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Fine Points of Dutch Spelling and Pronunciation - Smartphones Page - <<1

Partial Table of Contents
The Apostrophe
Dieresis / Trema
English A
AE
French -AIL
French -AIR
French AU
C
French CH
Christus
D Softening
een
-ES
-ET
HER-
TER-
é - è
French EAU
EEUW
French G's
French GN
Consonant I
IEUW
French J
KN
French LL
NG
French OU
R
-TIE
Y
Connecting Vowels (and Diphthongs)
Dropping Consonants

The Apostrophe ' - (de) apostrof click to hear
Before N, R and T, the Dutch apostrophe usually stands for a 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear ('schwa')
'n click to hear is short for the indefinite article een ('a') - with the same, there irregular pronunciation
m'n click to hear is short for the first person singular possessive mijn click to hear ('my')
z'n click to hear is short for the third person male singular possessive zijn click to hear ('his')
zo een click to hear 2 ('such a') is often shortened to zo'n click to hear 2 - no voiceless E, it sounds exactly the same as zoon click to hear ('son')
'r click to hear ('her; ~there') - for ease of pronunciation, often said a bit slangy as: d'r click to hear ('her; ~there')
- either short for the third person female singular possessive haar click to hear ('her') - or the word of many meanings er click to hear ('~there') >>
't click to hear ('the' (#2); 'it') is short for het click to hear 2 which can either be 'it' or 'the' ->> - the other, more frequently used definite article is de click to hear ('the' #1)

Apostrophe-s is usually pronounced as S. It can be:
1. an indication of time: 's morgens click to hear ('in the morning') - 's middags click to hear ('in the afternoon') - 's avonds click to hear ('in the evening') - 's nachts click to hear ('at night') - 's zomers click to hear ('in Summer') - 's winters click to hear ('in Winter') - see also the 'Time' Thesaurus
2. words ending in single A, I, O or U often have a plural ending in apostrophe-S, to keep that single vowel long: foto's click to hear ('pictures, photographs') - risico's click to hear ('risks') (if we would write "fotos" or "risicos" OS would be pronounced with a short O, which is not correct, and to write "fotoos" or "risicoos" would look silly.)
3. an incorrect possessive: Jan's vrienden click to hear ("Jan's friends" - following the English, a very common mistake; it should be: "Jans vrienden.")
4. In colloquial speech, 'eens' click to hear ('once,' 'sometime') can be shortened to " 's " click to hear - with 'voiceless, unstressed E'
Ik vraag me wel eens af ... click to hear 2
Ik vraag me wel 's af ... click to hear 2
['Sometimes I ask myself ...'] - 'Sometimes I wonder ...'

Diaeresis: ä ë ï ö ü - (het) trema click to hear
in Dutch, two dots on top of a vowel mean that there is a syllable break just before that vowel: the combination of vowels is not a diphthong or a 'long' vowel but the vowels are pronounced separately
Kanaän click to hear ('Canaan') - Israël click to
  hear ('Israel') - tweeëntwintig click to hear ('22, two-and-twenty') - meeëter click to hear ('acne pimple') - Californië click to hear ('California') - ruïne click to hear 2 ('ruin, dilapidated building') - cafeïne click to hear 2 ('caffeine') - coöperatie click to hear ('co-op' - venture, company; the common word for co-operation is samenwerking click to hear) - coördinator click to hear 2 ('coordinator') - reünie click to hear ('reunion') - vacuüm click to hear 2 ('vacuum')

English A's
baby click to hear ('baby, very small child') - tank click to hear ('tank') - manager click to hear ('manager' - also English G) - tram click to hear ('streetcar, tram') - flat click to hear ('apartment; high-rise apartments building') - flatje click to hear (apartment') - flats click to hear ('high-rise apartment buildings')

aardappel click to hear ("earth-apple" - 'potato.') You'd expect pronounciation as aarT-appel, like in other words with 'aard-' such as aardolie click to hear ('crude oil') or aardas click to hear ('the earth's axis') but (probably because it's such a common word) there was a syllable split shift in pronunciation to aar-dappel; - aardappels click to hear ('potatoes') - aardappelpuree click to hear ('mashed potatoes')

AE - In names in 'old' spelling AE is 'long A,' but in words from Latin AE is 'long E'
Kersemaeker click to hear / click to hear - Aerdenhout click to hear 2 more 'old' names
praeses / quaestor click to
  hear ('president; treasurer') - laesie click to hear 2 ('lesion' - medical)

French -AIL: - sounds like Dutch AI
detail click to hear ('detail') - failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt; bankruptcy') - medaille click to hear 2 ('a medal') - braille click to hear ('Braille') - taille click to hear 2 ('waist') - wespentaille click to hear ('a wasp's waist') - mitrailleur click to hear 2 ('machine gun')

Other French -AI: (like Dutch 'short E' click to hear)
militair click to hear ('a soldier; military') - ordinair click to hear 2 ("common," 'vulgar') - vulgair click to hear 2 ('vulgar, cheap') - populair click to hear 2 ('popular, generally liked') - documentaire click to hear ('documentary') - migraine click to hear 2 3 ('migraine') - also French G (2)

French AU sounds like Dutch 'long O'
auto click to hear ('car') - automatisch click to hear ('automatic, automatically') - restaurant click to hear 2 ('restaurant') - aubergine click to hear 2 ('eggplant')
Some people say words like these with a Dutch AU: auto click to
  hear but to me that sounds awful

bibliotheek click to hear ('library') the L is usually dropped (and H of TH is never pronounced)

bijzonder click to hear ('special') - bijzonder / bijzondere click to hear - IJ is pronounced as 'long I' - 'bijzonder' lijkt de enige uitzondering click to hear ('bijzonder looks like the only exception')

Pieter Bruegel click to hear 2 (painter, c. 1525-1569) - UE is usually pronounced like 'long U' click to hear (German U-umlaut) but in this name it's pronounced as EU click to hear like in beugel click to hear 2 ('brace') and vleugel click to hear ('wing; grand piano')

C: K or S
Like in English, C is pronounced either as K or S:
- K: before A, O, U and consonants:
camera click to hear ('(movie) camera') - bioscoop click to hear ('cinema') - cultuur click to hear ('culture') - respect click to hear ('respect') - democratie click to hear ('democracy') - code click to hear ('code') - collega click to hear ('colleague') - concurrentie click to hear ('competition')
- S: before E, I, IJ and Y:
centrum click to hear ('center') - cijfer click to hear ('number, figure' ->> ) - cirkel click to hear ('circle') - precies click to hear ('precisely, exactly') - proces click to hear ('lawsuit, court case') - centraal click to hear ('central') - recept click to hear 2 ('recipe; prescription') - cynisch click to hear 2 ('cynical') - citroenen click to hear ('lemons') - fascinerend click to hear ('fascinating') - centimeter click to hear ('centimeter')
K/S: succes click to hear 2 ('success') - accent click to hear 2 3 ('accent') - accijns click to hear 2 ('excise' - tax) - gecompliceerd click to hear ('complicated') - concert click to hear ('concert') - actrice click to hear ('actress') - cyclus click to hear ('cycle')
Note the pronunciation change in these Latin-like plurals: politicus/politici click to hear 2 ('politician/politicians') - criticus/critici click to hear 2 ('critic, reviewer/plural')

French CH
Several words from French have kept the French CH (like English SH):
charme click to hear ('charm') - charmant click to hear ('charming') - cheque click to hear ('check' - money) - chirurg click to hear ('surgeon') - chocola click to hear ('chocolate') - machine click to hear 2 ('machine') - douche click to hear ('shower' - also French OU)

Christus click to hear Jezus Christus click to hear 2 ->>
Most people in Holland pronounce the CH in 'Christus' and related words and names as K: christen click to hear ('a christian') - plural: christenen click to hear ('christians') - Christien click to hear (girls' name) - Chris click to hear (boys' name.) The Dutch adjective and adverb christelijk click to hear ("christian") usually refers to orthodox protestantism.
A small group of very orthodox protestants say these words and names with Dutch CH, like: christelijk click to hear

compromis (French) click to hear ('compromise') long I, and S dropped

D softening
there is a tendency to soften certain D's, but students shouldn't worry about it. (You'll hear it from Dutchmen, but it's perfectly all right to voice the full D's.)
oude ouwe click to hear ('old') - rode rooie click to hear ('red') - dode dooie click to hear 2 ('dead') - goede goeie click to hear 2 ('good') - ik houd / ik hou click to hear ("I hold") >>

The indefinite article een click to hear is not pronounced with 'long E' you'd expect but with 'voiceless, unstressed E.' It's also phonetically correct written as " 'n "
The number 1 is usually written with accents: één click to hear 2 ('one, 1')
Like 'een' above, 'eens,' meaning 'once' or 'sometime' is usually pronounced with 'voiceless, unstressed E:' click to hear or even the N is dropped: click to hear ->>

The city of Enschede click to hear is the only instance where a single E at the end of a word is not a 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to
hear but a 'long E' click to hear

-ES ending click to hear 2
The -ES ending (indicating female) has short E:
priester click to hear ('priest') / priesteres click to hear ('priestess') - onderwijzer click to hear / onderwijzeres click to hear ('elementary school teacher, male/female') - leraar click to hear / lerares click to hear ('secondary, 'high' school teacher, male/ female') - leraren click to hear / leraressen click to hear ('secondary, 'high' school teachers, male/female') - zangeres click to hear 2 ('lady singer')
but 'dames' click to hear ('ladies') is with voiceless E - it's the plural of 'dame' click to hear ('lady') - this ES-ending is a plural with voiceless E.

-ET ending click to hear 2
The -ET ending has short E: opgelet! click to hear ('pay attention!') - loket click to hear ('office window, counter') - ballet click to hear ('ballet') - banket click to hear ('pastry; banquet') - bezet click to hear 2 ('occupied') - verzet click to hear ('resistance')

HER- beginning
The HER- click to hear (meaning: re-) prefix has short E:
herinnering click to hear 2 ('a memory') - herhaling click to hear ('repetition') - hersenen click to hear ('the brain') - hersens click to hear ("brains") - herkennen click to hear ('to recognize') - heroverwegen click to hear 2 ('to reconsider') - herverdelen click to hear ('to (re-divide) reproportion') - herstel click to hear ('reparation, rebuilding') - hervorming click to hear 2 ('reformation') - hervormd click to hear ('reformed' - a main branch of Dutch Protestantism)

TER- beginning
The TER- click to hear prefix has short E:
terwijl click to hear 2 ('while') - tergend click to hear ('annoyingly') - terrein click to hear 2 ('terrain') - terreur click to hear ('terror') - terrorisme click to hear ('terrorism') - terzijde click to hear ('on the side, aside') - ternauwernood click to hear ('barely, almost not')

é and è - as in French
click to hear ('hey!') - één click to hear ('one, 1') - café click to hear 2 ('cafe, bar') - hé jij daar! click to hear 2 3 ('hey you!' - not polite)
click to hear ('expression of disappointment') - carrière click to hear ('career') - misère click to hear 2 ('misery') - kassière click to hear ('cashier' - female)
The accent marks may also be used to give emphasis to a word or syllable

E before 'long A'
A few not uncommon words pronounce the E before a long A as Dutch long I, English EE: ideaal click to hear 2 ('ideal') - idealen click to hear ('ideals') - idealist click to hear ('idealist') - lineaal click to hear ('ruler' - straight lines) - linealen click to hear ('rulers' - straight lines) - also: meteoor click to hear 2 ('meteor')

French EAU - as Dutch 'long O'
bureau click to hear ('office; office desk') - bureaustoel click to hear ('office chair') - politiebureau click to hear 2 ('police station') - cadeau click to hear ('a present' - also written as: 'kado') - eau de Cologne click to hear ('Cologne' - 'inexpensive perfume') - the German city of Köln is called Keulen click to hear in Dutch

EEUW click to hear - pronounced somewhat like 'EE' and 'UW' combined
eeuw click to hear ('century') - leeuw click to hear ('lion') - meeuw click to hear ('seagull') - sneeuw click to hear ('snow') - 't sneeuwt click to hear ('it is snowing')

EU in names and words from Greek: Dutch UI click to hear
Zeus click to hear 2 - Orpheus click to hear 2 - eufemisme click to hear 2 ('euphemism') - euthanasie click to hear 2 ('euthanasia') - therapeut / pseudodemocratie click to hear ('therapist / pseudo-democracy')

-EUM ending in words from Latin: long E, short U
museum click to hear ('museum') - petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - the everyday cheap fuel / petroleum click to hear ('petroleum') - engineers' crude oil - Atheneum click to hear ('high-level High School')

French G's
In many words from French, the G is not like Dutch CH/G: energie click to hear 2 ('energy') - genie click to hear 2 ('genius' - person) - gel click to hear ('gel') - gênant click to hear ('embarrassing') - logeerkamer click to hear ('guest room') - passagier click to hear ('passenger') - slijtage click to hear ('wear and tear') - giraf click to hear ('giraffe') - corrigeren click to hear ('to correct') - marge click to hear 2 ('margin') - geste click to hear 2 ('gesture') - college click to
       hear ('class at college or university')
Also French OU: bougie click to hear ('spark plug') - courgette click to hear ('zucchini')
First G Dutch, second G French: garage click to hear ('car repair shop; car housing') - bagage click to hear 2 ('luggage')
A very small number of not very common words in Dutch have a 'hard' French G (very similar to G in English GO or BEGIN): guerilla click to hear 2 ('guerilla') - gouache click to hear ('gouache') - bigarreaux click to hear 2 ('candied cherries') - guillotine click to hear 2 ('guillotine') - gaullisme click to hear ('gaullism') - Grenoble click to hear ('a city in France')

French GN is pronounced as N - Consonant Y (Dutch NJ):
signaal click to hear 2 ('a signal') - signaleren click to hear 2 ('to notice') - magnifiek click to hear ("magnificent") - vignet click to hear 2 ("certificate") - appelbeignet click to hear ('a type of apple cake')
Compare with 'regular' Dutch: magneet click to hear 2 ('magnet') - Agnes click to hear (girls' name)
In the often-used, common word champignons click to hear ('button mushrooms') the NG has disappeared. With difficulty I say (exaggerated!) champiGNons click to hear

'Consonant I'
after vowels (except of course in diphthongs EI and UI) I is often pronounced as consonant Y (Dutch J)
maïs click to hear ('(Indian) corn, maize') - Thailand click to hear (to me, Dutch AI sounds very similar to English I)
- kraai click to hear 2 ('crow') - naaister click to hear ('seamstress') - zaaien click to hear ('to sow') - vlaai click to hear ('fruit pie on bread dough') - vermoeid click to hear / vermoeide click to hear ('tired') - groeien click to hear 2 3 ('to grow') - foei! click to hear 2 ('bad!' - disapproval) - hoi click to hear ('hurrah!; hello; goodbye' - slang) - kooi click to hear 2 ('cage') - hooi click to hear ('hay')

-IS ending exceptions
In a few common words the I of the -IS ending is pronounced as 'voiceless, unstressed E'
basis click to hear ('base') - kennis click to hear ('knowledge; an acquaintance') - Kerstmis click to hear 2 ('Christmas') ->> - vuilnis click to hear ('garbage') - tennis click to hear ('tennis') - kermis click to hear 2 3 ('small travelling amusement park') - Teunis click to hear (boys' name)
But, in a few words from French the I of the -IS ending is a 'long I':
gratis click to hear ('free, at no cost') - bis! click to hear ('encore!' - music)

French -IER
Pronounced as English 'Yay,' Dutch 'jee'
premier click to hear ('prime minister') - compare with regular Dutch kassier click to hear ('male cashier')

IEUW click to hear 2 is pronounced like EW in English NEW (somewhat like Dutch IE combined with Dutch UW)
nieuw click to hear ('new') - nieuwe click to hear 2 ('new') - nieuws click to hear ('news') - opnieuw click to hear 2 ('anew, again') - kieuw click to hear 2 ('gill' - fish breathing)

initiatief click to hear 2 ('initiative') - T of -TIA- is pronounced as S

French J
journalist click to hear ('reporter' - also French OU) - journaal click to hear ('TV News' - also French OU) - jam click to hear ('jelly, jam' - also English A) - jus click to hear 2 ('gravy' - also French -US ending)

KN - unlike in English, K before N is pronounced
knie click to hear ('knee') - knokkel click to hear ('knuckle') knal click to hear ('a bang') - knoop click to hear 2 ('button; knot') - knop click to hear 2 ('a bud') - knippen click to hear ('to cut' - with scissors) - knecht click to hear 2 ('servant') - knikkers click to hear 2 ('marbles' - glass) - kneden click to hear 2 ('to knead')

French LL - like consonant Y (Dutch J)
failliet click to hear 2 ('bankrupt') - faillisement click to hear 2 3 ('bankruptcy') - fouilleren click to hear 2 ('to frisk, body-search') - vanille click to hear 2 ('vanilla')

NG - like in English 'hanger' but not like in 'anger' or 'danger'
ringvinger click to hear ('ring finger') - eng click to hear ('scary, creepy') - engerd click to hear ('a creep') - lang click to hear ('long, tall') - angst click to hear ('fear, dread') - ding click to hear ('thing') - dinges click to hear ('what's-its-name, what's-his-name') - tong click to hear 2 ('tongue' - in mouth) - honger click to hear ('hunger') - gemengd click to hear 2 3 ('mixed') - helling click to hear ('slope, ramp') - verlangen click to hear 2 ('desire; to desire') - brengen click to hear 2 ('to bring' ->>)
Occasionally N and G are pronounced separately in compound words:
- aangenaam click to hear 2 ('pleasant')

NK - pronounced as NGK, like in English
bank click to hear ('bank' / 'bench') - compare with: ban click to hear ('ban') /and/ bang click to hear ('afraid')
inkt click to hear 2 ('ink') - donker click to hear 2 ('dark')

nylon click to hear ('nylon') - nylons click to hear ('sheer stockings') - Y pronounced as Dutch EI/IJ, somewhat imitating the English word)

oeuvre (French) click to hear (an artist's body of work) and manoeuvre click to hear 2 ('maneuver' - movement) - but: manoeuvreren click to hear 2 ('to maneuver')

French OU - pronounced like OO (Dutch OE)
ik douche click to hear 2 ('I'm taking a shower') - blouse click to hear ('shirt') - bouillon click to hear 2 ('broth') - bouillonblokje click to hear 2 ('beef cube') - tournooi click to hear 2 ('tournament') - loupe click to hear ('small magnifying glass') - rouge click to hear 2 3 ('rouge' - make-up) - route click to hear ('route, way, course') - routine click to hear ('routine, habit') - Louis click to hear (boys' name) - zouaven click to hear ('zouaves' - volunteer soldiers for the Pope)
There have been other examples of the French OU above

portefeuille (French) click to hear ('wallet')

portemonnaie (French) click to hear ('purse')

Dutch R is quite different from English R: At the beginning of a word, English R starts with the tongue touching the top of the palate, and then moving down; it's a 'rolling' sound formed in the middle of the mouth.
Dutch R keeps the tongue flat, its tip touching the lower teeth, and it's formed in the back of the mouth.
Compare English and Dutch R:

English road
click to hear
room
click to hear
ram
click to hear
Dutch rood
click to hear
roem
click to hear
rem
click to hear
meaning red fame a brake
English price
click to hear
great
click to hear
fern
click to hear
Dutch prijs
click to hear
Greet
click to hear
varen
click to hear
meaning price (girls'
name)
fern;
to sail
English deer
click to hear
star
click to hear
Dutch dier
click to hear
star
click to hear
meaning animal,
mammal
inflexible,
rigid
English rat
click to hear
fries
click to hear
Dutch rat
click to hear
red
click to hear
frietjes
click to hear
Fries
click to hear
meaning rat (I) save fries Frisian

's-Gravenhage click to hear 2 (the official name of the Dutch seat of government The Hague) - the G in SGR is dropped, similar to CH in SCHR. It's really exaggerated to clearly pronounce that first G: 's-GGGravenhage click to hear - the city is usually called Den Haag click to hear 2

's-Hertogenbosch click to hear (French: Bois-le-Duc - the official name of the capital of the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant click to hear 2 ) - the first H is dropped, and the old-spelling CH at the end is not pronounced - the city is usually called Den Bosch click to hear

sinaasappel click to hear ('an orange') - the double A is usually said as 'voiceless, unstressed E.' It sounds weird to me to say it with 'long A:' sinAAsappel click to hear or even with 'short A' sinAsappel click to hear 2
sinaasappels click to hear ('oranges') - sinaasappelschillen click to hear ('orange peels') - sinaasappelpers click to hear ('orange juicer') - sinaasappelsap click to hear 2 ('orange juice') - een glas sinaasappelsap click to hear ('a glass of orange juice') - the word derives from China click to hear - appel click to hear ('apple')

tandarts click to hear 2 ('dentist') - a compound word, 'tooth-doctor.' You'd expect pronunciation as tanT-arts but (like in aardappel) there was an irregular syllables shift to tan-darts - also: - tandartsassistente click to hear 2 3 ('dentist's assistant' - female)

-TIE ending is pronounced:
regular, as -TEE (Dutch -tie) after S
suggestie click to hear ('suggestion')
but as -TSEE (Dutch -tsie) after vowels and N
politie click to hear 2 ('police') - combinatie click to hear 2 ('combination') - tolerantie click to hear ('tolerance')
and as -SEE (Dutch -sie) after C, P and R
reactie click to hear ('reaction') - infectie click to hear ('infection') - frictie click to hear 2 ('friction') - corruptie click to hear ('corruption') - portie click to hear 2 ('portion, serving')
But other endings like -tief, tiek, -tiel and -tier are not irregular: actief click to hear 2 ('active') - politiek click to hear ('politics') - reptiel click to hear 2 ('reptile') - kwartier click to hear ('quarter, 15 minutes') - portier click to hear 2 3 ('doorman' / 'car door')

vaandrig click to hear 2 ('army cadet officer') - not really an exception because the -IG ending with with 'voiceless, unstressed E' is usually for adjective and adverbs

Y is usually pronounced as I - 'long' or 'short' according to the rules
symptoom click to hear ('symptom') - synthetisch click to hear ('synthetic') - hygiëne click to hear 2 3 4 ('hygiene') - lyrisch click to hear 2 ('lyrical') - exception: systeem click to hear ('system')
In a very small number of Dutch words, usually in front of a vowel, Y is like English consonant Y (Dutch J)
yoghurt click to hear 2 ('yogurt') - royaal click to hear 2 ('generous, ample') - loyaal click to hear 2 ('loyal') - loyaliteit click to hear 2 ('loyalty') - rayon click to hear 2 ("area")

Yerseke click to hear - the YE of the place name is pronounced as EE (Dutch 'long I, IE')

Connecting Vowels (and Diphthongs) - or Not

In Dutch, double vowels indicate a 'long' vowel; 'long I' is often written as IE; and the vowel combinations AU, EI, EU, IJ, OE, OU and UI stand for diphthongs, which are not combinations of vowels but another set of sounds.
EEUW and IEUW (mentioned above) are a little special, and there are some foreign words with an unusual pronunciation, but other vowels in a row that are not a double vowel or a diphthong, like for instance ao, ea, io or uie are just a series of sounds as indicated by the letters.
Sometimes there is a (very short) 'vocal stop' pause between those sounds, but vowels are often connected by a faint consonant sound.
Most Dutch vowels and diphthongs by themselves already end in a faint consonant-sound like H, Dutch W or consonant Y (Dutch J.) The vowel sounds differ somewhat between languages, and the endings may also be different across languages.
When connecting with a next vowel, the consonant sounds at the end of vowels often become more pronounced, and occasionally change.
In slow and deliberate speech there is a pause between vowels like these, and there's nothing wrong with that, but in conversation these vowels are often connected -- it's just easier to speak without the little pauses. You can say bij-een click to hear 2 or bijeen click to hear and bij-elkaar click to hear 2 or bijelkaar click to hear 2 3 - all meaning 'together.'
'Short' vowels end in H - but that's of no concern here, because connecting vowels and diphthongs occurs between syllables, and vowels at the end of syllables are always long - except the problematic 'voiceless, unstressed E' click to hear - like in the prefixes be-, ge- /and/ te- click to hear

After the 'voiceless, unstressed E' there is a little pause, no connecting consonant.
beangstigend click to hear 2 ('frightening') - denneappel click to hear 2 ('pinecone') - geavanceerd click to hear 2 ('advanced') - geëerd click to hear 2 ('honored, respected') - geïnteresseerd click to hear ('interested') - geopend click to hear ('opened, open') - beoordeling click to hear ('assesment, judgement, review') - beëindigen click to hear 2 ('to end, stop') - geuit click to hear 2 ('voiced,' "uttered")

'Long' A click to hear does not end in a consonant sound (or maybe in H) and after A before another vowel there is a short pause:
chaotisch click to hear ('chaotic') - aorta click to hear ('aorta') - naïef click to hear 2 ('naive') - astma-aanval click to hear 2 (3) ('asthma attack')
AE is either an old-fashioned spelling 'long A' or a 'long E' in words from Latin - see above
The I in AI and AAI is like 'consonant Y' (Dutch J) - saai click to hear ('boring') - see 'Consonant I' above

'Long E' click to hear by itself already ends in a faint consonant Y (Dutch J) sound, which remains or becomes more pronounced when the 'long E' is followed by another vowel.
creatie click to hear 2 ('creation, making') - ideeën click to hear 2 ('ideas') - weeën click to hear ('contractions' - birth) - theïne click to hear 2 (=caffeine) - theorie click to hear 2 ('theory') - geoloog click to hear ('geologist')

'Long I' (also written as IE) click to hear by itself already ends in a faint consonant Y (Dutch J) which remains or becomes more pronounced when 'long I' is followed by a vowel or diphtong
piano click to hear ('piano') - via click to hear ('via, by way of') - ammoniak click to hear ('ammonia') - triviaal click to hear 2 ('trivial')
exception: in many common words with -CIA- the I has become a consonant-Y (Dutch J): speciaal click to hear 2 ('special') - specialiteit click to hear ('specialty') - sociaal click to hear ('social') - asociaal click to hear 2 ('anti-social') - socialisme click to hear ('socialism')
- but a less common word still has IyA: cruciaal click to hear ('very important')
- dieet click to hear 2 ('diet') - De Geallieerden click to hear 2 ('The WWII Allies') - drieëenheid click to hear 2 ('trinity') - drieëneenhalf click to hear 2 ('3½') - 'Ons Indië' click to hear ('Our India' - the Indonesia of the Dutch colonial era.)
efficiënt click to hear ('efficient') has a similar change to 'consonant I' as the -CIA- examples above - compare with: ingrediënt click to hear ('ingredient')
- pion click to hear ('a pawn') - idioot click to hear 2 ('idiot; idiotic') - riool click to hear 2 ('sewer') - radio click to hear 2 ('radio') - bioloog click to hear ('biologist') - prioriteit click to hear ('priority')
exception: ion click to hear ('ion') / ionen click to hear ('ions') - here, I is pronounced as consonant Y; also note that O is short in the singular and long in the plural, very unusual for a 'modern' word
- kalium click to hear ('Potassium') - natrium click to hear ('Sodium') - jodium click to hear ('Iodine') - many more examples of IU in chemistry
- miauw click to hear ('meow') - poezen/katten miauwen: 'miauw' click to hear ('cats meow: "meow"')
- superieur click to hear ('superior') - inferieur click to hear ('inferior') - ingenieur click to hear ('engineer' - note G pronounced like Z) - ingenieus click to hear 2 ('ingenious, technically clever') - serieus click to hear ('serious') - furieus click to hear ('furious, very angry') - ambitieus click to hear ('ambitious' - T pronounced as TS) - religieus click to hear ('religious') - curieus click to hear 2 ('strange, odd, makes you wonder')

'Long O' click to hear already ends in a faint Dutch W sound which remains or becomes more pronounced when O is followed by another vowel. There may be a short pause after the W-sound.
zoals click to hear 2 ('like, as') - oase click to hear ('oasis') - Joannes click to hear (a boys' name) - zoëven click to hear 2 3 ('a moment ago') - in the latest spelling reform this was changed to 'zoeven.'
It actually doesn't make much difference if the W is written. Compare with: zowaar click to hear 2 3 ('~actually') - zowel click to hear 2 ('both, each') - also compare: Johannes click to hear 2 (a boys' name)

'Long U' click to hear does not end in a vowel sound, or maybe in a faint H, but when connecting to another vowel a Dutch W is inserted. There is barely a difference in sound when this W is written between vowels.
First compare: U click to hear ('you' - polite) / Uw click to hear ('your' - polite)
situatie click to hear ('situation') - januari click to hear ('January') - duel click to hear ('duel') - minuet click to hear ('minuet') - duo click to hear 2 ('duo') - ritueel click to hear ('ritual; a ritual') - compare with written W: fluweel click to hear ('velvet') - juweel click to hear 2 ('jewel')

AU and OU are two ways to write the same diphthong click to hear - which by itself already ends in a faint Dutch W-sound that remains or gets stronger when followed by another vowel, although I can only think of one example. Both AU and OU are also often followed by W in writing.
jou click to hear 2 ('you') ->> and - jouw click to hear ('your') sound very alike.
au! click to hear ('ouch!') - nou click to hear ('now') - pauw click to hear 2 ('peacock') - mouw click to hear ('sleeve') - jijen en jouen click to hear (addressing each other in an informal manner, 'on a first-name basis')
Not to be confused with OU in words from French.

EI and IJ represent the same diphthong click to hear which by itself already ends in a a faint 'consonant Y' (Dutch J) sound that may get more pronounced when connecting EI or IJ with a following vowel
beiaard click to hear 2 ('church bells player') - compare with: - bejaard click to hear 2 ('over 65')
eieren click to hear ('eggs') - heiig (heiïg) click to hear ('hazy') vrij / vrijer click to hear ('free / more free') - dij / dijen click to hear ('thigh / thighs') - zijig click to hear ('silky, slimy' - person)

EU click to hear by itself ends in a Dutch W-sound but it connects to a following vowel with a consonant Y (Dutch J)
The only example I can think of: - smeuïg click to hear 2 ('appetizing food (or a story) that goes down easily')
Not to be confused with French EUILLE

OE click to hear 2 by itself is followed by a very faint Dutch W-sound
koe click to hear ('cow') - gedoe click to hear 2 ("doing," 'hassle')
OE is often followed by I, turning that I into 'Consonant I' - groei click to hear 2 ('growth') - koeien click to hear ('cows') - moeilijk click to hear ('difficult') - but I cannot think of a good example of OE connecting with another vowel. - uilen roepen 'oehoe' click to hear ("owls call 'oohoo'" 'owls hoot')

UI click to hear by itself ends in a Dutch W-sound, but when connecting UI with another vowel, a consonant Y (Dutch J) is inserted and W is dropped.
- ui click to hear 2 ('onion') / uien click to hear ('onions')
- lui click to hear / luie click to hear ('lazy')
- luiaard click to hear 2 3 ('sloth' - animal)

Listen again to the 'trema' examples above for more connecting and not-connecting vowels and diphthongs.

Dropping Consonants

Unlike in English, almost all letters of a word that are written are pronounced, but occasionally a consonant in a row of three or four is dropped.
B in MBT: ambtenaar click to hear ('civil servant, government worker') - beambte click to hear ('an official')
T in CHTJ: zachtjes click to hear ('softly') - nichtje click to hear ('cousin (female); niece') - luchtje click to hear ('a smell; something fishy')
T in STJ: nestje click to hear ('a bird's nest') - feestje click to hear 2 ('small party') - kastje click to hear ('small cabinet') - worstjes click to hear ('small sausages')
T in STZ: postzegel click to hear ('stamp' - mail) - postzegels click to hear ('stamps')
It's just too much mouth gymnastics to commonly say: pos-t-zegel click to hear 2 or: toch-t-je click to hear
final N's: Many people in Holland do not pronounce the N's at the end of verbs and plurals, but I do not recommend you do that too, dear students. You have to write those N's anyway so it would just add a rule, make Dutch less phonetic

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Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'