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Military

de / het / 't click to hear
de click to hear het click to hear 't click to hear
(the)
een, 'n click to hear (a)
één click to hear (one)
>>

(Het) leger click to hear 'army' - (de) marine click to hear 'navy' - (de) luchtmacht click to hear 2 'air force'
(de) genie (French G) click to hear 2 ('the army corps of engineers')
militair click to hear 1. 'military' (adj.) 2. 'a member of the military'
(de) officier click to hear 2 - (de) onderofficier click to hear 2 'non-commissioned officer, subaltern'
Many of the ranks (rangen click to hear - singular: (de) rang click to hear 2) look so alike in writing that they don't need translation - but most do not sound very similar to English.

soldaat click to hear
korporaal click to hear 2
sergeant (Fr.) click to hear
luitenant click to hear
kapitein click to hear 2
majoor click to hear 2
kolonel click to hear
generaal click to hear 2
maarschalk click to hear 2
matroos click to hear sailor
schout-bij-nacht click to hear rear admiral
admiraal click to hear 2
(I'll have to study on naval ranks)
(De) rekruut click to hear 'recruit, a new soldier to be trained'

(de) cadet click to hear 2 3 'cadet' - specifically, the officer cadets are (de) vaandrig click to hear 2 (army) and (de) adelborst click to hear (navy)
The form of address for a lieutenant colonel is "overste" click to hear 2
"Ik had een wapenbroeder" click to hear ('I had a brother-in-arms')
[tank]
tank click to hear (English)
(WWII American Sherman Tank, Bastogne, Belgium)
[cannon]
kanon click to hear
[spent (tank) shell casing]
granaathuls click to hear 2
['air raids defense' commemorative  medal,
  showing a woman sheltering children and bomber planes] ['air raids defense' commemorative  medal,
  showing a woman sheltering children and bomber planes] ['air raids defense' commemorative  medal,
  showing a woman sheltering children and bomber planes]
luchtbescherming click to hear 2 (medaille click to hear 2)
The luchtbescherming click to hear 2 ('air [raid] protection') was a Dutch organisation started in the early 1930s that aimed to provide some protection from the mass bombings and poison gas attacks that were expected in coming wars.

From the Basic Dutch pages

(de) oorlog click to hear war
(de) vrede click to hear peace
(het) leger click to hear army
(het) gevaar click to hear danger
(de) aanval click to hear attack
(de) verdediging click to hear defense
(de) slag click to hear battle
(de) overwinning click to hear victory
(de) nederlaag click to hear defeat
(de) bezetting click to hear occupation
(het) verzet click to hear resistance
(de) bevrijding click to hear liberation
(het) geweld click to hear violence
(de) kracht click to hear force
(de) macht click to hear power
(het) gevecht click to hear fight
(de) vernietiging click to hear destruction
(de) schade click to hear damage
(de) vlucht click to hear flight, escape
(het) geweer click to hear rifle
(het) pistool click to hear handgun
(het) kanon click to hear cannon, big gun
(de) bom click to hear bomb
(de) basis click to hear base
(de) eenheid click to hear unit
(de) operatie click to hear action, operation
(het) bevel click to hear order, command

Additional

(de) wapenstilstand * click to hear 2
(het) staakt-het-vuren * click to hear 2
ceasefire
(de) onderhandelingen click to hear 2 negotiations
(het) bestand click to hear truce
(de) overgave click to hear surrender
(het) verdrag click to hear 2 treaty
(het) kruit click to hear
(het) buskruit click to hear
gunpowder
(de) explosie click to hear explosion
(de) springstof click to hear 2 explosive
(de) atoombom click to hear
kernwapens click to hear 2
(de) splijtstof click to hear 2
atom bomb
nuclear arms
fissile material
(de) handgranaat click to hear 2 hand grenade
(de) mortier click to hear 2 mortar
(de) mijn click to hear 2
(de) landmijn click to hear
mine
land mine
(de) raket click to hear
raketten click to hear 2
rocket
rockets
(het) beleg click to hear siege
Like English 'mine,' Dutch (de) mijn click to hear 2 is also the underground place where things like coal and gold are extracted.
(de) vuurdoop click to hear 2 "baptism of fire" - also: (de) vuurproef click to hear ['test/trial by fire']

(de) kogel click to hear 2 bullet
(de) revolver click to hear 2 revolver
(het) machingeweer click to hear 2
(de) mitrailleur click to hear 2
machine gun
(de) loop click to hear 2 gunbarrel
(het) gifgas click to hear poison gas
(de) mariniers click to hear 2 marines
(de) scherpschutter click to hear 2 sniper, sharpshooter
(de) schildwacht click to hear 2 sentry
(de) lijfwacht click to hear 2 bodyguard
(de) loopgraaf click to hear 2 trench (WWI)
(de) bunker click to hear 2 bunker, blockhouse
(het) bolwerk click to hear 2 3 stronghold, bastion, 'bulwark'
(de) schuilkelder click to hear 2 [shelter-cellar] bomb shelter (civilian)
(de) kazerne click to hear 2 'barracks,' military housing
(de) helm click to hear helmet
(het) uniform click to hear uniform
(het) pantser click to hear armor (German: 'Panzer')
(de) rupsband click to hear 2 caterpillar tread (like a tank)

(de) piloot click to hear pilot
(het) gevechtsvliegtuig click to hear fighter plane
(de) straaljager click to hear 2 jet fighter
(de) helikopter click to hear helicopter
(de) bommenwerper click to hear 2 bomber (plane)
(het) bombardement click to hear 2 bombing, bombardment
(het) luchtalarm click to hear 2 air raid alarm, siren
(het) luchtafweergeschut click to hear 2 anti-aircraft battery, flak
(het) vliegdekschip click to hear 2 aircraft carrier
(het) slagschip click to hear battleship
(de) duikboot click to hear
(de) onderzeeër click to hear
submarine

(het) gebied click to hear 2 area
(het) grondgebied click to hear 2 territory
(het) terrein click to hear 2 terrain
(de) kaart click to hear 2 3 map
(de) strategie click to hear 2 strategy
(de) tactiek click to hear 2 tactics
(de) voorhoede click to hear 2 3 vanguard
(de) achterhoede click to hear 2 rearguard
'
(de) staatsgreep click to hear coup
(de) opstand click to hear 2 uprising, revolt,
rebellion
(de) revolutie click to hear 2 revolution
see also below
(de) burgeroorlog click to hear 2 civil war
(de) bondgenoten click to hear 2 allies
(de) vijand click to hear 2
(de) aartsvijand click to hear 2
enemy
archenemy
(de) beroepsmilitair click to hear 2 professional soldier
(de) krijgsgevangene click to hear 2 prisoner of war
(de) spion click to hear 2
spionnen click to hear 2
spy
spies
(de) verrader click to hear traitor
(de) vluchteling click to hear 2 refugee

The verb 'schieten' click to hear 2 means 'to shoot.' It's a strong verb:

schieten
to shoot
- schoot
shot
- geschoten
shot
click to hear
schieten
to shoot
- ik schiet
I shoot
- wij schieten
we shoot
- ik schoot
I shot
- wij schoten
we shot
- ik heb geschoten
I have shot
- click to hear 2
Schieten op kleiduiven click to hear 2 3 Shooting at clay pigeons Hij schoot een pijl naar de boom click to hear He shot an arrow at the tree op click to hear for a general or mulltiple targets, naar click to hear for a single target

(de) dienstplicht click to hear 2 draft, obligatory military service, conscription
(de) diensttijd click to hear 2 the time spent in the military as a conscript (note that TT is pronounced as a single T ("diens-tijd") and not doubled with a pause in-between)
(de) militaire dienst click to hear mandatory military service, serving in the military as a conscript
(de) dienstweigeraar click to hear 2 [draft-refuser] conscientious objector
- weigeren click to hear 2 ('to refuse') - weigering click to hear 2 ('refusal')
(de) eenzijdige ontwapening click to hear one-sided, unilateral disarmament
(de) staat van beleg click to hear 2 state of siege (martial law has been declared)
(de) noodtoestand click to hear state of siege; emergency situation;
Het leger greep in click to hear 2 The army (the military) intervened, took action
De marechaussee werd ingezet click to hear 2 3 4 The military police was deployed, put into action
(het) huzarenstukje click to hear 2 ['a hussars' act'] a daring small-scale military action
(de) held click to hear 2 'hero' - heldhaftig click to hear 2 3 'heroic'
De onbekende soldaat click to hear 2 The unknown soldier
De Oude Garde click to hear The Old Guard
(de) strijd click to hear 2 struggle - (het) strijdperk click to hear 2 3 battleground, area of fighting
oorlogszuchtig click to hear 2 3 ['craving war'] 'warlike' - vredelievend click to hear ['peace-loving'] 'peaceful, peaceable'
(de) revolutie click to hear 2 revolution - the usage is different from English. I think in Dutch it's an internal affair. We say:
de Franse Revolutie click to hear the French Revolution - but:
de Amerikaanse Vrijheidsoorlog click to hear 2 the American Revolution - ("war of liberation")
de Tachtigjarige Oorlog click to hear 2 3 ('the 80-years war' - 1568-1648) - the Dutch Revolt
de opstand van de gewone mensen click to hear 2 3 4 the revolt of the common people - see also above
Het Twaalfjarig Bestand click to hear 2 3 The 12-year Truce (1609-1621)
De Zesdaagse Oorlog click to hear 2 The Six-Day War (1967)
De Tiendaagse Veldtocht click to hear 2 The Ten-Day (Military) Campaign (Holland-Belgium 1831)
De Ondergrondse click to hear / Het Verzet click to hear 2 3 the resistance movement in WWII German-occupied Holland - more below
De Geallieerden click to hear 2 The World War II Allies (the U.S., the Soviet Union, Great Britain etc.)
De Hongerwinter click to hear 2 'The Hunger Winter' - The Winter of 1944 in the West of The Netherlands, when many people died of hunger
in vredestijd click to hear 2 in peacetime, in time of peace
(het) Ministerie van Defensie click to hear 2 3 Ministry of Defense, Defense Department
in oorlogstijd click to hear 2 in wartime, in time of war
(het) Ministerie van Oorlog click to hear 2 3 Ministry of War, War Department
We hebben de oorlog nog niet gewonnen click to hear We have not yet won the war
We hebben de oorlog gewonnen click to hear We have won the war
winnen click to hear 2 to win, be victorious ‑>>   verliezen click to hear 2 to lose (either an item or a competition) ‑>>

(de) terreur click to hear
de meest gevreesde terrorist click to hear
terror, terrorism
the most feared terrorist, the terrorist that is/was feared most
de raket trof een kleuterschool click to hear the rocket hit a nursery school
de bom ontplofte click to hear 2 the bomb exploded
(de) ontploffing click to hear explosion
(de) explosie click to hear 2 explosion
de gigantische explosie click to hear 2 3 the vast explosion
de reusachtige ontploffing click to hear 2 3 the vast explosion
een geweldige ontploffing click to hear 2 3 a tremendous explosion
een krachtige ontploffing click to hear 2 3 a powerful exposion
een krachtige explosie click to hear 2 a powerful exposion

De Koninklijke Landmacht click to hear 2 3 ['the Royal Land Force(s)'] - official name of the Dutch Army

De vlucht naar voren click to hear 2 ['escaping forward'] - a government in trouble embarking on a risky but popular military adventure, like the Argentine Junta's attempt to occupy the Falkland Islands in the 1980s, or in the 1960s, Indonesia's unfortunately successful capture of Western New Guinea, denying independence to the Papua people.
John le Carré, talking about the similar German expression
'Der Flucht nach Vorn' says there is no English equivalent.

(Het) ontzet click to hear 2 3 'relief' - the lifting of (het) beleg click to hear the 'siege' of a town (in the Middle Ages and the 16th and 17th Centuries.) Leidens ontzet click to hear - the lifting of the siege of Leyden (October 3rd, 1574) was a turning point in the Dutch War of Liberation. A year earlier the Spanish also failed to capture Alkmaar click to hear

Dutch has the very old-fashioned word (de) krijg click to hear 2 3 4 for 'war,' like German 'Krieg.' It's still found in some compound words:
(de) krijgsgevangene click to hear 2 prisoner of war (already mentioned above)
(de) krijgsraad click to hear 2 1. military court of justice 2. council of the top military
(de) krijger click to hear 2 'brave,' Native American warrior

As mentioned above, Dutch has (de) strijd click to hear 2 'struggle' and (het) strijdperk click to hear 2 3 'battleground, area of fighting' from the verb 'strijden'   click to hear 'to fight, do battle.' It's a strong verb:

strijden
to fight
- streed
fought
- gestreden
fought
click to hear 2
The verb itself is not used for military fighting anymore, more for formal fighting like in the courts or with actions and protests, fighting for a cause, but there are still several compound words like:
(de) strijdkreet click to hear 2 batlle cry
(de) strijdbijl click to hear 2 batlle axe
strijdbaar click to hear [ready for batlle] - agressive, militant
(de) vrijheidsstrijder click to hear freedom fighter
moegestreden click to hear tired from fighting, battle-weary
(de) wedstrijd click to hear 2 game, match (sports) ‑>>
Strijden tegen ongelijkheid click to hear 2 Fighting inequality
Strijden voor gelijkheid click to hear 2 3 Fighting for equality
strijden tegen onrecht click to hear 2 3 fighting injustice
Wie heeft de wedstrijd gewonnen? click to hear Who won the match?
't Is omstreden click to hear 2 3 It's controversial, contested, there is no consensus about it

'Vechten'   click to hear 2 'to fight, do battle.' Vechten is a strong verb:

vechten
to fight
- vocht
fought
- gevochten
fought
click to hear
(het) gevecht click to hear 2 3 fight, struggle, brawl
(het) gevechtsvliegtuig click to hear fighter plane
(het) tweegevecht click to hear 2 formal word for 'battle for two,' duel
(het) duel click to hear 2
(de) vechtpartij click to hear 2 3 fight, brawl

I say vechten click to hear met click to hear 'with' when it's engaging in a fight, individuals or small groups brawling, and vechten click to hear tegen click to hear 'against' when it's more a formal, nonviolent struggle, protests or in the courts, fighting for a cause, not really soldiers doing battle or people getting physical.
Vechten met jezelf click to hear 2 Fighting yourself, conflicting impulses Vechten met windmolens click to hear 2 3 4 Fighting ('tilting at') windmills, like Don Quixote Vechten tegen windmolens click to hear 2 3 Fighting windmills, like activists who don't want them built or want them removed - though some Dutch people say Don Quichote fought  tegen windmills Vechten tegen de Bierkaai click to hear 'fighting the Bierkaai' - an old saying, when usage was different or more fluid 't Is vechten tegen de Bierkaai click to hear 2 3 ['it's like fighting the Bierkaai'] 'A hopeless struggle you can't possibly win'
'De Bierkaai' click to hear 2 ('Beer Quay'?) was a rowdy neighborhood in old Amsterdam
Vechten tegen onrecht click to hear Fighting injustice Vechten tegen slaap click to hear 2 3 Fighting sleep, trying to stay awake

Vechten click to hear met click to hear can also refer to the means used in fighting:
Vechten met je blote handen click to hear 2 3 4 Fighting with your bare hands

Vechten click to hear voor click to hear 2 'for,' is fighting, struggling to get, the purpose of the activity is to get something.
Vechten voor geld click to hear 2 3 Fighting for money, professional fighters Vechten voor vrijheid click to hear 2 3 Fighting for freedom, fighting to be free

Vechten click to hear om click to hear 'fighting over,' being in a fight or a competition with others (not always violent) to get something.
Vechten om brood click to hear 2 Fighting over bread Vechten om voedsel click to hear 2 3 Fighting over food Vechten om geld click to hear 2 fighting over money, like relatives disagreeing about an inheritance

de Vecht click to hear 2 a small, scenic river in the West of the country
(het) vocht click to hear 2 liquid, fluid
vochtig click to hear 2 damp
(de) vochtigheid click to hear 2 [dampness] - humidity
(de) damp click to hear 2 vapor
(de) waterdamp click to hear 2 3 water vapor

(het) verzet click to hear resistance
Het verzet tegen de maatregelen click to hear 2 3 The resistance against the measures, rules de Ondergrondse click to hear ['underground'] / het Verzet click to hear 2 3 / de Illegaliteit click to hear 2 the Resistance movement against the German occupation

Zich verzetten click to hear 2 3 'to resist,' often violently - sometimes 'to oppose' - Reflexive Verbs Hij verzette zich bij z'n arrestatie click to hear 2 3 4 He violently resisted his arrest Hij verzette zich tegen de politie click to hear 2 He fought with the police Hij verzette zich tegen het plan click to hear 2 He opposed the plan But:  een verzetje click to hear 2 an amusement, a welcome interruption
This is from the not-reflexive verb verzetten click to hear 2 to move items, put them in another place (or time) ‑>>

'Weer' click to hear 2 is ususally (het) weer  'weather' or the adverb weer  'again'
'Weer' click to hear 2 meaning 'fighting' or 'defense' (German 'Wehr')  is only found in compound words like:

(de) brandweer click to hear 2 fire brigade, fire department
(de) brandweerman click to hear 2 [fire-fighting man] firefighter, fireman
weerstaan click to hear 2 3 to resist, withstand (usually figuratively, like temptation)
onweerstaanbaar click to hear irresistable (usually figuratively)
(de) weerstand click to hear 2 (personal) opposition, resistance; (electrical) resistance
Ze boden weerstand click to hear 2 They [offered resistance] resisted, fought
De weg van de minste weerstand kiezen click to hear 2 3 Choosing the [way] line of the least resistance, the easiest option
weerloos click to hear [without resistance] defenseless, helpless
krachtig verweer click to hear 2 strong resistance, powerful defending

[(toy) military ambulance]
ambulance click to hear
[(toy) armored scout car]
verkenner click to hear
[military truck]
vrachtwagen click to hear
[(toy) half-track]
"half-track"
[(toy) cannon]
kanon click to hear
[jeep]
jeep click to hear 2 (English)
The Dutch word ziekenwagen click to hear 2 for 'ambulance' is a bit old-fashioned.

Many thanks to Sgt. Daniel Baskin, USMC (Ret.)

See also: The Bridge too Far

See also: Medieval

email - Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2012. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2