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Lesson 14 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

The Future Tense - Word Order: Secondary Verbs, More Questions, Commands and Suggestions - Outdoors - The Neighborhood - The Metric System

Listen
The Future Tense
Word Order
Outdoors Vocabulary
The Neighborhood
The Metric System
more from Multatuli click to hear 2 Max Havelaar click to hear
Silly Mr Droogstoppel complaining about poetry and the theatre (previous Multatuli fragments: 3 - 2 - 1)
(The 'poetry' examples are not translated literally) (De voorbeelden van dichtkunst zijn niet erg letterlijk vertaald)
I have nothing against poetry in itself. If you want to organize your words, that's fine with me. But do not say anything that is not true. Ik heb niets tegen verzen op-zichzelf. Wil men de woorden in het gelid zetten, goed! Maar zeg niets wat niet waar is. click to hear
The weather is fine and the clock says nine. I can accept that if the weather is really fine and it's really nine o'clock. 'De lucht is guur, en 't is vier uur.' Dit laat ik gelden, als 't werkelyk guur en vier uur is. click to hear
But if it's a quarter to three, I, who doesn't have to order his words that carefully, can say: 'The weather is fine and it's a quarter to three.' Maar als 't kwartier voor drieën is, kan ik, die myn woorden niet in 't gelid zet, zeggen: 'de lucht is guur en 't is kwartier voor drieën.' click to hear 2
The fine weather forces the versifier to the hour of nine; any other hour the weather can't be fine. De verzenmaker is door de guurheid van de eerste regel aan een vol uur gebonden. Het moet voor hem juist een, twee uur, enz. wezen, of de lucht mag niet guur zijn. click to hear
Seven and eleven are not allowed because of the poem's metre. There he starts fiddling! Either the weather has to change, or the time. Then, one of them is a lie. Zeven en negen is verboden door de maat. Daar gaat hy dan aan 't knoeien! Of 't weêr moet veranderd, òf de tyd. Eén van beide is dan gelogen. click to hear 2

It's not only poetry that makes youth stray from truth. Go visit a theatre, and listen to the kind of lies told there. En niet alleen die verzen lokken de jeugd tot onwaarheid. Ga eens in de schouwburg, en luister dáár wat er voor leugens aan de man worden gebracht. click to hear
The hero of the piece falls into the water and is rescued by a person about to go bankrupt; he then gives him half his fortune. That cannot be true. De held van 't stuk wordt uit het water gehaald door iemand die op 't punt staat bankroet te maken. Dan geeft hy hem zyn halve vermogen. Dat kan niet waar zyn. click to hear
When my hat was blown - Frits says blowed - into the Prinsengracht sometime ago, I gave a dime to the man who brought it back to me, and he was content. Toen onlangs op de Prinsengracht myn hoed te-water woei - Frits zegt: waaide - heb ik de man die hem my terugbracht een dubbeltje gegeven, en hy was tevreden. click to hear
Of course I should have given a little more if he had picked up my person from the water, but certainly not half of my property. Ik weet wel dat ik iets meer had moeten geven als hy myzelf er uit gehaald had, maar zeker myn halve vermogen niet. click to hear
For it's clear that in that way you'll be a beggar when you fall into the water twice. 't Is immers duidelyk dat men op die wys maar tweemaal in 't water hoeft te vallen om doodarm te wezen. click to hear
And the worst thing with such spectacles on the stage is that the audience gets so used to those falsehoods that they're appreciated and applauded. Wat het ergste is by zulke vertoningen op het toneel, het publiek gewent zich zó aan al die onwaarheden, dat het ze mooi vindt en toejuicht. click to hear 2
I have felt the urge to throw a section of the theatre into the water, to see who was really serious about the applauding. Ik had wel eens lust zo'n heel parterre in 't water te gooien, om te zien wie dat toejuichen gemeend had. click to hear 2
As a truthful man, I want it to be known that I'm not going to pay such a high rescue fee for getting my person out of the water Ik, die van waarheid houd, waarschuw ieder dat ik voor 't opvissen van myn persoon geen zo hoog bergloon betalen wil. click to hear
If a small gratuity is not enough for you, leave me there. Only on Sundays I would give a little more, because I'm wearing my special watch-chain and formal suit. Wie met minder niet tevreden is, mag me laten liggen. Alleen zondags zou ik iets meer geven, omdat ik dan myn kantilje ketting draag, en een andere rok. click to hear

The Future Tense

The Future Tense
The Conditional Tense
Other 'Future' Verbs

The Future Tense

The future tense uses the auxiliary verb 'zullen' with a verb inifinive, for example: ik zal schrijven click to hear 2 "I'll write"

Simple Future Question Mode Conditional Tense ('Future Past')
ik zal
jij zult
hij zal
wij zullen
jullie zullen
zij zullen
U zult
click to hear
(I will/shall)
(you will)
(he will)
(we will/shall)
(you will)
(they will)
(you will)

zal ik?
zul jij?
zal hij?
zullen wij?
zullen jullie?
zullen zij?
zult U?
click to hear
(will/shall I?)
(will you?)
(will he?)
(will/shall we?)
(will you?)
(will they?)
(will you?)

ik zou
jij zou
hij zou
wij zouden
jullie zouden
zij zouden
U zou
click to hear
(I would)
(you would)
(he would)
(we would)
(you would)
(they would)
(you would)


(you - singular, informal)


(you - plural, informal)

(you - polite)
'Jij zal' click to hear 2 and 'zal jij?' click to hear are acceptable variations.
ik zal opschieten click to hear 2 I'll hurry, I'll try to be quick
we zullen wel zien click to hear 2 we'll see
zullen we gaan zwemmen? click to hear shall we go [swimming] for a swim?
zullen we naar de film gaan? click to hear slow shall we go [to the movie] see a movie?
't zal wel meevallen click to hear 2 3 it will not be as bad as could be
ik zal 't niet vergeten click to hear 2 3 I will not (won't) forget it
je zult er geen spijt van krijgen click to hear 2 you will not regret it
't zal niet gemakkelijk zijn click to hear 2 it will not be easy
wie zal dat betalen? click to hear 2 who's going to pay for that?

The Conditional Tense

The "past" tense of zullen is used for hypothetical situations, questions with an uncertain outcome, and in polite address.
English uses "wouldn't" and "shouldn't."
als ik jou was zou ik niet gaan click to hear if I were you I wouldn't go
ik zou niet gaan click to hear 2 (if I were you, in your situation) I wouldn't go
zou 't lukken? click to hear 2 will it succeed? (the outcome is questionable)
zou 't gaan regenen? click to hear will it rain? (is there a chance of rain?)
't zou kunnen zijn dat ... click to hear 2 it could be that ...
we zouden gaan fietsen, maar 't begon te regenen click to hear we were going to ride our bikes, but it started to rain
wat zou U aanraden? click to hear 2 what would you recommend? (asking a waiter or chef)
wat zou er gebeuren? click to hear 2 what would happen?
zou U dat nog eens willen zeggen? click to hear 2 would you mind saying that [once more] again?
niet wat je zou verwachten click to hear not what you would expect
Stel je voor dat er geen auto's zouden zijn! click to hear 2 Imagine that there would be no cars!
You could also say:
Stel je voor dat er geen auto's waren! click to hear 2 Imagine that there were no cars.

Other 'Future' Verbs

Like in English, verbs of motion, especially gaan click to hear >> ('to go') can also be used as an informal future tense:
ik ga naar huis click to hear I'm going home
hij gaat naar Rotterdam click to hear 2 he's going to Rotterdam
morgen gaat hij naar Den Haag click to hear 2 he'll go to The Hague tomorrow
ik ga een dutje doen click to hear slow I'm going to take a nap
als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear as the days get longer, the nights will get more severe (i.e. colder)
morgen gaan we lijnen click to hear tomorrow we'll start dieting
ze wilde gaan zwemmen click to hear 2 3 she [had wanted to] was planning to go swimming
hij vertrekt morgen naar Afrika click to hear he is leaving for Africa tomorrow

<< previous - verbs central - next >>

Word Order (3)

Verbs at The End of The Sentence
More Questions
Query Words
Commands, Orders and Suggestions

Verbs at The End of The Sentence

Dutch is notorious for putting some of the verbs at the end of the sentence. It makes live translation difficult,
because the interpreter has to wait for the speaker to get to the end of the sentence.
Simple sentences have just one verb. It is called the 'working verb.' The 'working verb' changes with the subject: I am, you are, he is.
In Dutch, the verbs that are not the 'working verb,' like the past participle of the perfect tense, or other verb forms like infinitives
are usually put at the end of the sentence.

subject working verb (object) (complement) other verbs

Hij gaat het proberen. click to hear He's going to try [it.]
Ik had teveel gegeten. click to hear I had eaten too much. (I had had too much to eat.)
We hebben de oorlog gewonnen. click to hear We have won the war.
Ik heb het raam opengedaan. click to hear I [have] opened the window.
Ik heb een nieuwe fiets gekocht. click to hear I've bought a new bicycle.
Hij heeft veel prijzen gekregen. click to hear He has received many awards.
Je hebt gelijk gekregen. click to hear (It turned out) you were right.
ik was 't helemaal vergeten. click to hear I had forgotten all about it
Ik heb al m'n boeken verkocht. click to hear 2 I have sold all my books.
Ik heb al m'n gereedschap weggegeven. click to hear I have given away all my tools.
Het brood is niet goed gerezen. click to hear 2 The bread didn't rise properly.
Jan heeft Piet een boek gegeven. click to hear Jan has given Piet a book.
Jan heeft een boek aan Piet gegeven. click to hear 2 Jan has given a book to Piet.
Je kunt nog even blijven liggen.
Ik had willen blijven liggen.
click to hear slow
click to hear 2 3
You can [remain lying down] stay in bed for a little longer.
I would have liked to [remain lying down] stay in bed.
't Had erger kunnen zijn. click to hear 2 It could have been worse.
Ik wil niks verloren laten gaan. click to hear 2 I [want nothing] don't want anything to go to waste.
Ik heb een paar jaar pianoles gehad. click to hear I have had piano lessons for a [couple of] few years.
Maar ik had beter gitaar kunnen leren spelen. click to hear But it would have been better to have learned [how] to play the guitar.
Ik had geschiedenis moeten gaan studeren. click to hear I should have studied history (in college, at the university.)
Ik heb moeten leren improviseren. click to hear 2 I've had to learn [to improvise] improvisation.

More Questions

In questions, the working verb comes first, and second and third verbs go to the end of the line.

working verb subject (object) (complement) (other verbs)

Heb je genoeg gedronken? click to hear 2 Did you drink enough?
Heb je lekker gegeten? click to hear Did you eat well, did you enjoy your meal?
Heb je teveel gegeten? click to hear 2 Did you eat too much?
Heb je lekker geslapen? click to hear 2 Did you sleep well?
Heb je 't leuk gehad? click to hear Did you enjoy yourself, did you have a good time?
Gaat 't regenen? click to hear Is it going to rain?
Gaat 't hard regenen? click to hear Is it going to rain hard?
Gaat 't morgen regenen? click to hear 2 Is it going to rain tomorrow?
Gaat 't morgen hard regenen? click to hear Is it going to rain hard tomorrow?
Heeft 't gisteren geregend? click to hear Did it rain yesterday?
Heeft 't gisteren hard geregend? click to hear Did it rain hard yesterday?
Regende 't gisteren? click to hear Did it rain yesterday?
Regende 't gisteren hard? click to hear Did it rain hard yesterday?
Schijnt de zon of regent het? click to hear Does the sun shine or is it raining?
Ben je gek geworden? click to hear [Have you gone crazy?] Are you out of your mind?
Ben je helemaal gek geworden? click to hear [Have you gone completely crazy?] You must be out of your mind

Query Words

Query Words Wie
click to hear 2
(Who)
Wat
click to hear
(What)
Waar
click to hear
(Where)
Wanneer
click to hear
(When)
Hoe
click to hear
(How)
Waarom
click to hear 2
(Why)
wie - wat - waar click to hear 2 who - what - where wanneer - hoe - waarom click to hear 2 when - how - why

query word working verb subject (object) (complement) (other verbs)

Wie is de mooiste in het land? click to hear
Sneeuwwitje is de mooiste in het land. click to hear
Who is the prettiest in the land?
Snow White is the prettiest in the land.
Wie heeft de wedstrijd gewonnen? click to hear Who has won the match?
Wie heeft de verkiezingen gewonnen? click
to hear Who has won the elections?
You'll notice that Dutchmen often insert the almost meaningless er ('a less specific there'), for instance in short sentences with 'wie';
but it's not wrong to leave it out, my dear students.
Wie heeft gewonnen? click to hear
Wie heeft er gewonnen? click to hear
Who has won?
Who has won?
Wie heeft hier de leiding? click to hear
Wie heeft er hier de leiding? click to
  hear
De Vries is de baas. click to hear
Who's in charge here?
Who's in charge here?
DeVries is the boss.
Wat is dat? click to hear
Het is een bidsprinkhaan. click to hear
What's that?
It's a praying [grasshopper] mantis.
Wat zegt U? click to hear 2 What [do] did you say? (polite)
Wat wil je weten? click to hear What would you like to know? (What information do you need?)
Wat wil je horen? click to hear What would you like to hear? (Choose music)
Wat is er aan de hand? click to hear What's [~on hand] going on?
Wat is dat voor 'n auto? click to hear 2
Het is een Daf. click to hear
Het is een Spijker. click to hear
What [kind of] car is that?
It's a 'Daf.'
It's a 'Spijker.'
The 'Daf' click to hear 2 was a Dutch car brand of the 1950s and 60s, later bought by Volvo (the Volvo 343 would have been the Daf 77) - van Doorne's AutomobielFabriek click to hear 2.
The 'Spijker' click to hear (also written as 'Spyker') was a Dutch car of the early days of the automobile ('spijker' is a carpentry nail.).
Waar is de uitgang? click to hear
Hier is de ingang. click to hear
De uitgang is daar. click to hear
Where is the exit?
The entry is here.
The exit is (over) there.
Waar gaat 't regenen? click to hear Where is it going to rain?
Waar blijft de tijd? click to hear 2 3 Where does the time go?
Wanneer kom je thuis? click to hear When are you coming home?
Wanneer is hij jarig? click to hear When is his birthday? [Where is his birthday suit?]
Hoe lang ben je? click to hear How tall are you?
Hoe is het weer? click to hear 2 How is the weather?
Hoe heb je dat gedaan? click to hear How did you do that?
Hoe is 't afgelopen? click to hear
Hoe zal 't aflopen? click to hear
How did it end?
How will it end?
Waarom ben je boos? click to hear Why are you angry?
Waarom zijn de bananen krom? click to hear 2 Why are bananas not straight? (a rhetorical question)

Commands, Orders and Suggestions (The Imperative)

(De) gebiedende wijs click to hear 2 3 ('imperative')
In commands, orders and suggestions (the imperative mode), very much like in English, there is no subject, and these sentences usually start with the verb.
The verb stem is the imperative - it is only very rarely used in the plural. more

working verb (time) (place) (object) (complement) (other verbs)

Zwijg! click to hear 2 Be silent! (Don't speak! Shut up!)
Vertel! click to hear Tell us! (or: me)
Luister! click to hear 2 Listen!
Hoor! click to hear Hear!
Kom terug! click to hear 2 Come back!
Haal diep adem. click to hear 2 Take a deep breath.
Verroer je niet! click to hear Don't move ('yourself')! Freeze!
Neem de tweede weg rechts. click to hear Take the second road to the right.
Zorg dat je op tijd bent. click to hear Take care [that you are] to be in time
Schrijf je naam op een papiertje. click to hear Write down your name on a piece of paper.
Vergeet je telefoonnummer niet. click to hear Don't forget (to write down) your phone number.
Kook de aardappels zeventien minuten. click to hear Boil the potatoes for 17 minutes.
Ga meteen je huiswerk maken. click to hear Do your homework right away.
(Je moet stil zijn. click to hear You have to be quiet. >>)
Moet je niet doen! click to hear [Don't do that!] Not a good idea to do that.
Moet kunnen! click to hear 2 It should be possible, it ought to be allowed.
Hou er onmiddelijk mee op! click to hear 2 Stop that right away!
Ga direct naar huis! click to hear 2 Go home immediately!
Doe alsjeblieft de deur dicht! click to hear 2 Please close the door!
Geef 't goede voorbeeld. click to hear [Give] Set the right example
Let maar niet op mij. click to hear 2 Now don't pay attention to me.

<< previous - word order central - next >>

Outdoors

buiten click to
  hear 2 'outside' - buitenshuis click to hear 2 (outside the house) 'outdoors'
[tree]
(de) boom click to hear >>
[small tree]
(het) boompje click to hear
[trees]
(de) bomen click to hear
[forest]
(het) bos click to hear
[grass]
(het) gras click to hear 2
[lawn]
(het) grasveld click to hear
[park]
(het) park click to hear >>
[garden plant]
(de) plant click to hear
[bush]
(de) struik click to hear 2
[yard, garden]
(de) tuin click to hear 2 >>
['small garden,' flowerbed]
(het) tuintje click to hear 2
[patio]
(het) platje click to
  hear
[fence]
(het) hek click to hear
[wooden fence]
(de) schutting click to hear
[park bench]
(het) bankje click to hear 2
[playground]
(de) speeltuin click to
  hear 2
[flower]
(de) bloem click to
  hear >>
[bloom,  blossom]
(de) bloesem click to
  hear
[rose]
(de) roos click to hear 2 >>
[tulips]
(de) tulpen click to hear >>
Curiously, Dutch bloem click to
  hear also means both 'flower' and (white) flour.'

The Neighborhood

(de) buurt click to hear 2 ('neighborhood')
buren click to hear 2 ('neighbors') - buurman click to hear 2 ('male neighbor') - buurvrouw click to hear ('female neighbor')
buurjongen click to hear 2 ('neighbor boy') - buurmeisje click to hear ('neighbor girl')
overburen click to hear ('neighbors across the street') - achterburen click to hear 2 ('backyard neighbors')
benedenburen click to hear 2 ('downstairs neighbors') - bovenburen click to hear 2 ('upstairs neighbors')
Beter een goede buur dan een verre vriend. click to hear 2 ('A good neighbor is better than a faraway friend.')
(Het) buurthuis click to hear 2 ('community center') - (het) burengerucht click to hear 'a loud noise that the neighbors complain about' - by itself, (het) gerucht click to hear 2 means 'rumor.'
(De) wijk click to hear ('district, neigborhood') - (de) buitenwijk click to hear 2 ('suburb')
(De) medemens click to hear ('fellow man, fellow human') - the 'neighbor' of the Bible is usually given as (de) naaste click to hear 2
- Heb Uw naaste lief als Uzelf click to hear 2 ('Love your neighbor as yourself.')
(de) naastenliefde click to hear [love of the fellow man] - charity

The Metric System

The length of the basic unit, the meter, was kind-of arbitrarily chosen (one ten-thousandth of a quarter of the Paris meridian) - but all other units of the metric system flow from that meter in decimal fashion, multiples of ten or reductions to one-tenth. There are no difficult fractions like 5/12 or 15/16 and there is no complexity like twelve inches in a foot, three feet in a yard, or eight fluid ounces in a cup, but sixteen weight ounces in a pound.
length volume weight
millimeter (mm)1mm = 0.001m ~ milligram (mg)1mg = 0.001g
centimeter (cm)1cm = 0.01m milliliter (ml)1ml = 1cm3
= 0.001L
~ gram (g)1g = weight of
1cm3 water
decimeter (dm)1dm = 10cm = 0.1m liter (L)1L = 1dm3 = 1000cm3
(10cmx10cmx10cm)
~
meter (m)1m ~
kilometer (km)1km = 1000m ~ kilogram (kg)1 kg = 1000g
= weight of 1L water

Metric to Imperial conversion tables

(de) lengte click to hear 2 ('length') (de) breedte click to hear ('width') (de) diepte click to hear 2 ('depth') (de) hoogte click to hear 2 ('height')
(de) afmetingen click to hear ('dimensions, measurements') (de) maat click to hear 2 ('size' - clothing, shoes) (de) maten click to hear ('measurements' - human body )
(de) millimeter click to hear
(de) centimeter click to hear
((de) decimeter click to hear)
(de) meter click to hear
(de) kilometer click to hear
(het) volume click to hear ('volume') (de) inhoud click to hear ('volume;' also: 'contents')
(de) liter click to hear
(de) milliliter click to hear = cc click to hear = cm³ (de) 'kubieke centimeter' click to hear
(het) gewicht click to hear ('weight')
(de) massa click to hear 2 ('mass')
(de) milligram click to hear 2 (de) gram click to hear (de) kilogram click to hear 2 = (de) kilo click to hear 2 (de) ton click to hear (1000 kg)
<< - numbers, simple math and dimensions - >>
<< - essays - >>

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2