oud / oude click to hear old
koud / koude click to hear cold
goed / goede click to hear good, well
lauw / lauwe click to hear 2 tepid
rijk / rijke click to hear rich
belangrijk / belangrijke click to hear 2 important
vuil / vuile click to hear 2 dirty
bruin / bruine click to hear brown
groen / groene click to hear green
zwoel / zwoele click to hear 2 sultry
leuk / leuke click to hear 2 nice, enjoyable
Ending in Two or More Consonants
kort / korte click to hear short
lang / lange click to hear long
vals / valse click to hear 2 false
vast / vaste click to hear 2 firm, fixed, connected
zacht / zachte click to hear soft
hard / harde click to hear hard (not soft,) solid
arm / arme click to hear poor
licht / lichte click to hear light
zwart / zwarte click to hear black
volgend / volgende click to hear 2 next
vervelend / vervelende click to hear 2 unpleasant, annoying
zulk / zulke click to hear such
Ending in Two or More Consonants
geslaagd / geslaagde click to hear successful
gevreesd / gevreesde click to hear feared, dreaded
naakt / naakte click to hear nude, naked
Spaans / Spaanse click to hear Spanish
Vlaams / Vlaamse click to hear Flemish
verkeerd / verkeerde click to hear wrong, mistaken
vreemd / vreemde click to hear 2 strange, unusual, foreign
paars / paarse click to hear purple
barbaars / barbaarse click to hear barbaric
benauwd / benauwde click to hear scary, fearful
(difficulty breathing)
bekend / bekende click to hear 2 well-known
beroemd / beroemde click to hear famous
berucht / beruchte click to hear notorious, infamous
[The Flag of The Netherlands is Red, White and Blue ]
De Nederlandse vlag is rood - wit - blauw click to hear 2 3
Do notice the exceptional EE (Dutch IE) pronunciation of IJ in bijzonder / bijzondere click to hear ('special.')
You may have noticed that above I say langzaam / langzame click to hear 2 ('slow') with S instead of Z. When I say it with a clear Z it doesn't sound right: langzaam / langzame click to hear

de Nederlandse taal click to hear 2 the Dutch language
de zuinige motor click to hear the fuel-efficient engine
de zuinige huisvrouw click to hear the frugal housewife
een aardige man click to hear a nice, kind man
een keurig meisje click to hear 'a proper, well-behaved girl'
het gegeven paard click to hear the [given] gift horse
een gegeven paard click to hear 2 a [given] gift horse
de Spaanse Furie click to hear 'the Spanish Fury' (unpaid, mutinous Spanish soldiers on the rampage in 1576 Antwerp)
de dikke en de dunne click to hear 2 'the fat one and the skinny one' - Laurel & Hardy
gedeelde smart is halve smart click to hear [shared grief means halved grief] sharing grief makes it easier to bear
beter ten halve gekeerd, dan ten hele gedwaald click to hear 2 it's better to turn around halfway than to err all the way

Exceptions, Unusual Cases

schuw / schuwe click to hear timid, very shy
sluw / sluwe click to hear 2 sly, mean-clever
vrij / vrije click to hear free
nabij / nabije click to hear 2 near
saai / saaie click to hear boring, not exciting
gedwee / gedweeë click to hear 2 docile, pliable
electrisch / electrische click to hear electric, electrical
komisch / komische click to hear 2 comical, funny

Adjectives as Nouns

After words like 'iets' click to hear and 'wat' click to hear meaning 'something' and also after 'niets' click to hear ('nothing') or the more common 'niks' click to hear adjectives get an S-ending and become nouns. Adjectives already ending in -S or -ISCH don't get an extra S.

iets moois click to hear 2 3 Something beautiful, a beautiful thing
iets kleins click to hear 2 Something small, a small thing, a little thing
niks nieuws click to hear 2 3 nothing new
Heb je niks beters te doen? click to hear 2 3 [Have you nothing better to do?] - Don't you have something better to do?
Ik heb wel wat beters te doen click to hear 2 3 I really have something better to do (I don't have time for the other thing)
Vertel eens wat leuks click to hear 2 Tell us something amusing
Heb je wat leuks gedaan in het weekend? click to hear Did you do something nice in the weekend?
Heeft U iets vegetarisch? click to hear Would you have something vegetarian?
Wil je koffie of thee of iets fris? click to hear 2 3 Would you like coffee or tea or ["something cold"] a soda or fruit juice?
't Betekent heel iets anders click to hear 2 It means something completely different
Ik ben met iets anders bezig click to hear 2 3 I'm busy with (working on, occupied with) something else
't Heeft iets geheimzinnigs click to hear 2 [It has something mysterious] There is something mysterious to it, it is a bit mysterious
Er is iets mis click to hear 2 3 There is something wrong
Misschien is het iets onschuldigs click to hear Maybe it's something [innocent] harmless
Ik heb zo'n zin in iets lekkers click to hear 2 I [have a great desire for] would really like someting tasty (usually sweet) now
Er is iets heel ergs gebeurd click to hear 2 3 4 Something [very] really bad happened
'Biologisch' is niks anders dan vroeg negentiende eeuwse landbouw click to hear
'Organic' is nothing else than (the same thing as) early 19th-Century agriculture

I thought that 'het nieuws' click to hear 2 'the news' and alles click to hear 2 'everything, all' could also be adjectives turned nouns, but my Van Dale dictionary says they're old possessive forms. (English 'the news' is from a French plural)


Heb je het nieuws gehoord? click to hear 2 3 Have you heard the news?

See also: 'niets' and 'niks' and 'wat' and 'iets'
- and Verbs as Nouns and Adjectives

<< previous - word order central - next >>

Walkabout

Study the next words and then walk around where you live, saying the Dutch names of the items you see. More House Words
[a door]
(de) deur click to hear 2
[a treshold]
(de) drempel click to hear
[carpet]
(het) kleed click to hear
[cabinet]
(het) kastje click to hear
[a table]
(de) tafel click to hear
[a chair]
(de) stoel click to hear
[dining table]
(de) eettafel click to
  hear
[a table]
(het) tafeltje click to hear 2
[stools]
(de) krukjes click to hear
[easy chair]
(de) luie stoel click to hear
[easy chair]
(de) luie stoel click to hear
[a sofa]
(de) bank click to hear
[cut flowers]
(de) bloemen click to hear 2
[a living room plant]
(de) plant click to hear
[a lighted candle]
(de) kaars click to hear
[lamp, light]
(de) lamp click to hear
[lamp, light]
(de) lamp click to hear
[lightbulbs]
(de) gloeilampen click to hear
[]
(het) lichtknopje click to
  hear
[]
(het) lichtknopje click to
  hear
[switch]
(de) schakelaar click to hear
[power outlet]
(het) stopcontact click to hear 2
[power plugs]
(de) stekkers click to hear
Thank you Justin Hodges for suggesting the walkabout

Erg - a confusing word

Erg can mean both 'very' and 'bad, awful, terrible' but it's never combined, we don't say erg erg.
Ze waren erg arm. click to hear 2 They were very poor.
Hij is erg blij. click to hear He is very glad.
Ik vind het heel erg. click to hear I think it's really bad, I'm upset over it.
Ik hoop dat je het niet erg vindt. click to hear I hope you don't [think it's bad] mind.
See also: Disambiguation: 'Erg' and Common Problems

Inches and Feet to Meters and Centimeters (2)

<< previous
[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
100 centimeters = 1 meter = 39.37 inches = 3.281 feet
[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]

feet to meters (m)

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 foot = 0.3048 meters = 30.48 centimeter
1 meter = 3.281 feet

yards to meters (m)

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 yard = 0.9144 meter
1 meter = 1.093 yard
1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches

miles to kilometers (km)

[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 mile = 1.60934 kilometer
1 kilometer = 0.62137 miles
1 kilometer = 1000 meters
1 mile = 5280 feet = 1760 yards
[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
Please drive carefully more dimensions

lang click to hear long, tall
(de) lengte click to hear 2 length
breed click to hear wide
(de) breedte click to hear width - "breadth"
diep click to hear 2 deep
(de) diepte click to hear 2 depth

hoog click to hear high
(de) hoogte click to hear 2 height
dik click to hear fat - "thick"
(de) dikte click to hear 2 thickness

(de) doorsnede click to hear 2 ['cross-cut, cut-through'] - diameter - also: average

(de) diameter click to hear diameter
(de) straal click to hear radius (circle)
(de) omtrek click to hear circumferfence, outline
(het) oppervlak click to hear 2 area
(de) oppervlakte click to hear 2 area
(de) afstand click to hear distance
(de) millimeter click to hear
1mm = 1/1000 m

(de) centimeter click to hear
1cm = 1/100 m

((de) decimeter click to hear)
(1dm = 1/10 m)

(de) meter click to hear
m

(de) kilometer click to hear
1km=1000m

m² - (de) 'vierkante meter' click to hear square meter

In Dutch, the units of measure are rarely used in the plural (except in time) - 1 meter, 2 meter click to hear 2

lang click to hear long, tall
kort click to hear short
breed click to hear wide
smal click to hear narrow
(wijd click to hear wide)
(nauw click to hear narrow)
hoog click to hear high
laag click to hear low
ver click to hear far
ver weg click to hear far away
dichtbij click to hear close
<< - numbers, simple math and dimensions - >>

The Education System in Holland

(het) onderwijs click to hear education
(de) school click to hear school
lager click to hear 'lower, elementary, basic'
middelbaar click to hear 'intermediate'
hoger click to hear 'higher, advanced'
(het) klaslokaal click to hear classroom
(de) opleiding click to hear 'training, academy'
When I was growing up, to send a child to kindergarten was optional, but from about age 6 all children had to go to elementary school. In the 1980s kindergarten and elementary school were integrated into a new school type, called 'basic education' and now children have to start school at about age 4, starting in 'group 1.' The 'first grade' of the old elementary school is now 'group 3.' Note that Dutch has different words for teachers and students at the various levels of education.
(de) kleuterschool click to hear kindergarten
(de) lagere school click to hear elementary school
(de) basisschool click to hear 'basic school'
(de) middelbare school click to hear secondary school
(het) rapport click to hear 2 schoolchildren's grades
sheet (quarterly)
(de) leerling click to hear 2 student (elementary and
secondary school level)
(de) eerste klas click to hear first grade ordinal numbers
groep één click to hear group one numbers 1-10
blijven zitten click to hear [to stay put] repeat a grade
(de) scholier click to hear student (secondary school level)

(de) onderwijzeres click to hear teacher (fenale, elementary school level)
"juffrouw" click to hear address
(de) onderwijzer click to hear teacher (male, elementary school level)
"meester" click to hear address
(de) lerares click to hear teacher (female, secondary school level)
"mevrouw" click to hear address
(de) leraar click to hear teacher (male, secondary school level)
"meneer" click to hear address

You can say leraar Spaans click to hear 2 3 'teacher of Spanish, Spanish teacher' and leraar natuurkunde click to hear 'physics teacher.' For most subjects you can make compound words like wiskundeleraar click to hear 2 3 'math teacher' - but not for the languages, because the names of the languages can also be adjectives for the countries. 'De Spaanse leraar' would be 'the teacher from Spain' - 'de Spaanse leraar scheikunde' is 'the chemistry teacher from Spain.'

Hij zit in de tweede klas click to hear 2 'He's in second grade'
(Het) cijfer click to hear 'mark, grade' (on an exam or test - in Holland: 1-10 ->>)
(de/het) voldoende click to hear 2 3 ['sufficient'] - 'passing grade' - (de/het) onvoldoende click to hear 2 3 ['insufficient'] - 'failing grade'

The secondary school system in Holland is highly stratified. Students go to a wide variety of schools, from vocational training to humanities and sciences education preparing for university, and several levels in between. In the last grade of elementary school all children take a nationwide test and in consultations between parents and teachers a school type is chosen. Often the first grade of a secondary school is a (de) brugklas click to hear ('bridging class') that still allows choosing from various levels for the next grade.
Starting in the Middle Ages, children of the rich and noble were educated at 'Latin Schools,' originally run by the clergy; but in the Nineteenth Century, many governments in the West worked towards improving the education of a larger part of the population. The factories of the Industrial Revolution needed more skilled workers and managers, and the equality ideals of the French Revolution may have played a part.
1. Elementary schools for all children were introduced in the early Nineteenth Century.
2. In the Middle Ages and later, the guilds provided vocational training; but in the 19th Century, the government set up a school type teaching practical jobs like carpentry, at first called (de) ambachtsschool click to hear ((het) ambacht click to hear is now an old-fashioned word for trade, handicraft) and later called (de) LTS - Lagere Technische School click to hear ('lower technical school.') Girls would go to (de) huishoudschool click to hear ('homemaking school' - (het) huishouden click to hear is 'housekeeping.')
3. In the 1860s a high-level secondary school type open to all qualifying students was created, called (de) HBS - Hogere Burgerschool click to hear ("higher citizens' school" - higher school, not higher citizens.) The Latin school lived on as (het) Gymnasium click to hear - its curriculum became similar to the HBS, just adding Latin and Greek. For the future wives of the leading citizens there was (de) MMS - Middelbare Meisjesschool click to hear ("intermediate girls' school") - originally a kind of finishing school. This school type no longer exists.
In the higher grades of the HBS students would choose between a commerce/languages stream, and a math and sciences stream. Passing the HBS or Gymnasium final exam ((het) eindexamen click to hear) allowed further study at the University. In time, restrictions on girls to attend HBS and Gymnasium were lifted.
Between Trades Education and HBS/Gymnasium there was (de) ULO - Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs click to hear and the more extensive MULO - Middelbaar Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs click to hear

In the 1960s and 70s the Dutch secondary education was streamlined, making transfer between school types easier. Because of its large scope the law describing the changes was called de Mammoetwet click to hear Also, in the old system there were just a few different streams to choose from, but now students can put together their personal package of subjects to study. Trades education became (het) voorbereidend beroepsonderwijs click to hear ((het) beroepsonderwijs click to hear) - the Gymnasium kept its name, but the HBS became (het) Atheneum click to hear and the levels in between are now called MAVO - Middelbaar Algemeen Vormend Onderwijs click to hear ('intermediate general education') and HAVO - Hoger Algemeen Vormend Onderwijs click to hear ('higher general education.')

After secondary school, there is again a wide variety of further education, from University to (het) beroepsonderwijs click to hear providing practical training, and many schools in between.
In Holland (like in most of Europe) College and Graduate School were integrated, there were no independent colleges. Very few students would leave university with only a Bachelor's degree (kandidaats click to hear) - almost all students graduated with a Master's degree (doctoraal click to hear) - but maybe it's no longer like that. Alles blijft veranderen click to hear 2 ('everything keeps changing.') Ik kan het niet meer bijhouden click to hear 2 ('I can't keep up with it.') It looks like the European Union has decided on an American-style University system.

kweekschool click to hear old-fashioned name for 'teaching academy' (training elementary school teachers)
pedagogische academie click to hear modern name for 'teaching academy'
kunstacademie click to hear art school
HTS Hogere Technische School click to hear 'Higher Technical School'
(de) universiteit click to hear university
(het) college click to hear university class - also: a board, a group of important people
college lopen click to hear to attend classes at a university
college geven click to hear 2 to teach a class at a university
(de) student click to hear student (at a university)
(de) doctorandus (drs.) click to hear person with a general Master's degree
(de) ingenieur (ir.) click to hear person with an engineering Master's degree
(de) meester in de rechten (mr.) click to hear person with a Law school degree ->>
(de) doctor (dr.) click to hear person with a PhD
(de) dokter click to hear medical doctor
(het) kandidaats click to hear 'Bachelor's degree'
(het) doctoraal click to hear 'Master's degree'
(de) promotie click to hear PhD degree defense & ceremony
(het) proefschrift click to hear 2 PhD thesis
(de) professor click to hear professor
The Dutch verb leren click to hear means both 'to teach' and 'to learn.' Which one is ususally clear from the context.
Leer de regels click to hear ('learn the rules') / Leer me de regels click to hear ('teach me the rules')
For 'to teach' you can also say les geven click to hear ((de) les click to hear / lessen click to hear 2 'lesson/lessons' - geven click to hear 2 'to give' >>)
or (as I said above) college geven click to hear 2 'to teach classes at a university.
Ik geef Nederlands click to hear ('I am a teacher of Dutch') - ik leer jullie Nederlands click to hear 2 ('I'm teaching you Dutch.')
Actually, 'professor' is the Dutch term of address, while the job description is hoogleraar click to hear 2 - like Dominee click to hear 'Reverend' and predikant click to hear 'minister.'
Ze verdedigde haar proefschrift click to hear ('She defended her thesis')
(De) academicus click to hear 2 a person with a university degree - plural: academici click to hear 2 (notice the pronunciation change from K to S in the second C.) In English, 'academics' are only the teaching and scientific staff at a college or university. (De) wetenschapper click to hear 2 ('scientist') - The Names of the Sciences
(De) beurs click to hear ('scholarship' - also an old-fashioned word for 'purse, wallet') - (de) lening click to hear ('loan')

<< - essays - >>

Home
(Learning Dutch)
previous
vorige
[left arrow] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 [right arrow] next
volgende

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2010. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2