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Basic Dutch 3: Prepositions etc. (pictorial)

Basic Dutch: Nouns - Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs - Prepositions (etc.): pictorial / list - Supplement - Hear 2000 words (list)

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Prepositions are a difficult part of learning a modern foreign language. Prepositions may have several meanings, which may translate into different words in the other language, and verbs may not use the same prepositions.
Learn the words and the basic, physical meaning first, study the examples to understand the context of their use, and then continue to the next page for the extended meaning of the words.

[a wrapped present with the name 'Els'] [Bob's hand holding the present, dropping it in Els's hand]
voor click to hear for - more
aan click to hear to
van click to hear of, from - more
een cadeau voor Els click to hear 2 a present for Alice
Bob geeft het aan Els click to hear Bob gives it to Alice
het cadeau van Bob click to hear 2 Bob's present
'cadeau' is sometimes spelled as 'kado'
de vrienden van m'n vader click to hear the friends of my father's
[a ball on a table, and a ball falling off the table;
  a foot on the floor, and a foot off the floor]
voetjes van de vloer click to hear 'feet off the floor' - i.e. dancing
De bal rolde van de tafel af click to hear The ball rolled off the table
op click to hear on
van click to hear off
aan click to hear on
op de tafel click to hear on the table
van de tafel click to hear off the table
op de vloer click to hear on the floor
van de vloer click to hear off the floor - more
[a crucifix and a lizard on a wall]
aan de muur click to hear on the wall (fixed)
op de muur click to hear on the wall (temporarily)
[in front of, between, behind: 3 balls in a row]
voor click to hear in front of, before - more
achter click to hear behind - more
tussen click to hear between -and- among
[3 balls (A,B,C) in a row, another ball (D) next to them]
naast click to hear next to, beside
A is voor B en C click to hear A is in front of B and C
B is tussen A en C click to hear B is between A and C
C is achter A en B click to hear C is behind A and B
D is naast A click to hear D is next to A
Dutch 'tussen' is both 'between' (two)
and 'among' (more than two.)
[a person sitting on a chair at a table, a bottle on the table, 
 a bottle under the table, a bottle under the chair]
op click to hear on
onder click to hear under
aan click to hear at
op de tafel click to hear on the table
onder de tafel click to hear under the table
aan de tafel click to hear at the table
op de stoel click to hear on the chair
onder de stoel click to hear under the chair
aan tafel! click to hear come to the table!
(food is served)
[on top of, below, with]
boven click to hear over, on top of, above
onder click to hear under, below
bij click to hear with, at - more
[over/above, in, under:
  an air balloon, in the air over the water,
  a ship on the water,
  a swimmer in the water, a submarine under water]
boven click to hear over, above
in click to hear in
op click to hear on
onder click to hear under
over click to hear over, across - more
boven het water click to hear over, above the water
in de lucht click to hear in the air
op het water click to hear on the water
in het water click to hear in the water
onder water click to hear under water
een brug over de gracht click to hear a bridge across the city canal
[a bridge across a city canal]
[front, back and sides] [top, sides and front]
(de) voorkant click to hear front
(de) zijkant click to hear 2 side
(de) achterkant click to hear 2 back
(de) bovenkant click to hear top
(de) onderkant click to hear 2 bottom
(de) kant click to hear side
[bottom, sides and front]
Dutch (de) zijde click to hear for 'side' is a little old-fashioned. It also means 'silk.' Kant also means 'lace.'
Aan de ene kant click to hear 2 3
'on the one [side] hand'
Aan de andere kant click to hear 2 3
'on the other hand'
[stairs, an elevator, floors]
boven click to hear upstairs, above
naar boven click to hear up
omhoog click to hear up
beneden click to hear downstairs ('beneath')
naar beneden click to hear down
omlaag click to hear down
(de) trap click to hear stairs
(de) lift click to hear elevator
[the floors of a house; around a house]
voor click to hear in front of
achter click to hear behind
naast click to hear next to
voor het huis click to hear in front of the house
achter het huis click to hear behind the house
naast het huis click to hear next to the house
(het) huis click to hear house - more 'house'
(de) zolder click to hear attic
(de) eerste verdieping click to hear the second floor
(de) begane grond click to hear the first (ground) floor
(de) kelder click to hear cellar
[an air balloon over a house, a person on top of a house]
boven click to hear over, above
op click to hear on, on top of
in click to hear in, inside
binnen click to hear inside
buiten click to hear outside
onder click to hear under, below
boven het huis click to hear above the house
op het huis click to hear on top of the house
op het dak click to hear on the roof
in het huis click to hear inside the house
buiten het huis click to hear outside the house
onder het huis click to hear under the house
[a tree in front of a house]
een boom voor het huis click to hear
a tree in front of the house
[between and among houses]
tussen click to hear among -and- between
tussen de huizen click to hear among the houses
between the houses
om click to hear about - more
rond click to hear around
bomen om het huis click to hear trees about the house
bomen rond het huis click to hear trees around the house
[trees around/about a house]
[to the house, into the house, away from the house]

[into the room, through the door, out of the room]

naar click to hear to
naar ... toe click to hear to, towards
van click to hear from, away from
van ... weg click to hear away from
in click to hear in, into
binnen click to hear inside
naar binnen click to hear into
buiten click to hear outside
naar buiten click to hear out
[through the house]
door click to hear through - more
door het huis click to hear through the house

naar het huis click to hear to the house
naar het huis toe click to hear towards the house
van het huis click to hear from the house
van het huis weg click to hear away from the house
het huis in click to hear into the house
het huis binnen click to hear into the house
het huis uit click to hear out of the house
ze liep naar het huis toe click to hear she walked towards the house
hij ging het huis in click to hear he went into the house
hij ging het huis binnen click to hear he went inside the house
hij liep het huis uit click to hear he walked out of the house
door de deur click to hear through the door
de kamer in click to hear into the room
in de kamer click to hear in the room
de kamer uit click to hear out of the room
[a road sign pointing to Amsterdam]
naar click to hear to
uit click to hear from
naar Amsterdam click to hear to Amsterdam
uit Amsterdam click to hear from Amsterdam
ik kom uit Amerika click to hear I'm from the US
ik kom uit Engeland click to hear I'm from England
[arrows pointing left, straight, right and back]
links click to hear left
rechts click to hear right
rechtdoor click to hear straight
terug click to hear back

neem de tweede weg links
en dan de derde weg rechts click to hear
take the second road to the left
and then the third road to the right

- more Traffic and Transportation

vooruit click to hear forward
achteruit click to hear backward
[arrows along a road pointing forward and back]
See also: Travel - Foreign Lands
tegen click to hear against - more
en click to hear and
op click to hear on, in
[a car smashed against a tree]
tegen een boom click to hear against a tree
[a triangle and a square]
driehoek en vierkant click to hear
triangle and square
[an arrow pointing at a spot] op deze plaats click to hear
at this point,
in this spot
met click to hear with
zonder click to hear without
en click to hear and
bij click to hear with, at - more
van click to hear of
[a coffee mug, sugar and cream being added
       - the mug says 'Piet' - and 
       a cup of tea with a cookie]
koffie met melk en suiker click to hear coffee with cream and sugar
een koekje bij de thee click to hear a cookie with the tea
de mok van Piet click to hear Peet's mug
[a box with a number, a box without a number]
met click to hear with
zonder click to hear without
doos met nummer click to hear box with a number
doos zonder nummer click to hear box without a number
patat met mayonaise click to hear french fries with mayo
patat-met click to hear french fries with (mayo)
patat zonder mayonaise click to hear french fries without mayo
patat-zonder click to hear french fries without (mayo)
[a tree, a house and two cars - near by and far away]
dit click to hear
this
deze click to hear
this, these
hier click to hear 2
here
dat click to hear
that
die click to hear
that, those
daar click to hear
there

'Deze' and 'die' are used for 'de' words (including plurals)
'dit' and 'dat' are used for 'het' words.
'Deze' and 'dit' indicate nearby items;
'die' and 'dat' indicate distant items.

hier click to hear 2 here daar click to hear there
de boom click to hear the tree deze boom click to hear this tree die boom click to hear that tree
het huis click to hear the house dit huis click to hear this house dat huis click to hear that house
de auto's click to hear the cars deze auto's click to hear these cars die auto's click to hear those cars

'Dat' and 'that' also have other meanings. See: Disambiguation: 'Dat'
See also: more 'hier' and 'daar'

2014
tweeduizendveertien
click to hear
2015
tweeduizendvijftien
click to hear
2016
tweeduizendzestien
click to hear
2017
tweeduizendzeventien
click to hear
2018
tweeduizendachttien
click to hear
2019
tweeduizendnegentien click to hear 2
2020
tweeduizendtwintig
click to hear 2 3


last year
vorig jaar
click to hear
this year
dit jaar
click to hear 2
next year
volgend jaar
click to hear 2




the past
het verleden
click to hear
the present
het heden
click to hear
the future
de toekomst
click to hear



then
toen
click to hear
now
nu
click to hear
then
dan
click to hear


the day before yesterday
eergisteren
click to hear
yesterday
gisteren
click to hear
today
vandaag
click to hear
tomorrow
morgen
click to hear 2
the day after tomorrow
overmorgen
click to hear 2
voor click to hear before
na click to hear after - more
tijdens click to hear during
van click to hear from
tot click to hear to, till
tussen click to hear between
en click to hear and
[war years]
de oorlog click to hear the War
voor de oorlog click to hear before the War
tijdens de oorlog click to hear during the War
na de oorlog click to hear after the war
van 1940 tot 1945 click to hear from 1940 to 1945
tussen 1940 en 1945 click to hear between 1940 and 1945
de Tweede Wereldoorlog begon in 1939 click to hear 2
the Second World War started in 1939
[eight o'clock]
om click to hear at
om acht uur click to hear at eight o'clock
voor acht uur click to hear before eight
na acht uur click to hear after eight
om acht uur precies click to hear at eight sharp
op tijd click to hear on time, in time
precies op tijd click to hear exactly on time
te laat click to hear too late
[an arrow pointing to '8:00'] Dutch time
['pharmacy' with signs 'hours' and 'days']
(de) apotheek click to hear pharmacy
(de) openingstijden click to hear business hours
van acht tot zes click to hear from eight to six
maandag tot en met zaterdag click to hear Monday through Saturday
tot en met click to hear up to and including
op zondag gesloten click to hear closed Sundays
Dutch 'tot' click to hear ('to, till') is a little ambiguous: is the second date included or not? To avoid confusion, we sometimes say 'tot en met' click to hear ('up to and including.')

[Jan, Piet, Klaas and Wim.
    Jan is taller than Piet,
    Piet and Klaas are the same height,
    Wim is the tallest.]
dan click to hear than - more
even ... als click to hear just as ... as, as ... as
Jan is groter dan Piet click to hear John is taller than Pete
Piet is even groot als Klaas click to hear 2 Pete is as tall as Charles
Piet en Klaas zijn even groot click to hear 2 Pete and Charles are the same height
Wim is het grootst click to hear 2 Bill is the tallest

Many Dutchmen say "groter (etc.) als," for the comparative degree, but that is not correct. Use dan click to hear - groter dan click to hear ('bigger than')

Basic Dutch: Nouns - Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs - Prepositions (etc.): pictorial / list - Supplement

The words selection is mostly based on Ogden and Richards' Basic English - the drawings are all my own.

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2011. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2