Search my site: 'Like' the Hear Dutch Here website on Facebook
- March 2013: mouseovers with the meaning of the Dutch words in the Pronunciation section added
April 2013 - a few fractions added

Lesson 10 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Exceptions and Irregularities in Dutch Spelling and Pronunciation - Street Words - Fractions - Inches and Centimeters

Listen
Spelling and Pronunciation Exceptions and Irregularities
Vocabulary
Fractions
Simon Stevin
Metric to Imperial: Length (1)
More from Multatuli: Max Havelaar - see also Lesson 7
The dour narrator of the first chapters further introduces himself, and rightly debunks some patriotic Dutch myths.

I say: truth and common sense, and I stick to that. I take The Holy Writ as an exception, of course. Ik zeg waarheid en gezond verstand, en hier blijf ik bij. Voor De Schrift maak ik natuurlijk een uitzondering. click to hear
It already starts to go wrong with Van Alphen, right away in that first line about those 'darling children.' De fout begint al van Van Alphen af, en wel terstond by de eerste regel over die 'lieve wichtjes.' click to hear
What in heaven's name could that old man have had in mind pretending to worship my sister Truitje with her sore eyes, or my brother Gerrit who was always touching his nose? Wat drommel kon die oude heer bewegen zich uit te geven voor een aanbidder van myn zusje Truitje die zere ogen had, of van myn broêr Gerrit die altyd met zyn neus speelde? click to hear
And yet, he says that he sang those lines of poetry, 'propelled by love.' En toch, hy zegt: 'dat hy die versjes zong, door liefde gedrongen.' click to hear
As a child I was often thinking: 'I'd like to meet you, Mister, and if you'd refuse the marbles I'd ask for, or my full name in sweet pastry - my name is Batavus - then I'd call you a liar.' Ik dacht dikwyls als kind: 'man, ik wilde U graag eens ontmoeten, en als ge de marmerknikkers weigerde, die ik vragen zou, of myn naam voluit in banket - ik heet Batavus - dan houd ik U voor een leugenaar.' click to hear
But I've never met Van Alphen. He had already passed away, I think, when he told us that my Dad was my best friend - I liked Pauweltje Winser better, who lived next door in the Batavierstraat - and when he told us that my little dog was so grateful. We had no dogs, because they're not clean. Maar ik heb Van Alphen nooit gezien. Hy was al dood, geloof ik, toen hy ons vertelde dat myn vader myn beste vrind was - ik hield meer van Pauweltje Winser, die naast ons woonde in de Batavierstraat - en dat myn kleine hond zo dankbaar was. Wy hielden geen honden, omdat ze zo onzindelyk zyn. click to
  hear
Everything and all lies! And that's the way children are brought up. Alles leugens! Zo gaat dan de opvoeding voort. click to hear
The woman selling vegetables has brought the new little sister in a large cabbage. Het nieuwe zusje is van de groenvrouw gekomen in een grote kool. click to hear
All Dutchmen are brave and noble. Alle Hollanders zyn dapper en edelmoedig. click to hear
The Romans were glad that the Batavians didn't kill them. De Romeinen waren bly dat de Batavieren hen lieten leven. click to hear
The Bey of Tunis would get a colic when he heard the snapping of the Dutch flag. De Bey van Tunis kreeg een kolyk als hy het wapperen hoorde van de Nederlandse vlag. click to hear
The duke of Alba was a monster. De hertog van Alva was een ondier. click to hear
The low tide, of 1672 I think, lasted a little longer than usual, especially to protect Holland. De eb, in 1672 geloof ik, duurde wat langer dan gewoonlyk, expres om Nederland te beschermen. click to hear
Lies! Holland is still Holland because our old folks took good care of business and had the true religion. That's what it is.
continued
Leugens! Nederland is Nederland gebleven omdat onze oude luî goed op hun zaken pasten, en omdat ze het ware geloof hadden! Dàt is de zaak. click to hear

Notes
Gezond verstand is translated as 'common sense' - literally it is 'healthy thinking.'
The Batavians (Batavieren) were a Germanic tribe that rose up against Roman rule.

'The Bey of Tunis ...' in the 17th Century, the Dutch Navy was able to suppress the Barbary Pirates for a while. (Thank you Daniel Baskin for the 'snapping' translation.)
A hundred years later, John Adams negotiated with the Barbary Pirates and paid them protection money to leave American shipping alone, which Arab nations now proudly present as the first foreign recognition of the United States.
As described by Barbara Tuchman in The First Salute, when on November 16, 1776 Governor de Graaff of the Dutch Carribean colony of St. Eustatius ordered his lieutenant Ravené to return the salute of the U.S. warship Andrew Dorea, it was the first foreign recognition of the new American Flag and Nation. Call me old-fashioned.

'The duke of Alba ...' the Spanish Governor in the early years of the Dutch Revolt.
'The low tide of 1672 ...' Holland was attacked by England, France and two German bishopries in 1672.

Exceptions and Irregularities in Spelling and Pronunciation

The saying: De uitzondering die de regel bevestigt click to hear 2 ('The exception that confirms the rule') is often heard in Dutch, but it is of course nonsense. If a counter-example (tegenvoorbeeld click to hear) can be found the rule is invalid. I remember reading somewhere that the original Latin was something like 'The exception that tests the rule.'
- (de) uitzondering click to hear 2 ('exception') - plural: uitzonderingen click to hear 2
Don't feel overwhelmed by the size of the lesson - Dutch spelling and pronunciation is really far more regular than English, the number of exceptions is much smaller than in English. Still ...
Not Phonetic
Regular Vowel Combinations
Foreign Words
D and T Softening
Mixed Examples

Where Dutch is Not Phonetic

Dutch spelling is fairly phonetic. In general, there is just one way of writing each sound, and each letter and letter combination is usually pronounced in the same way. Once you know the pronunciation of the letters, you can almost always easily see from written Dutch how to say it, and on hearing Dutch you will know how it's written. There are (of course!) exceptions, but not that many, and most are not very important. Speaking Dutch following only the general rules - pronoucing every letter in the standard way - would not be really bad Dutch. But find below the most important non-phonetic Dutch.
unexpected
short A

Sometimes, an A in the first syllable of a word is short, although according to the spelling rules it should be long (followed by one consonant and another vowel.) In these cases, there is usually a second long vowel:
lawaai click to hear 2 - kabaal click to hear 2 - compare with: kabel click to hear
CHTJ
T in CHTJ is dropped. It's too hard to say: toch-t-je click to hear
tochtje click to hear - zachtjes click to hear - nichtje click to hear - luchtje click to hear
'Voiceless, Unstressed E'
the 'schwa'

A single E can be 'long' click to hear - 'short' click to hear or 'voiceless, unstressed' (the 'schwa') click to hear and to foreigners and non-native speakers it's often hard to tell which E's are 'voiceless, unstressed.' See Lesson 4 and the Pronunciation Reference page
een
The indefinite article een click to hear ('a') is pronounced with voiceless E. It's also written as " 'n " which shows the pronunciation correctly. The number 1 is usually written with accents: één click to hear ('one')
EI, IJ or UI
with -E ending

Words that end in ei, ij or ui will have a sound like Y in AWAY inserted before endings that start with voiceless E, like -e, -en or -er. This sound is not put in writing.
ei eieren click to hear - kei keien ei eieren beiaard click to hear
vrij vrijer click to hear - lui luie click to hear - ui uien kruier click to hear
EEUW geeuw meeuw schreeuw click to hear - leeuw leeuwen Zeeuws eeuwig click to
 hear
H after T
H after T is not pronounced:
thee/teen click to hear - thans/tand click to hear - ether/eter click to hear - theoloog/theïne click to hear (theïne = caffeïne)
except in compound words that split between T and H, for instance: witheet (wit-heet) click to hear 2
I after
A, AA,
OO or OE
'consonant Y,' like Y in AWAY: kooi roeien vlaai click to hear - aai boei nooit click to hear
AI: like AI in THAIS: maïs Thais pais click to
  hear - maïs / Thais / pais en vree click to hear - braille click to hear
fraai fraaie fraaier fraais click to
  hear - kraai click to hear 2
ooi dooien dooit click to hear - mooi mooier mooist click to hear
koe koeien click to hear - groei groeien groeit click to hear
IEUW very much like EW in British English NEW
nieuw - nieuws click to hear - nieuw nieuwe nieuws kieuwen click to hear 2 (nieuw = new, nieuws = news)
-IG ending I like first A in AWAY ('voiceless E')
beeldig zalig bochtig click to hear - duchtig prachtig click to hear
grimmig jolig kranig click to hear - aardig melig huiverig click to hear - schietvereniging click to hear
bijzonder
bijzonder click to hear ('special') only in this word is IJ pronounced as long I (English EE)
-ISCH ending I long, CH not pronounced. There have been plans to change this spelling to -IES
Slavisch chemisch Belgisch click to hear - kritisch fysisch click to hear - logisch siberisch arabisch click to hear
-LIJK ending IJ like first A in AWAY ('voiceless E')
degelijk dergelijk dagelijks click to
   hear - ijselijk olijk eerlijk click to hear - lelijk billijk ergerlijk click to hear
Note that a few short words end in 'regular' IJK, not -LIJK ending: gelijk rijk click to hear
SCHR
CH in SCHR is not pronounced:
scheut schreeuw schijf schreien click to hear 2 - schrijven schriel schroom verschrikkelijk click to hear
STJ, STZ
T between S and J or S and Z is usually dropped. It's too hard to say.
STJ: kastje worstje click to hear 2 - nest click to hear / nestje click to hear - feest click to hear 2 / feestje click to hear 2
STZ: postzegel click to hear (pos-t-zegel click to hear 2) - postzegels click to hear
UW long U +W (somewhat like EW in DEW)
stuw kluwen zenuw click to hear - uw duw duwen zwaluw click to hear
WR
W before R is said as V:
wervel wrevel click to hear - vrees wreed vraag wraak click to hear - weerwraak verwrongen click to hear 2
erwt
('pea') a rare silent W: erwt erwten click to hear 2
murw
murw click to hear - this 'F' pronunciation is an exception. (Thank you Eddie Gillette)

Regular Vowel Combinations

The diphthongs AU/OU, EI/IJ, EU, OE and UI have a unique sound (lesson 2) - and also EEUW and IEUW we heard above; but in other vowel combinations the vowels have their own, regular sound. So this paragraph is not about exceptions but about regular pronunciation.
EA pronounced separately, long Dutch E and A
kreatief realiteit click to
   hear - Thea click to hear - Beatrix click to hear
EO
pronounced separately, long Dutch E and O
geograaf click to hear - theorie click to hear 2 - theocratie click to hear - aureool click to hear - Theo click to hear
IA(A) pronounced separately, long Dutch I, and long or short Dutch A
triangel Ria riant cruciaal click to
  hear
IAU
miauw click to hear (what cats say)
IEE
prieel dieet diëten click to hear 2 (pri-eel, di-eet, di-e-ten)
IO(O) pronounced separately: long Dutch I, and long or short Dutch O:
pion trio bastion viool radio click to hear
UE
juweel ritueel click to hear 2

Foreign Words

It's of course not possible to list all foreign words with irregular Dutch pronunciation on this page: these are just some of the most common foreign sounds.
There are many French words in Dutch, because French was the international language of diplomacy, culture and technology after the Latin of the Middle Ages, until English took over early in the Twentieth Century - after the early days of the automobile: many Dutch car words are still from French, like bougie click to hear ('spark plug,') benzine click to hear ('gasoline') and of course, 'car' itself: auto click to hear
Latin AE
In a few words of Latin origin AE is said as Dutch long E, English A as in FACE:
praeses / quaestor click to
  hear ('president; treasurer') - laesie click to hear 2 ('lesion' - medical jargon)
- but in old Dutch names AE is said as long A: Kersemaeker click to hear / click to hear (see also Old Spelling in Names)
French -AIE
As in French: portemonnaie click to hear ('purse')
French -AIL
As in French: detail click to hear ('detail') - failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt; bankruptcy') - medaille click to hear 2 ('a medal') - braille click to hear ('Braille') - taille click to hear 2 ('waist') - wespentaille click to hear ('a wasp's waist')
French -AIR
As in French: militair click to hear ('a soldier; military') - ordinair click to hear 2 ("common," 'vulgar') - vulgair click to hear 2 ('vulgar, cheap') - populair click to hear 2 ('popular, generally liked') - documentaire click to hear ('documentary')
French AU in a few common words of French origin, AU is pronounced as long O (like in CODE)
auto click to hear ('car') - some people say auto with a Dutch AU click to
  hear but to me that sounds awful - - automatisch click to hear ('automatic, automatically') - automaat click to hear ugh! ('something "automatic"') - - automatiek click to hear 2 OK ('fast-food vending machine') - autochtoon click to hear ugh! ('original inhabitant') - restaurant click to hear 2 ('restaurant')
French CH
a few words of French origin have kept the French CH pronunciation (somewhat like English SH)
charme click to hear ('charm') - charmant click to hear ('charming') - cheque click to hear ('check' - money) - chirurg click to hear ('surgeon') - chocola click to hear ('chocolate') - machine click to hear ('machine') 2 - manchet click to hear ('cuff') - manchetknopen click to hear ('cufflinks') - broche click to hear ('brooch') - douche click to hear ('shower' - also French OU) - chagrijnig click to hear (in a bad, angry mood) - also said as saggerijnig click to hear
CH in
'Christus'

CH in 'Christus' (Christ) and derived words and names is usually pronounced as K:
Christus click to hear ('Christ') and related names and words:
- christen click to hear (a christian) - plural: - christenen click to hear (christians) - christelijk click to hear ("christian") - in Holland usually referring to orthodox Protestantism - Christien click to hear ('girls' name') - Chris click to hear ('boys' name')
A small group of very orthodox protestants say these words and names with Dutch CH: christelijk click to hear ("christian")
é
as in French, Dutch long E click to hear
- café click to hear 2 ('cafe, bar')
è
as in French, Dutch short E click to hear
appèl click to hear ('appeal') - première click to hear ('festive opening night') - carrière click to hear ('career') - kassière click to hear ('cashier (female)') - misère click to hear 2 ('misery')
French -EAU
Like in French, like Dutch long O click to hear
bureau click to hear ('office; office desk') - bureaustoel click to hear ('office chair') - politiebureau click to hear 2 ('police station') - cadeau click to hear ('a present') (also written as 'kado') - eau de Cologne click to hear ('inexpensive perfume')
Greek EU Dutch pronounces EU in Greek names and words of Greek origin as Dutch UI:
eufemisme click to hear 2 ('euphemism') - euthanasie click to hear 2 3 4 ('euthanasia') - Zeus Odysseus Theseus click to
    hear - therapeut - pseudodemocratie click to hear (therapist - pseudo-democracy)
French
-EUILLE
As in the original French: portefeuille click to hear ('wallet')
French G Different from Dutch CH/G
percentage click to hear (' % ') - energie click to hear 2 ('energy') - genie click to hear 2 ('genius' - person) - gel click to hear ('gel') - gêne click to hear 2 3 ('embarrasment') - gênant click to hear ('embarrassing') - logeerkamer click to hear ('guest room') - passagier click to hear ('passenger') - slijtage click to hear ('wear and tear') - giraf click to hear ('giraffe') - corrigeren click to hear ('to correct') - marge click to hear 2 ('margin') - geste click to hear 2 ('gesture') - college click to
       hear ('class at college or university')
First G Dutch, second G French: garage click to hear ('car repair shop; car housing') - bagage click to hear 2 ('luggage') ongegeneerd click to hear ('shameless, without embarrassment, barefaced')
French AU: - aubergine click to hear 2 ('eggplant')
French OU: bougie click to hear ('spark plug') - courgette click to hear ('zucchini')
A very small number of not very common words in Dutch have a 'hard' French G (very similar to G in English GO or BEGIN):
guerilla click to hear 2 ('guerilla') - guillotine click to hear 2 ('guillotine') - (The double L is also not pronounced as in regular Dutch. Compare: gorilla click to hear 2) - gouache click to hear ('gouache') - bigarreaux click to hear 2 ('candied cherries') - gaullisme click to hear ('gaullism') - Grenoble click to hear ('a city in France')
Thank you Salim A. for correcting a mistake)
French GN
'French' GN is pronounced as N - Consonant Y (Dutch NJ):
signaal click to hear 2 ('a signal') - signaleren click to hear 2 ('to notice') - magnifiek click to hear ("magnificent") - vignet click to hear 2 ("certificate") - appelbeignet click to hear ('a type of apple cake') - In the often-used, common word champignons click to hear ('button mushrooms') the NG has disappeared. With difficulty I say (exaggerated!) champiGNons click to hear
Compare with 'regular' Dutch: magneet click to hear 2 ('magnet') - Agnes click to hear (girls' name)
French -IER
consonant Y + A like in FACE (Dutch J + long E) premier click to hear ('prime minister') - compare with regular Dutch kassier click to hear ('male cashier')
French J
journalist click to hear ('reporter') (French OU) - journaal click to hear ('TV News') (French OU) - jam click to hear ('jelly, jam') (English A) - jus click to hear 2 ('gravy') (also French -US ending)
French LL
like consonant Y (Dutch J) failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt') - faillisement click to hear 2 3 ('bankruptcy') - portefeuille click to hear ('wallet') - fouilleren click to hear 2 ('to frisk, body-search') - vanille click to hear 2 ('vanilla')
French
short O

roze click to hear ('pink') - compare with Dutch short O: ros click to hear (an aging but trusty horse) and rot click to hear (rotten, spoiled, 'off') and Dutch long O: rozen click to hear 2 (roses) and roos click to hear 2 (rose)
zone click to hear 2 ('zone, area') - compare with: zoon/zonen click to hear ('son/sons') and zon/zonnen click to hear ('sun/suns') - zonneschijn click to hear 2 ('sunshine')
controle click to hear 2 ('check (on) ~ inspection') - but: controleren click to hear 2 3 ('to check (on) - inspect')
Greek OE
Pronounced as Dutch EU: click to hear
oecumenisch click to hear 2 ('ecumenical') - Oedipus click to hear ('Oedipus') (Latin -US ending pronounced as OOS, Dutch OES) - oedipaal click to hear ('like Oedipus')
Frech OEU
Pronounced much like 'voiceless E' or Dutch short U click to hear but longer:
oeuvre click to hear ('an artist's body of work') - manoeuvre click to hear 2 ('maneuver, strategic move') - but the OEU of the Dutchified verb manoeuvreren click to hear 2 ('to maneuver') is pronounced as OO (Dutch OE.)
French OI
As in French:
toilet click to hear ('toilet, bathroom') - dressoir boudoir click to
       hear ('fancy dining room cabinet; a lady's dressing room')
French OU
several words of French origin keep the French OU pronunciation (somewhat like English OO, Dutch OE click to hear)
coulant - couplet - foudraal click to hear (accepting, tolerant - verse - leather bag for a tool) - gouverneur click to hear ('governor') - route click to hear ('route, way, course') - routine click to hear ('routine, habit') - troubadour click to hear 2 ('troubadour, minstrel') - coureur click to hear ('race car driver, motorcycle racer') - rouge click to hear ('make-up item, red') (French G) - bouillonblokje click to hear 2 ('beef cube') - souffleur click to hear ('stage whisperer') - zouaaf click to hear ('zouave' - Papal soldier) - zouaven click to hear ('zouaves') - tournooi click to hear 2 ('tournament, tourney') - tournee click to hear 2 ('tour' - traveling series of shows by performing artist or artsts)
-TIE ending
(probably from French and English -TION)
The T of the -TIE ending is either pronounced as TS (after vowels and N) or as S (after most consonants)
TS: conditie click to hear ("shape"; 'condition') - democratie click to hear ('democracy') - advertentie click to hear ('ad, advertisement') - operatie click to hear ('operation; surgery') - organisatie click to hear ('organisation') - positie click to hear ('position') - tolerantie click to hear ('tolerance') - clementie gratie click to hear ('clemency / a pardon') - natie traditie garantie click to hear ('nation / tradition / guarantee, warranty')
S: reactie click to hear ('reaction') - infectie click to hear ('infection') - frictie click to hear 2 ('friction') - adoptie click to hear ('adoption') - proportie click to hear ('proportion') - selectie functie fractie click to hear 2 ('selection function fraction')
Endings like -TIEF, -TIEK and -TIER are not irregular - compare:
aktie / aktief click to hear 2 (action / active) - politie click to hear / politiek click to hear ('police / politics') - motie / motief click to hear 2 (motion, resolution / motive) - optie / optiek click to hear (option / viewpoint; optics) - portie / portier click to hear 2 (portion / car door; doorman)
Y
almost always a vowel - pronounced as Dutch I, either long or short
short: - mysterie mystiek click to hear (mystery - mysticism)
long: - lyrisch mythe systeem click to hear (lyrical - myth - system)
but (in rare cases) when between vowels pronounced as consonant Y (Y in YES) - Dutch J:
yoghurt click to hear 2 ('yogurt') - royaal click to hear 2 ('generous, ample') - loyaal click to hear 2 ('loyal') - loyaliteit click to hear 2 ('loyalty') - rayon click to hear 2 ("area")

D and T Softening

Listening to Dutch, you'll notice that some D's are dropped. You don't have to do that yourself. Like the final N's, I think it's easier for students to pronounce as many letters of Dutch words as possible.

In a few words, D's are changing into Dutch J's, English consonant Y's, usually before voiceless E:

goed goede goeie click to hear 2 - (good)
goeiemorgen click to hear - good morning
op een goeie dag ... click to hear - someday ...
rood rode rooie click to hear 2 - (red)
die rooie veger click to hear - that red broom (not a stock expression)
door de rooie gaan click to hear - cross into extremes
dood dode dooie click to hear - (dead)
op z'n dooie gemak click to hear - taking his time, without any hurry

D's are also disappearing in a few first person singular, 'ik' ('I') present tense verb forms, and also in the 'jij' question mode:

houden ik houd ik hou click to hear - (to hold) / houden van - (to like, to love)
ik houd niet van vis click to hear - I don't like fish
ik houd niet van vlees snijden click to hear - I don't like cutting meat
daar houd ik niet van click to hear - I don't like that
ik snijd het brood click to hear - I'm cutting the bread
hij snijdt het brood click to hear - he is cutting the bread
ik sneed het brood click to hear - I was cuting the bread
jij houdt / houd jij? click to hear - you 'hold ' / do you 'hold'?
jij snijdt / snijd jij? click to hear - you are cutting / are you cutting?
"Houd jij van opera? - Ik niet." click to hear "Do you like opera? - I don't."

D in oude ('old') and koude ('cold') is often softened to W.
One could say Dutch always has a W-sound after AU and OU, but (to my ears) it gets more prominent when followed by voiceless E:
oud oude ouwe click to hear - (old)
oude man click to hear - oude baas click to hear - ouwe baas click to hear 'old man'
ouwe koeien uit de sloot halen click to hear 2 - [haul - dredge up old cows from the ditch] pointless talk about foregone matters, to flog a dead horse
kouwe drukte click to hear 2 [cold busy-ness] fake bustle

Miscellaneous Examples

prompt strict arts strak click to hear 2
stipt huig luwte duwde click to hear
barst vorst worst dorstig click to hear
krant stronk brink click to hear
bazen Pasen wasem vazen click to hear
smak smaak smeren snert smachten smikkelen click to hear
smet smid smeden smoren smullen click to hear
snip snode sneeuw snavel click to hear 2
kraan kraam traan raam click to hear
braaf brave blaas blazen click to hear
vochtig zwichten click to hear
wringen stengel kronkel drempel click to hear
middel model gevel bevel gedwee ongedwongen click to hear
heks click to hear - fiks click to hear
extra click to hear 2 - extract click to hear 2 - sextant click to hear - hexagonaal click to hear
xenon click to hear - xenofobie click to hear - Xantippe click to hear
fluor click to hear 2 - fluoride click to hear
jodium click to hear - uranium click to hear - silicium click to hear
smeuïg click to hear 2

On The Street - Op straat click to hear

[street]
(de) straat click to hear
[sidewalk]
(de) stoep click to hear
[street and sidewalk]
straat en stoep click to hear
[small street]
(het) straatje click to hear
[turn (in road)]
(de) bocht click to hear 2
[house]
(het) huis click to hear
[driveway etc.]

(de) garage click to hear

(de) auto click to hear

(de) oprit click to hear 2

(de) stoep click to hear

((het) trottoir click to hear

(de) straat click to hear

garage

car

driveway

sidewalk

sidewalk)

street

[traffic (cars)]
(het) verkeer click to hear ((de) auto's click to hear)
[street lantern]
(de) lantarenpaal click to hear
[traffic light]
(het) stoplicht click to hear 2
[bicycle]
(de) fiets click to hear >>
[car]
(de) auto click to hear
[pedestrian crossing]
(het) zebrapad click to hear ((de) voetgangersoversteekplaats click to hear 2)
[bus]
(de) bus click to hear
[]
(de) bushalte click to hear
[bus stop shelter]
(het) bushokje click to hear

Fractions

breuken click to hear ('fractions') - singular: (de) breuk click to hear (also: 'break, fracture, rupture')

Fraction numbers 1, 2 and 3 are irregular; otherwise the fraction number is formed by adding a -DE ending to the regular number; except numbers ending in -T or -D, or in -G, which get an -STE ending.
1/2 een half click to hear
1/3 één derde click to hear
1/4 één vierde click to hear
1/5 één vijfde click to hear
1/6 één zesde click to hear
1/7 één zevende click to hear 2
1/8 één achtste click to hear 2
1/9 één negende click to hear 2
1/10 één tiende click to hear
1/100 één honderdste click to hear
1/1000 één duizendste click to hear
1/32 één tweeëndertigste click to hear
2/3 twee derde click to hear
3/4 driekwart click to hear 2
3/8 drie achtste click to hear

3/2 drie tweede click to hear drieëneenhalf click to hear 2

Instead of stressed één click to hear ('one') you could also use the definite article ('a') een or 'n click to hear (pronunciation explained earlier in this lesson): een derde click to hear ('one-third.')
But een half click to hear ('one-half') is rarely (if ever) said with the stressed één.
¼ - next to één vierde click to hear we also say een kwart click to hear (like 'een half' with unstressed 'een.')
Like words we've seen in the 'Colors' lesson, the adjective half click to hear also appears as halve click to hear - half is used for 'het' words after 'een.'
een half ei click to hear ('half an egg') - een halve theelepel click to hear ('½ teaspoon.')
Een goed begin is het halve werk click to hear ('A good start is half the job' - with a good start the job is already half done)
But - De laatste loodjes wegen het zwaarst click to hear (~ 'Finishing a job, the home stretch is the hardest') - so what's in between?
The noun for 'half' is (de) helft click to hear - De helft van de bevolking click to hear ('Half the population')
1½ - one and a half - anderhalf, anderhalve click to hear
Anderhalve man en een paardekop click to hear 2 ['one and a half men and a horse's head'] low turnout, small attendance, few people present
<< - numbers, simple math and dimensions - >>

Simon Stevin

In the Dutch popular imagination, Simon Stevin click to hear (1548-1620) is best known for the zeilwagen click to hear ('sailing cart') he built for Prince Maurits click to hear - but he played a much larger role as chief engineer for Maurits's army, and he was an early scientist. He was one of the first to write about decimal fractions, for instance.
Dutch independence came about at the time of the birth of modern Science, and with patriotic love of language, Simon Stevin and others made up Dutch names for the sciences that differ from those in most other European languages.
(de) wetenschap click to hear
(de) wetenschapper click to hear 2
science
scientist
(de) wiskunde click to hear mathematics
(de) natuurkunde click to hear physics
(de) scheikunde click to hear chemistry >>
(de) sterrenkunde click to hear 2 astronomy
(de) plantkunde click to hear botany
(de) geneeskunde click to hear medicine >>
(de) aardrijkskunde click to hear geography
Most of these words are still in common use, only instead of geneeskunde click to hear ('medicine') most people nowadays say medicijnen click to hear 2.
<< - essays - >>

inches and feet to millimeters (mm) and centimeters (cm)

(de) millimeter click to hear
(de) centimeter click to hear
((de) decimeter click to hear)
(de) meter click to hear
(de) kilometer click to hear
1 millimeter = 1/1000 meter
(~ 1/25 inch)

1 centimeter = 1/100 meter
(~ 4/10 inch)

1 decimeter = 1/10 meter
(~ 4 inches)

1 meter
(~ 31/3 feet)

1 kilometer
= 1000 meter
(= 0.62 miles)
[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
1 inch = 25.4 millimeter = 2.54 centimeter
1 millimeter = 0.04 inch
1 cm = 0.39 inch
1 centimeter
= 10 millimeter
[a bar chart comparing imperial and metric dimensions]
12 inches = 1 foot = 30.48 centimeter
The meter itself is not superior to the inch, foot or yard, but the beauty and ease of the metric system is in the factor-10 relations between the various units. A kilometer is one thousand meters, a centimeter is one-hundredth of one meter. Not like 12 inches in a foot, 3 feet in a yard, 8 fluid ounces in a cup, 4 cups in a quart etc. A cubic decimeter is a liter, and a liter of water weighs 1 kilogram. In a future lesson I'll show the relations between the length, volume and weight units in the metric system at greater length. >>

Home
(Learning Dutch)
previous
vorige
[left arrow] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 [right arrow] next
volgende

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2009. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2