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Dutch Lesson 7 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Personal Pronouns - To Be (Present) - High and Low Numbers - Chatham

Listen
Personal Pronouns
'Zijn' - to be: Present Tense
High and Low Numbers
Chatham
Multatuli click to hear 2 (Latin: 'I have carried much') was the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker click to hear 2 who resigned from his position in the colonial bureaucracy of the Dutch Indies (now Indonesia) in protest over the exploitation of the indigenous population, in particular the free hand given local rulers in dealing with their subjects. Multatuli's 1860 novel Max Havelaar click to hear is a slightly fictionalized account of his experiences. It is still considered one of the best, if not the best book in Dutch literature. His sentences are a bit long, but his language is very lively.
The book's first paragraph introduces the dour narrator of the first chapters Batavus Droogstoppel click to hear.
Douwes Dekker's spelling is a bit idiosyncratic. For instance, he writes koffi for koffie, and Y for IJ, like in myn for mijn.
Multatuli: Max Havelaar click to hear
I am a dealer in coffee, and live at 37 Lauriergracht. Ik ben makelaar in koffi, en woon op de Lauriergracht no 37. click to hear
I am not in the habit of writing novels, or things like that, and it has taken me some time, before I took the step of ordering a few extra reams of paper, and started the work that you, dear reader, have just picked up, and that you should read if you are a coffee dealer, and also if you're something else. Het is myn gewoonte niet, romans te schryven, of zulke dingen, en het heeft dan ook lang geduurd, voor ik er toe overging een paar riem papier extra te bestellen, en het werk aan te vangen, dat gy, lieve lezer, zo-even in de hand hebt genomen, en dat ge lezen moet als ge makelaar in koffi zyt, of als ge wat anders zyt. click to hear
Not only that I've never written something like a novel, but I don't even like to read things like that, because I am a businessman. Niet alleen dat ik nooit iets schreef dat naar een roman geleek, maar ik houd er zelfs niet van, iets dergelyks te lezen, omdat ik een man van zaken ben. click to hear
For years already I've wondered what the good of those things is, and I'm amazed at the impudence of poets and novelists spinning their tales of things that never happened, and usually cannot really happen. Sedert jaren vraag ik my af, waartoe zulke dingen dienen, en ik sta verbaasd over de onbeschaamdheid waarmede een dichter of romanverteller u iets op de mouw durft spelden, dat nooit gebeurd is, en meestal niet gebeuren kan. click to hear
If I in my business -- I am a dealer in coffee, and live at 37 Lauriergracht -- would make a statement to a 'principal' -- a 'principal' is a seller of coffee -- that contained just a few of the fictions that constitute the main part of poems and novels, he would switch to Busselinck & Waterman right away. Als ik in myn vak -- ik ben makelaar in koffi, en woon op de Lauriergracht no 37 -- aan een principaal -- een principaal is iemand die koffi verkoopt -- een opgave deed waarin maar een klein gedeelte der onwaarheden voorkwam, die in gedichten en romans de hoofdzaak uitmaken, zou hy terstond Busselinck & Waterman nemen. click to hear
They are dealers in coffee like me, but there's no need for you to know their address. Dat zyn ook makelaars in koffi, doch hun adres behoeft ge niet te weten. click to hear
Therefore, I will not write novels or make other false statements. Ik pas er dus wel op, dat ik geen romans schryf, of andere valse opgaven doe. click to hear
I have often noted that people who are engaged in such things usually end up badly. Ik heb dan ook altyd opgemerkt dat mensen die zich met zo-iets inlaten, gewoonlyk slecht wegkomen. click to hear
I am 43 years old, and I have been going to the Exchange for twenty years, so I can step forward, if an experienced person is called for. Ik ben drie en veertig jaren oud, bezoek sedert twintig jaren de beurs, en kan dus voor den dag treden, als men iemand roept die ondervinding heeft. click to hear
I have already seen many companies fail! (literally: 'houses fall') Ik heb al wat huizen zien vallen! click to hear
And usually, when I looked into the causes, I thought the reason was the wrong direction given to most people in their early years.
(continued)
En gewoonlyk, wanneer ik de oorzaken naging, kwam het me voor, dat die moesten gezocht worden in de verkeerde richting die aan de meesten gegeven was in hun jeugd. click to hear

Personal Pronouns

[I (Marco)]
ik click to
  hear
In the common self-depreciating mode, Dutchmen often say:
"Ik, zei de gek" click to hear 2 ('I [me] said the crazy man')

[Safeway, Just for U]
False Friend or Easy Dutch?

English
Nominative
Subject
(Nominative)
Possessive
(Genitive)
Object
(Accusative)
Reflexive
"I am" "my dog" "remember me"
"he hit me"
"be yourself"
"defend yourself"
I ik click to hear mijn click to hear
m'n click to hear
mij click to hear
me click to hear
mezelf click to hear
me click to hear

you (singular,
informal)
jij click to hear
je click to hear
jouw click to hear
je click to hear
jou click to hear
je click to hear
jezelf click to hear
je click to hear
he hij click to hear
(-ie click to hear)
zijn click to hear
z'n click to hear
hem click to hear
'm click to hear
zichzelf click to hear
zich click to hear
she zij click to hear
ze click to hear
haar click to hear
(d'r click to hear)
haar click to hear
zichzelf click to hear
zich click to hear
it het click to hear
't click to hear
we wij click to hear
we click to hear
ons click to
    hear
(for 'het' words)
onze click to
    hear
(for 'de' words)
ons click to hear onszelf click to hear
ons click to hear
you (plural,
informal)
jullie click to hear
jullie click to hear
jullie click to hear
jezelf click to hear
je click to hear
they zij click to hear
ze click to hear
hun click to hear
hen click to hear
ze click to hear
zichzelf click to hear
zich click to hear
you (polite) U click to hear Uw click to hear U click to hear zichzelf click to hear
zich click to hear
Please note that the Dutch word for you in the singular (jij, je) is different from you in the plural (jullie.) Dutch also frequently uses the polite form of you: 'U,' to older people or other people deserving respect; it should also be used when addressing people in a subservient position, like sales clerks, bus or cab drivers, or hotel and restaurant staff. This 'U' is rarely used in the plural. Because of the polite 'U' Dutch uses words like 'please' much less than English. But it's not wrong to say: alstublieft click to hear ('please.') It took me a long time to automatically insert 'please' in my English questions.

As the table shows, Dutch has an -IJ and an -E ('voiceless E') form for many of the personal pronouns. The -IJ form refers more pointedly, but the difference is small. For students it's perfectly alright to just use the -E form. Especially with second person singular informal that will save you some trouble. In almost every situation you can use je instead of jij, jouw or jou.
We zijn de dupe click to hear 2 3 ('We are the victims, we pay the price')
Wij zijn de dupe click to hear 2 3 ('We are the ones paying the price, it's us who are the victims')
The -IJ form is only used as the nominative.
The dative form of 'ze' is 'hun' click to hear "Give it to them."
Hij vertelde hun wat er gebeurd was click to hear 2 ('He told them what had happened')
Jou click to hear and jouw click to hear are pronounced almost exactly the same (I seem to hear a very slight difference) - both end in a Dutch W sound; but U click to hear and Uw click to hear should not sound the same, there is NO Dutch W sound in 'U:'
Heeft Uw hond U gebeten? - Bent U gebeten door Uw hond? click to hear ('Did your dog bite you?' - 'Were you bitten by your dog?')
Het is not used as often as its English equivalent 'it'; only for the abstract, like
"Het is tien uur," click to hear (It's ten o'clock.) - more
Het click to hear is often shortened to 't click to hear - note the vowel change from 'short E' to 'voiceless E.' (As we've seen in Lesson 4, 'het' is also the article for 'neutral' words.)
"'t Is mooi weer." click to hear (It's nice weather.)
'It is said that ...' is best said in Dutch as "Men zegt dat ..." click to hear (Dutch 'men' click to hear is an occasional 'they.')
Dutch has no separate possesive form for the neutral third person singular ('its.') Use zijn click to hear ('his') or occasionally haar click to hear ('her')
't Vogeltje zit op z'n nestje click to hear 2 ('The little bird is sitting on its nest')
Maart roert z'n staart click to hear 2 ('March wags its tail' - bad weather at the end of March)
Het vogeltje en haar jongen click to hear ('The little bird and its young')
Het schip en haar bemanning click to hear ('The ship and its (her?) crew')
In the fragment I read above, Douwes Dekker uses the Flemish gij click to hear and ge click to hear for 'you,' second person singular informal.

M'n vaders vrienden click to hear ("My father's friends") Following the English example, many Dutchmen write vader's with apostrophe, but that is not correct in Dutch.
Instead of the possessive personal pronoun, you could use van click to hear ('of,') for example in:
De vrienden van m'n vader click to hear ("The friends of my father's")
Note that Dutch just writes vader - there is no apostrophe-S figure like in English "father's".

For zich and zichzelf ('yourself') see Reflexive Verbs
Personal Pronouns Sample Sentences

wie? click to hear 2 who?
iedereen click to hear everybody
iemand click to hear someone
niemand click to hear nobody
wat? click to hear what?
alles click to hear everything
iets click to hear something
niets click to hear nothing
(niks click to hear nothing)
waar? click to hear where?
overal click to hear 2 everywhere
ergens click to hear somewhere
nergens click to hear nowhere
wanneer? click to hear when?
altijd click to hear always
meestal click to hear 2 most of time, usually
soms click to hear sometimes
nooit click to hear never
ooit click to hear ever

Zijn = to Be (Present Tense)

Like English 'to be,' zijn is irregular. Note the similarities with English. Regular verbs will be explained in a future lesson.
zijn to be - present tense
zijn
ik ben
jij bent
hij is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn
U bent
click to hear
to be
I am
you are [informal, singular]
he is
we are
you are [informal, plural]
they are
you are [polite]


ik ben blij
jij bent blij
hij is blij
wij zijn blij
jullie zijn blij
zij zijn blij
click to hear

I am happy
you are happy
he is happy
we are happy
you are happy
they are happy


ben ik blij?
ben jij blij?
is hij blij?
zijn wij blij?
zijn jullie blij?
zijn zij blij?
click to hear

am I happy?
are you happy?
is he happy?
are we happy?
are you happy?
are they happy?

U bent blij
bent U blij?
click to hear
you are happy
are you happy?
The old-fashioned form zijt click to hear 2 is still found in the Lord's Prayer and Hail Mary >> and maybe in the later verses of the anthem, but nowhere else, I think. Gij zijt click to hear 2 - 'Thou art'

In question mode, Dutch turns subject and verb around, like English sometimes does. Note that in question mode the T-ending for je/jij (you informal singular) is dropped, but not for 'U' (you polite singular.)
ben je wakker? click to hear ('are you awake?' [you - singular informal]) - bent U wakker? click to hear ('are you awake?' [you - singular polite])

Ik ben ziek click to hear ('I'm sick')
hij is laat click to hear 2 ('he is late')
hij is vroeg click to hear 2 ('he is early')
het is laat click to hear ('it is late')
Ben je ziek? click to hear ('Are you sick?')
Ben je boos? click to hear 2 ('Are you angry?')
Ik ben verkouden click to hear ('I have a cold')
Ik ben niet ziek click to hear 2 3 ('I am not sick')
't Is niet waar! click to hear ('It's not true!' - Usually ironic, like 'You don't say!')
Er zijn geen bergen in Nederland click to hear ('There are no mountains in Holland')
Ik ben moe click to hear 2 ('I am tired')
Ik ben erg moe click to hear 2 ('I am very tired')
Ik ben heel erg moe click to hear 2 ('I am extremely tired')
Ik ben verschrikkelijk moe click to hear 2 ('I am terribly tired')
Query Words: wie
wat
waar
click to hear 2
who
what
where
wanneer
hoe
waarom
click to hear 2
when
how
why
wie
click to hear
who
wat
click to hear
what
waar
click to hear
where
wanneer
click to hear
when
hoe
click to hear
how
waarom
click to hear
why
Wie is de mooiste in het land? click to hear
Sneeuwwitje is de mooiste in het land. click to hear
('Who is the prettiest in the land?')
('Snow White is the prettiest in the land.')
Wat is dat? click to hear
Het is een bidsprinkhaan. click to hear
('What's that?')
('It's a praying [grasshopper] mantis.')
Waar is de uitgang? click to hear
Hier is de ingang. click to hear
Daar is de uitgang. click to hear
De uitgang is daar. click to hear
('Where is the exit?')
('The entry is here.')
('There is the exit')
('The exit is [over] there.')
Wanneer ben je jarig? click to
   hear
Wanneer is hij jarig? click to hear
('When is your birthday?') more Birthday
('When is his birthday? [Where is his birthday suit?]')
Hoe lang ben je? click to hear
Ik ben 1 meter 80. click to hear
('How tall are you?')
('I am 1 meter 80 centimeters tall.' = 5'11")
Hoe is het weer? click to hear 2
Het is koud. click to hear
('How is the weather?')
('It is cold.')
Waarom ben je boos? click to hear
"Daarom." click to hear 2
('Why are you angry?')
('"Because."')
Wie is er aan de beurt? click to hear ('Whose turn is it?' 'Who's Next?')
Ben ik aan de beurt? click to hear ('Is it my turn?') ik ben click to hear ('[I am] it's my turn')
Jij bent aan de beurt click to hear ('It's your turn') jij bent click to hear 2 ('[you are] it's your turn') This is one of the few places where jij is better than je.
chess cards and dice zij is click to hear ('[she is] it's her turn') Like in the line above, here zij is better than ze.

<< previous - verbs central - next >>

Because there are already so many things to learn in this lesson, there will be no vocabulary section.

[ditch] [ditch] [wet fields] [wet fields]
These pictures are probably of newly reclaimed land, with its first vegatation, a few months after it became 'dry,' Eastern Flevoland.

The High and Low Numbers

10,000
tienduizend (10.000)
click to
       hear
100,000
honderdduizend (100.000)
click to
       hear
1,000,000
miljoen (1.000.000)
click to
       hear 2
1,000,000,000
miljard (1.000.000.000)
click to
       hear
below zero
onder nul
click to
       hear
-1
min één
click to
       hear
<< - numbers, simple math and dimensions - >>

Chatham

From about 1600 to 1750, Holland was a major power, with the largest merchant fleet of any nation, and the highest Gross National Product per capita in the world. Dutchmen call the 17th Century De Gouden Eeuw click to hear ('The Golden Century') - even though in the first half we were still at war with Spain, and in the third quarter there were three wars with Great Britain.
Trade was the source of prosperity, and it was in part based on technological advances. Wind-powered sawmills cut wood for shipbuilding, and an efficient Dutch ship design called fluit click to hear ('flute') was cheaper to build and could be handled by a smaller crew than other vessels of that time. Also, Dutch fishermen had discovered that in preparing herring for storage (haring kaken click to hear - removing the gills and innards, and salting) the taste of the fish was greatly improved by leaving in the pancreas (alvleesklier click to hear) - its enzymes would do something beneficial to the fish meat (traditionally ascribed to Willem Beukelszoon click to hear, also: Willem Beukelsz. click to hear 2, ca 1400.)

In trade and shipping, the Dutch were competing with the English. The 1651 English 'Act of Navigation' said that foreign ships could only transport their own country's products to England and the British colonies. The law was meant to limit Dutch international shipping. An important goal of the Anglo-Dutch wars was damaging the opponent's trade and economy, by blockades, piracy and attacks on fishermen.
The first 'Anglo-Dutch Sea War,' De Eerste Engelse Zeeoorlog click to hear (1652-54 - only four years after the Dutch war with Spain ended) started with an incident near Dover about Dutch ships refusing to lower the flag and acknowledge English supremacy. In general the war did not go well for the Dutch, despite an English legend that admiral Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp click to hear 2 at one point had a broom nailed to the top of his main mast to show he'd 'cleared' the British Navy from the English Channel, to ensure safe passage for Dutch shipping. After Tromp fell in battle, Michiel de Ruyter click to hear was appointed head of the Dutch navy, and he remained in command for the next two wars. Some other admirals: Witte de With click to hear and Jan Evertsen click to hear.

De Tweede Engelse Zeeoorlog click to hear (1665-67) was won by the Dutch, after in the last year the Dutch fleet entered the river Thames, and a small squadron sailed up the Medway and destroyed or captured much of the British fleet at Chatham. Every Dutch schoolage child (schoolboy) knows about the heavy chain that was blocking the way (it was probably a combination of chains and rafts); some say ship De Vreede click to hear ('peace') of Captain Jan van Brakel click to hear cleared it, but others say the chain was actually broken by his lieutenant Jan Daniëls van Rijn click to hear in the fire ship Pro Patria click to hear (Latin: 'For My Country.') The English were down because of the Great Fire of London and a plague outbreak; still a glorious feat of Dutch arms. In the negotiations, Holland traded Dutch New York (already occupied by the English) for the South American colony of Suriname click to hear 2 (its capital is Paramaribo click to hear 2) which looked more profitable at the time.

Chatham Raid paintings at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Chatham Raid websites: English - Dutch


In the first year of De Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog click to hear (1672-74), a British-French alliance came close to crushing the Dutch Republic. In Dutch, 1672 is called het rampjaar click to hear ('the disastrous year.') The leader of the Dutch government Raadspensionaris click to hear Johan de Witt click to hear was lynched by a mob, and to stop the invading French army much land had to be flooded. Luckily, the enemy alliance fell apart, and Holland did not lose this war. Peace was made with the French in 1678. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam paintings of sea battles of the Third War: 1 - 2

In 1689 the Dutch stadhouder click to hear Willem III and his wife Mary (daughter of English King James II) became King and Queen of England ('William and Mary') and relations between the countries were better for the next 100 years, until De Vierde Engelse Zeeoorlog click to hear (1781-1784), over Dutch support for the American Revolution, mainly the providing of gunpowder and loans. There were no great sea battles, but England choked off Dutch commerce.
Holland was (and still is) a small country. Most of its warships were refitted merchantmen, not earning money in wartime. In the long run the Dutch were no match for the professional navies of larger nations like England.

Imagine for a moment that New York had remained Dutch in 1667. It would have greatly changed the course of the American revolution. Would the Dutch have cooperated with the English to suppress the colonies' bid for independence, thus depriving the Americans of the support we gave them in the real history - or would New Amsterdam have become the revolutionaries' safe haven? But in that scenario England might have attacked Holland in Europe more seriously.

A nice anecdote of the 1672-78 war with the French:
At the French headquarters on the water's edge a delegation of the Dutch government was expected for negotiations. A small rowboat aproached, with stern men dressed in black like church ministers. They sat down in the grass, eating bread and cheese. I imagine the French officers wore wigs and fancy colorful uniforms, and were thinking this was an advance guard or a bunch of translators, but when the Dutchmen were done with their lunch they said they were the representatives of the government and let's get down to business.
If Dutch resistance had been broken in the third war, would the victors have divided the spoils: the Rhine as France's northern border, and the remainder an English toehold on the Continent ('The United Kingdom of England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and Holland')?
In the Battle of Solebay of the Third War, Van Brakel's ship and the Earl of Sandwich's Royal James had their rigging tangled up for two hours, imagine: fighting and trying to disentangle at the same time; Van Rijn later set fire to the English ship. << - essays - >>

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