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Vowel and Diphthong Exceptions to the Phonetic Spelling of Dutch

<< Introducing the Vowels and Diphthongs Exercise

The indefinite article een click to hear 'a' is written with double E which usually indicates the 'long E' click to hear sound, but it's pronounced with the 'voiceless, unstressed E click to hear . More phonetically correct it can be written as " 'n " but that is rarely done.
There is something similar with the definite article het click to hear 2 3 which has a short E click to hear but it's usually said as " 't " click to hear with 'voiceless, unstressed E click to hear - I often write it as as " 't " on my website to show how the language is spoken and how I say it on my website.
een één ('n één) click to hear a one
een kwart click to hear a quarter (of something) - ¼
wat een click to hear 2 3 4 what a ..., such a ...!

-IG ending
The I in the -IG click to hear ending is pronounced as 'voiceless, unstressed E click to hear
grimmig click to hear 2 grisly, grim
duchtig click to hear 2 thorough
zalig click to hear blessed; delicious, heavenly
much more

-ISCH ending
The -ISCH click to hear ending is pronounced as 'long I (IE) ' click to hear -S - and CH is not pronounced. In the 1920s there were plans for a spelling change to -IES, but that never became official.
chemisch click to hear chemical ‑>>
basisch click to hear alkaline
much more

-LIJK ending
The IJ in the -lijk click to hear 2 ending is pronounced as 'voiceless, unstressed E click to hear
olijk click to hear droll, funny
eerlijk click to hear honest, fair ‑>>
But do note that there are many one-syllable words ending in -IJK and in all those the IJ is pronounced as EI/IJ, and also note the word gelijk click to hear 2 ('equal') ‑>> - it has a voiceless E 'ge-' prefix
much more

I have found one noun ending in -IG with 'short I' sound, but I cannot think of other Dutch adjectives and adverbs ending in voiceless, unstressed E-G than the -IG enders; there are words ending in -LUK, but no words of more than one syllable ending in -LEK with voiceless, unstressed E.
On the other hand, here is gratis click to hear ('free, no payment needed') and vies click to hear ('dirty') ‑>> - precies click to hear ('precisely, exactly') and lelies click to hear 2 ('lillies') - so an ‑IES ending you hear can be either ‑isch or ‑ies

Y and Consonant I
Y can be a vowel, sounding like short I click to hear or long I (IE) click to hear following the spelling rules, but Dutch Y can also be consonant-Y (Dutch J) between vowels or in front of a vowel
loyaal click to hear 2 loyal
yoghurt click to hear 2 yogurt
Dutch I after a vowel or a diphthong can also sound like Dutch J
(het) lawaai click to hear 2 noise ‑>>
kraaien click to hear 2 crows
(de) moeite click to hear 2 effort, difficulty, trouble ‑>>

There are many words of foreign origin in Dutch that do not follow the phonetic rules of Dutch - but they are not incuded in these tests because there are no clear identifiers to tell them apart.

This flashcards exercise is not meant for learning vocabulary. Some of the words are good examples of pronunciation but not in common use. Follow the links ‑>> if you want to know more about a word (totally optional.)
These flashcards exercises have only two-syllable words or phrases of two one-syllable words

Get to Know Some of the Exceptions

Vowels and Diphthongs, Exceptions and Special Cases Listening Test

Dutch Vowel and Diphthong Listening Tests:
Intro 1 - Intro 2 - Test 1 - Test 2 - Test 3 - Test 4

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Gij zult niet stelen click to hear 'Thou shalt not steal'