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To The Adjectives Exercises: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

Introduction to The Adjectives Exercise

Adverbs inform about verbs; adjectives inform about nouns.
Adverbs are the 'root' form you'll find in dictionaries and words lists; adjectives in most positions have an -E ending.
De deur is dicht click to hear 2
De dichte deur click to hear 2

The door is closed
The closed door
Only adjectives for singular 'het-words' after 'een' (a) - 'geen' (no, not a, zero quantity) or no article do not get the -E ending.
het lelijke eendje click to hear
geen lelijk eendje click to hear 2
the ugly duckling
not an ugly duckling
de appel is groen
de groene appel
een groene appel
het groene appeltje
een groen appeltje

The apple is green
the green apple
a green apple
the little green apple
a little green apple
de lange man
een lange man
het lange boek
een lang boek
de baby slaapt lang

the tall man
a tall man
the long book
a long book
the baby sleeps long (for a long time)
To The Adjectives Exercises: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

1. The Spelling Rules

2. Exceptions and Irregularities

To The Adjectives Exercises: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

3. The Why

The sound of the adjectives' vowel doesn't change, but the spelling of the word may change because of the -E ending.

Dutch vowels can be 'long' or 'short.' It's a traditional name - the difference is actually more a matter of tone.

short A click to hear
long A click to hear
short E click to hear
long E click to hear
'voiceless E' ('schwa') click to hear
short I click to hear
long I (IE) click to hear
short O click to hear
long O click to hear
short U click to hear
long U click to hear
Dutch spelling and pronunciation rules say that
hel / helle (hel-le) click to hear 2
heel / hele (he-le) click to hear 2
glaring, painfully bright
An (imperfect) rule of thumb: I've written about this many times before

Some common Dutch nouns have a vowel change in the plural, for instance glas/glazen click to hear ('glass/glasses') but (het) glas click to hear 2 ('glass') is only the noun, while glazen click to hear is both the plural '(drinking) glasses' and the adjective 'glass.' I can't think of an adjective that has a vowel change.

4. Rare Exceptions and Irregularities

The -ISCH click to
  hear and the -LIJK click to
   hear endings are regular for the -E ending, but as you can hear, ISCH is pronounced EES (Dutch IES) and the syllable break is after the I, and the IJ in -LIJK sounds like 'voiceless, unstressed E.'
tragisch / tragische click to hear 2
(tra-gisch / tra-gi-sche)
automatisch / automatische click to hear
elektrisch / elektrische click to hear
vriendelijk / vriendelijke click to
duidelijk / duidelijke click to hear 2
clear, easy to understand
To The Adjectives Exercises: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - More Exercises

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Don't be a dief (thief) / dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2