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Dutch Names Pronounced ---
Dutch Pronunciation ---
Vermeer's World --- Rembrandt --- Old New York --- Sailors and Ships of The 17th Century
Frisian Spoken --- Hebrew Words in Dutch
For entertainment purposes only;
not systematic; not exhaustive.
My English and German are not perfect but good enough: you'll get the idea.
About 2300 years ago, the Germanic tribes started spreading
out over ("conquering") much of Northwestern Europe; consequently,
their speech started to grow apart. Change was not random but mostly
followed a pattern, as for instance (English/Dutch/German)
old/oud/alt, cold/koud/kalt and many similar words, or like the
'softening' of many German consonants (book/Buch, apple/Apfel.) Dutch
is generally more like German than like English, but sometimes
developed like English (moon/maan/Mond), and sometimes went its own
Stricly speaking, cognates are words that are not only similar in different languages but also come from a common root word in the 'mother' language that those languages developed from. For instance, English/Dutch/German dream/droom/Traum and head/hoofd/Haupt. But words like English/Dutch table/tafel and curtain/gordijn are not cognates because they originate in Latin words. A word like 'computer' is also not a cognate.
Recognizable Words in Dutch and English
|Dutch||Duits||Deutsch||hear - 2||The Dutch and German words mean 'German.'|
|wife||wijf||Weib||hear||Dutch and German: (insulting) 'woman' (Do not use.)|
|life||lijf||Leib||hear||Dutch and German: '(human) body.'|
|craft||kracht||Kraft||hear||Dutch and German: power|
|mouth||mond||Mund||hear||Western Dutch dialects also lost the N, as in 'IJmuiden.'|
|month||maand||Monat||hear - 2|
|world||wereld||Welt||hear - 2|
|high||hoog||hoch||hear - 2|
|flesh||vlees||Fleisch||hear||The Dutch and German words also mean 'meat.'|
|fowl||vogel||Vogel||hear||Dutch and German: general word for 'bird'|
|to wring||wringen||ringen||hear||English still writes the "w," Dutch still says it|
|to wreak||wreken||rächen||hear||Dutch and German: to avenge|
|knight||knecht||Knecht||hear||Dutch and German: male servant|
|room||ruim||Raum||hear||Dutch noun 'ruim' is a ship's hold|
|harvest||herfst||Herbst||hear||Dutch and German: Autumn|
|salt||zout||Salz||hear - 2|
|cellar||kelder||Keller||hear - 2|
|I am||ik ben||ich bin||hear|
|you are||jij bent||du bist||hear|
|he is||hij is||er ist||hear|
|we are||wij zijn||wir sind||hear|
|you are (plural)||jullie zijn||ihr seid||hear|
|they are||zij zijn||sie sind||hear|
|I have been||ik ben geweest||ich bin gewesen||hear||Dutch and German employ both their 'to have' and 'to be' in the perfect tenses|
|I have eaten||ik heb gegeten||ich habe gegessen||hear - 2|
|he comes||hij komt||er kommt||hear|
|he came||hij kwam||er kam||hear|
|houses||huizen||Häuser||hear||note the plural shift to 'Z' in all three languages|
|child||kind||Kind||hear||Note that the plural is similar in the three languages;|
|children||kinderen||Kinder||hear||irregular in English and Dutch, common in German|
|two||twee||zwei||hear - 2|
|four||vier||vier||hear - 2|
|ten||tien||zehn||hear - 2|
|no||nee||nein||hear - 2 - 3|
|man||man||Mann||hear - 2|
|men||mannen||Männer||hear - 2|
Basic Dutch Words
- Pictures Dictionary
- Easy Dutch
"G" in Northern and
Gothic and Old English
About a quarter of the cognates were found in B.C. Donaldson:
Dutch (M. Nijhoff, Leiden 1983)
Thank you Fabian Wenzel and Frank Nitsch for pointing out several typos
and mistakes in the German.
brought to you by Marco Schuffelen -
The Most Basic Phrases - Weather - Food and Drink - Travel - Various - Fun Things to Say - Speaking Dutch, Speaking about Dutch
Family Tree, Pond Ripples
Language development is often pictured as a family tree, groups
growing apart and separating, but Schmidt's 'Wave Model' (1872) suggests
that language changes spread from the dialects of groups that are
politically or economically dominant, or culturally prestigious,
like ripples from a rock thrown in a pond.
Frisian is nowadays only spoken by about a quarter of a million people
in Holland and a few pockets in Germany and Denmark.
It is said that speakers of Frisian have little difficulty reading Old English: Frisian is closely related to the language of the Angles and Saxons that crossed the North Sea to England ca 500 AD/CE; but then there were 1500 years of separate development, and English was greatly influenced by the French of the Norman invaders and also by the languages of the Vikings, and Frisian was even more massively influenced by Dutch.
The Streamlining of English
The Scandinavian languages are the Northern branch of the Germanic
language family. When the vikings came to England ca 800 CE,
their languages and the English of that time
were still not that different, people could understand each other.
It probably sounded like a distant dialect to the other party.
The close contact of the related languages led to a great streamlining
of English grammar,
hammering out many irregularities - English has far fewer exceptions than
Dutch and German.
Still, I had been wondering where the English 'extended' archaic possesive in for instance "the friends of my father's" 2 came from, until I realized it is like in German, just the regular possesive-S in the noun: die Freunde meines Vaters - in Dutch the noun does not have the possessive-S: de vrienden van m'n vader
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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2
"G" in Northern and Southern Dutch, "CH" in German
Gothic and Old English
About a quarter of the cognates were found in B.C. Donaldson: Dutch (M. Nijhoff, Leiden 1983)
Thank you Fabian Wenzel and Frank Nitsch for pointing out several typos and mistakes in the German.
brought to you by Marco Schuffelen -