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Minor Exceptions to Dutch Phonetic Spelling

In some words from French we actually find 'long' versions of Dutch 'short' vowels like
'short E' click to
hear
- [(de)] militair click to hear ('a soldier // military') - ordinair click to hear 2 ("common," 'vulgar') - vulgair click to hear 2 ('vulgar, cheap') Compare with: - ver click to hear ('far') - veer click to hear ('feather // ferry // spring') and 'short O' click to hear
- roze click to hear ('pink') - (de) katastrofe click to hear 2 ('catastrophe') - (de) zone click to hear 2 ('area') Compare with: - (het) ros click to hear ('trusted horse') - rozen click to hear 2 (roses) 'short' U click to hear or 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear (the 'schwa')
- (het) oeuvre click to hear ('an artist's body of work')
As I've mentioned before, 'long' and 'short' are traditional terms, the difference is actually more a matter of tone

English A's
English A's are (like in the English words) Dutch 'long E' click to hear 'short E' click to hear - and actually following the Dutch spelling rules
- (de) baby click to hear ('baby, very small child') - (de) tank click to hear ('tank') - (de) manager click to hear ('manager' - English G) - (de) tram click to hear ('streetcar, tram') - (de) flat click to hear ('apartment in high-rise building' // 'high-rise apartments building') - (het) flatje click to hear (apartment') - flats click to hear ('high-rise apartment buildings')

AE
In a few words of Latin origin AE is said as Dutch 'long E' click to hear - English A as in FACE:
Caesar click to hear 2 - (de) praeses / (de) quaestor click to
  hear ('president; treasurer') - (de) laesie click to hear 2 ('lesion' - medical jargon)
but in old-spelling Dutch family names AE is said as 'long A' click to hear
- Bogaerts click to hear 2 3 4 - Van Rensselaer click to hear - Waelput click to hear 2 - Kersemaeker click to hear / click to hear
(see also: Old Spelling in Names)

French AIE
As in the original French, like Dutch 'long E' click to hear
- (de) portemonnaie click to hear ('purse')

'French/Italian' AINE
as in the original French or Italian, Dutch 'short E' click to hear + N + 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear (the 'schwa')
- (de) migraine click to hear 2 ('migraine') - (de) quarantaine click to hear 2 (quarantine)

French AIR
As in the original French, a long Dutch 'short E' click to hear + R
- (de) militair click to hear / militaire click to hear ('militairy') - ordinair click to hear 2 ("common," 'vulgar') - vulgair click to hear 2 ('vulgar, cheap') - populair click to hear 2 ('popular, generally liked') - (de) documentaire click to hear ('documentary')

French AU
- like Dutch 'long O' click to hear
- (de) auto click to hear ('car') - automatisch click to hear ('automatic, automatically') - (het) restaurant click to hear 2 ('restaurant') - (de) aubergine click to hear 2 ('eggplant')
Some people say words like these with a Dutch AU: (de) auto click to
  hear but to me that doesn't sound nice - (de) automaat click to hear ('something "automatic"') - autochtoon click to hear ('original inhabitant') - I don't like it - but the already ugly - (de) automatiek click to hear 2 ('fast-food vending machine') is OK

B in MBT
MBT: B is dropped between M and T:
(de) ambtenaar click to hear ('civil servant, government worker') - (de) beambte click to hear ('an official') - (het) ambt click to hear (''office,' job title of official') - ambtelijk click to hear 2 ('official, 'bureaucratic')

French CH
Several words from French have kept the French CH (like English SH):
- (de) charme click to hear ('charm') - charmant click to hear ('charming') - (de) cheque click to hear ('check (money)') - (de) chirurg click to hear ('surgeon') - (de) chocola click to hear ('chocolate') - (de) machine click to hear 2 ('machine') - (de) manchet click to hear ('cuff') - manchetknopen click to hear ('cufflinks') - (de) broche click to hear ('brooch') - (de) douche click to hear ('shower') (also French OU, like Dutch OE click to hear )

É - as in French, Dutch 'long E' click to hear
click to hear ('hey!') - één click to hear ('one, 1') - (het) café click to hear 2 ('cafe, bar')

È - as in French, Dutch 'short E' click to hear
click to hear ('expression of disappointment') - (het) appèl click to hear ('appeal') - (de) première click to hear ('festive opening night') - (de) carrière click to hear ('career') - (de) kassière click to hear ('cashier (female)') - (de) misère click to hear 2 ('misery')

EA pronounced as IA
It's only a small difference, but a few not uncommon words pronounce the E before a long A as Dutch long I, English EE: - (het) ideaal click to hear 2 ('ideal') - idealen click to hear ('ideals') - (de) idealist click to hear ('idealist')

French EAU
French eau  is just like Dutch long O click to hear
- (het) bureau click to hear ('office; office desk') - (de) bureaustoel click to hear ('office chair') - (het) politiebureau click to hear 2 ('police station') - (het) cadeau click to hear ('a present') (also written as 'kado') - (de) eau de Cologne click to hear ('inexpensive perfume')

-EUM ending
in words from Latin, E and U are pronounced separately:
- (het) museum click to hear ('museum') - (de) petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - the everyday cheap fuel / (de) petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - engineers' crude oil - (het) Atheneum click to hear ('high-level High School')

Greek EU
EU from Greek sounds like Dutch UI: click to hear
- Zeus click to hear 2 - Zeus Odysseus Theseus click to hear - (het) eufemisme click to hear 2 ('euphemism') - (de) euthanasie click to hear 2 ('euthanasia') - (de) therapeut click to hear 2 ('therapist') - therapeut pseudodemocratie click to hear ('therapist pseudo-democracy') - (het) pseudoniem click to hear ('pseudonym')

French euille
As in the original French, Dutch Diphthong UI click to hear + consonant Y (Dutch J) + 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear (the 'schwa')
- (de) portefeuille click to hear ('wallet') - (het) feuilleton click to hear 2 3 ('feuilleton, (print) serial')

French G
1. Several words from French have kept the French G - to my ears it sounds like Dutch ZJ
- (het) percentage click to hear (' % ') - (de) energie click to hear 2 ('energy') - (de/het) genie click to hear 2 ('genius' - person // the military corps of engineers) - (de) gel click to hear ('gel') - gênant click to hear ('embarrassing') - (de) gène click to hear 2 ('embarrassment') - (de) logeerkamer click to hear ('guest room') - (de) passagier click to hear ('passenger') - (de) slijtage click to hear ('wear and tear') - (de) giraf click to hear ('giraffe') - corrigeren click to hear ('to correct') - (de) marge click to hear 2 ('margin') - (de) geste click to hear 2 ('gesture') - (het) college click to
       hear ('class at college or university')
First G Dutch, second G French: - (de) garage click to hear ('car repair shop // car housing') - (de) bagage click to hear 2 ('luggage') - ongegeneerd click to hear 2 ('without shame or embarrassment')
French OU: (de) bougie click to hear ('spark plug') - (de) courgette click to hear ('zucchini')
2. A very small number of not very common words in Dutch have a 'hard' French G (very similar to G in English GO or BEGIN):
- (de) guerilla click to hear 2 ('guerilla') - (de) gouache click to hear ('gouache') - bigarreaux click to hear 2 ('candied cherries') - (de) guillotine click to hear 2 ('guillotine') - (het) gaullisme click to hear ('gaullism') - Grenoble click to hear ('a city in France')

French GN
'French' GN is pronounced as N - Consonant Y (Dutch NJ):
- (het) signaal click to hear 2 ('a signal') - signaleren click to hear 2 ('to notice, point out') - magnifiek click to hear ("magnificent") - (het) vignet click to hear 2 ("certificate") - (de) appelbeignet click to hear ('a type of apple cake')
In the often-used, common word champignons click to hear ('button mushrooms') the NG has disappeared. With difficulty I say (exaggerated!) champiGNons click to hear
Compare with 'regular' Dutch GN:
- (de) magneet click to hear 2 ('magnet') - Agnes click to hear (girls' name)

H after T
H in TH is not pronounced:
- (de) thee click to hear ('tea') - (de) theorie click to hear 2 ('theory') - (de) apotheek click to hear 2 ('pharmacy') - thuis click to hear ('at home') - (het) thema click to hear ('theme') - Thea click to hear (girls' name) - (de) catharsis click to hear ('catharsis') - (de) therapie click to hear ('therapy') - thermometer click to hear ('thermometer') - mythe click to hear ('myth')
Compare: - thee/teen click to hear ('tea/toe') - thans/tand click to hear ('at present/tooth') - ether/eter click to hear ('ether/eater') - theoloog theïne click to hear ('theologist/theine (=caffeine)')
Do note that T and H are pronounced separately in some compound words (like in English 'pothole') - for example: witheet (wit-heet) click to hear 2 ([white-] 'red-hot')

French ier
French ier sounds like consonant Y + A like in FACE, Dutch J + 'long E' click to hear
- (de) premier click to hear ('prime minister')
- compare with regular Dutch kassier click to hear ('male cashier, bookkeeper')

IEU
'ieu'  represents two somewhat different sounds:
when ending in W, Dutch -IEUW click to hear 2 is like EW in English NEW — it is said Dutch IE click to hear + consonant Y (Dutch J) + Dutch UW click to hear but to my ears it sounds more like Dutch IE click to
   hear + Dutch OE click to hear though the difference is very small
- But when ending in S or R: 'long i / IE' click to hear + Dutch EU click to hear + S or R, with a faint consonant‑Y (Dutch J) connecting I and EU
- serieus click to hear ('serious') - furieus click to hear ('furious, very angry') - ambitieus click to hear ('ambitious') (T as TS) - religieus click to hear ('religious') - superieur click to hear ('superior') - inferieur click to hear ('inferior') - curieus click to hear 2 ('strange, odd, makes you wonder')
In a few Dutch words from French the i in IEU is just a consonant Y (Dutch J) - (de) ingenieur click to hear ('engineer' - French G) - (het) milieu click to hear 2 ('(the) Environment')

-ING ending
The -ing  ending sounds just like in English RING: ring click to hear 2 ('ring') - ding click to hear ('thing') - dinges click to hear ('what's-its-name, what's-his-name')

French J
pronounced somewhat like Dutch ZJ (like 'French G' mentioned above)
- (de) journalist click to hear ('reporter') (French OU) - (het) journaal click to hear ('TV News') (French OU) - (de) jam click to hear ('jelly, jam') (English A) - (de) jus click to hear 2 ('gravy') (also French -US ending)

Some French L  and LL's
as in the original French, consonant Y (Dutch J)
- (het) detail click to hear ('detail') - [(het)] failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt' // 'bankruptcy') - (het) faillisement click to hear 2 3 ('bankruptcy') - (de) medaille click to hear 2 ('a medal') - (het) braille click to hear ('Braille') - (de) taille click to hear 2 ('waist') - (de) wespentaille click to hear ('a wasp's waist') - fouilleren click to hear 2 ('to frisk, body-search') - (de) vanille click to hear 2 ('vanilla') - (de) portefeuille click to hear ('wallet')

NK = "NGK"
Like in English, NK sounds like NGK
compare: bang click to hear ('afraid') / (de) ban click to hear ('spell // excomunication') / (de) bank click to hear ('bank; bench')
- (het) zink click to hear ('zinc' - metal) / (de) zin click to hear ('sense // desire // sentence, line') ‑>> / zing click to hear ('(I) sing')
- zinken click to hear ('to sink') / zingen click to hear ('to sing') / zinnen click to hear ('senses // desires // sentences')
- drinken click to hear ('to drink') / dringen click to hear ('to push, press forward')
- wankel click to hear 2 ('not stable') / wangen click to hear ('cheeks')
In diminutives, the G of the -ING ending is dropped in the spelling, but not in the sound of the word
- (de) koning click to hear ('king') / (het) koninkje click to hear ('little king')
- (de) haring click to hear / (het) harinkje click to hear 2 ('herring')
More examples: - (de) klinker click to hear ('vowel // clinker' - street paving) - (de) medeklinker click to hear ('consonant') - (de) klank click to hear ('sound') - (de) stank click to hear 2 ('stink, a bad smell') - (de) stinken click to hear ('to smell bad') - (de) vink click to hear ('finch' - a bird) - (de) pink click to hear ('little finger, pinky')
- (de) inkt click to hear 2 ('ink') - [(de)] enkel click to hear ('only, single // ankle') - (de) winkel click to hear 2 ('a shop') ->> - donker click to hear 2 ('dark') - dronken click to hear ('drunk' - too much alcohol) - (de) bunker click to hear 2 ('bunker, blockhouse') - afhankelijk click to hear ('dependent')
- een kink in de kabel click to hear 2 ('a kink in the cable, a problem came up')

French O
French O sounds like a long Dutch 'short O' click to hear
roze click to hear ('pink') compare with Dutch short O: - (het) ros click to hear ('an old, trusted horse') - rossig click to hear ('reddish') Dutch 'long O' click to hear - (de) roos click to hear 2 ('rose') rozen click to hear 2 ('roses') ->>
- roze rozen click to hear ('pink roses') - roze roos click to hear 2 ('pink rose') - roze ros click to hear ("pink horse")
more French O: - (de) katastrofe click to hear 2 ('catastrophe') - (de) zone click to hear 2 ('area') compare with: - zonnen click to hear 2 ('suns') - zonen click to hear ('sons') second O is French: - (de) trombone click to hear ('trombone') - (de) controle click to hear 2 ('checking on, verification of') - (het) comfort click to hear 2 ('comfort')

Greek OE
OE in words from Greek is pronounced as Dutch EU: click to hear
oecumenisch click to hear 2 ('ecumenical') - Oedipus click to hear ('Oedipus') (Latin -US ending pronounced as OOS, Dutch OES) - oedipaal click to hear ('like Oedipus') - (het) oedeem click to hear ('edema, water retention')

Frech OEU
OEU in words from French is pronounced much like Dutch 'short' U click to hear or 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear (the 'schwa') but a little longer:
- (het) oeuvre click to hear ('an artist's body of work') - (de) manoeuvre click to hear 2 ('maneuver, strategic move') - though the OEU of the Dutchified verb manoeuvreren click to hear 2 ('to maneuver') is pronounced as English OO (Dutch OE click to hear)

French Oi
As in French, Dutch W + 'short A' click to hear or W + 'long A' click to hear
- (het) toilet click to hear ('toilet, bathroom') - (het) dressoir / (het) boudoir click to
       hear ('fancy dining room cabinet; a lady's dressing room')

French OU
French OU is like English OO, Dutch OE click to hear
- (de) gouverneur click to hear ('governor') - (de) route click to hear ('route, way, course') - (de) routine click to hear ('routine, habit') - (de) troubadour click to hear 2 ('troubadour, minstrel') - (de) coureur click to hear ('race car driver, motorcycle racer') - (het) enthousiasme click to hear 2 3 ('enthusiasm') - enthousiast click to hear 2 3 ('enthusiastic') - (de/het) rouge click to hear ('make-up item, red') (French G) - (het) bouillonblokje click to hear 2 ('beef cube') - (de) souffleur click to hear ('stage whisperer') - (de) zouaaf click to hear ('zouave' - Papal soldier) - zouaven click to hear ('zouaves')

Mid-word DT
At normal speaking speed, mid-word TD is pronounced as D. Only in deliberately slow speech are the letters pronounced separately. There is no difference in the pronunciation of ontd- and ond-:
- ontdekt ondier ont-dekt click to
    hear ('discovered monster')

H in TH see above

T in CHTJ, STJ, STZ
T is usually dropped in CHTJ, STJ, STZ
- (de) postzegel click to hear ('stamp' - mail) - postzegels click to hear ('stamps') - (het) tochtje click to hear ('small trip')
It's just too much effort, too hard to say:
pos-t-zegel click to hear 2 or toch-t-je click to hear
- zachtjes click to hear ('softly') - (het) nichtje click to hear ('cousin (female); niece') - (het) luchtje click to hear ('a smell // something fishy') - (het) nestje click to hear ('a bird's nest') - (het) feestje click to hear 2 ('small party') - (het) kastje click to hear ('small cabinet') - worstjes click to hear ('small sausages') - (het) kastje / (het) worstje click to hear 2 ('small cabinet / small sausage')

Stress, Emphasis in a word
(de) klemtoon click to hear 2 stress, accent, emphasis (in a word) See also: (de) nadruk click to hear 2 'emphasis, stress, focus' - more Dutch has the almost identical vooruit click to hear 2 ('forward! come on!') and (de) voorruit click to hear 2 ('windshield, front window') - the difference is not in how the R's are said, but in the stress of the words: "voorUIt" click to hear 2 or "vOOrruit" click to hear 2
Similarly, a very small number of words with identical spelling get a different meaning with a shift of the stress or which E's are voiceless, unstressed:

'uh' stands for 'voiceless (unstressed) E' (schwa)
bedelen: bedelen click to hear ("beDElen - buhdéluhn" - to apportion, distribute)
bedelen click to hear ("BEdelen - béduhluhn" - to beg, ask for things) - bedelaar click to hear 2 - 'beggar'
voornaam: voornaam click to hear ("voorNAAM" - 'important')
voornaam click to hear ("VOORnaam" - 'first name, Christian name') ‑>>
sterkers: sterkers click to hear ("STERkers - stèrkuhrs" - [something] stronger)
sterkers click to hear ("sterKERS - stèr-kèrs" - a kind of bean sprouts)
regent: 't regent click to hear (" 't REgent - uht réguhnt" - 'it is raining') ‑>>
de regent click to hear ("de reGENT - duh ruhgènt" - 'a high official in the Dutch East Indies colonial administration')
kantelen: kantelen click to hear ("KANtelen - kàntuhluhn" - 'to cant, tilt, tip over')
kantelen click to hear ("kanTElen - kantéluhn" - 'battlements,' the blocks atop medieval castle walls and towers ->>)
legering: legering click to hear ("LEgering - léguhring" - 'the housing of an army, encampment')
legering click to hear 2 ("leGEring - luhgéring" - 'a mixture of metals')
voorkomen: voorkomen click to hear 2 ("VOORkomen" - 'to occur')
voorkomen click to hear ("voorKOmen" 'to prevent') ‑>>
ondergaan: ondergaan ("ONDERgaan" click to hear 2 - 'to go down, go under')
ondergaan click to hear 2 3 ("onderGAAN" - 'to undergo, be subjected to') ‑>>

More Spelling

The Apostrophe " ' "
(de) apostrof click to hear apostrophe
In Dutch, the apostrophe is usually pronounced as 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear (the 'schwa')

" 't " - 't click to hear is short for het click to hear 2 3 'the' and 'it'

het is click to hear it's, it is
't is click to hear 2 3 it's, it is
het IJ click to hear 2 a river flowing through Amsterdam
't IJ click to hear 2 3 a river flowing through Amsterdam
more about het  and 't 
Dutch has two definite articles 'the:' de click to hear 2 and het  - more

" 'n " - 'n click to hear is another way to write the indefinite article een ('a') which has the same, there irregular pronunciation
- 'n beetje click to hear ('a little')
more

m'n click to hear is short for the first person singular possessive mijn click to hear ('my')
z'n click to hear is short for the third person male singular possessive zijn click to hear ('his')
z'n lust en z'n leven click to hear ([his passion and his life] something very important to him')
zo een click to hear 2 ('such a') is often shortened to zo'n click to hear 2 - it sounds somewhat like zoon click to hear ('son')
usually no voiceless E, but it can be exaggerated to zoown click to hear 2 3 4
zo'n mooie dag click to hear 2 such a beautiful day zo'n sombere zomer click to hear such a dark, sad summer

" 'r " - 'r click to hear ('her // ~there')
- for ease of pronunciation, often said a bit slangy as: d'r click to hear ('her // ~there')
'r  is either short for the third person female singular possessive haar click to hear ('her')
- or the word of many meanings er click to hear ('~there') more
d'r op of d'r onder click to hear ([on top of it or under it] - 'do or die')

" 's " pronounced as S (no voiceless, unstressed E)
Apostrophe-s can be:
1. an indication of time: 's morgens click to hear ('in the morning') - 's middags click to hear ('in the afternoon') - 's avonds click to hear ('in the evening') - 's nachts click to hear ('at night') - 's zomers click to hear ('in Summer') - 's winters click to hear ('in Winter') - see also the 'Time' page
2. for S-plurals of words ending in single A, I, O or U, to keep that single vowel 'long:' foto's click to hear ('pictures, photographs') - risico's click to hear ('risks') - more (if we would write "fotos" or "risicos" OS would be pronounced with a short O, which is not correct, and to write "fotoos" or "risicoos" would look silly.)
3. an incorrect possessive, following the English model, very common: Jan's vrienden click to hear ("Jan's friends")
it should be: "Jans vrienden.") ‑>>

aä, eë, eï, eü, ië, oë, uï, uü
Diaeresis (dieresis) - two dots on top of a vowel indicate that the vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel(s), not forming a long vowel or a diphtong. In Dutch, it's called (het) trema click to hear
It may look somewhat similar to the German Umlaut, but its meaning is completely different.
Kanaän / kanaal click to hear ('Canaan / channel') - beëdigd / beet click to hear ('sworn in, board-certified / animal bite; gotcha!') - geïnd / gein click to hear ('money collected / fun' - slang) - reünie / reuma click to hear ('reunion / rheumatism') - piëteit / pieten click to hear ('piety / Peters') - agrariër / gier click to hear ('agriculturist, farmer / vulture') - poëten / poezen click to hear ('poets / cats') - bedoeïen / loeien click to hear ('bedouin / to moo') - coördinatie / koord click to hear ('co-ordination / cord, rope') - ruïne / ruime click to hear ('ruin / roomy, spacious') - vacuüm / buur click to hear ('vacuum / neighbor')
- geëerd click to hear 2 ('honored, respected') - weeën click to
 hear ('contractions' - birth) - kopiëren click to hear 2 ('to copy, xerox') - ingrediënt click to hear ('ingredient') - België click to hear 2 ('Belgium') - De Zeven Provinciën click to hear ('The Seven Provinces' - official name of the Dutch Republic ca. 1600-1795) - De Verenigde Provinciën click to hear ('The United Provinces' - official name of the Dutch Republic ca. 1600-1795) - Nederlands-Indië click to hear 2 ('The Dutch Indies' - Indonesia of the Dutch colonial era) - Californië click to hear ('California') - Oekraïne click to hear ('Ukraine') - Israël click to
  hear ('Israel') - Sinaï click to hear ('Sinai') - Rafaël click to hear (boys' name) - Daniël click to hear (boys' name)

See also: Dutch Sounds Represented by Other Letters in English

Major Exceptions to Phonetic Spelling - 2

Hear the Dutch Letters in Hundreds of Words:
 AU/OU  E  EI/IJ  EU  G  H  L  OE  U  UI  W  X  Y

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Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'