In maps the main problem is lack of space: the scale we have to work in is so much larger, braille needs more space than inkprint lettering and exclusive space at that, and of course our drawings are limited to A4- size.
Basically there are two ways of solving this problem: either enlarge the map and show the parts over several pages, or split up your map in subjects that are treated on different pages. We expect our readers to piece together ("synthesise") the information into a complete map in their mind.
    Thematic split-up: (The San Joaquin Valley, California)
    inkprint (ca 150K)
    1. the terrain: mountains and irrigated areas (ca 110K)
    2. rivers and dams (ca 80K)
    3. canals and aquaducts (ca 80K)

If a map is to be enlarged, always have a full area survey first. Indicate the sector map's position clearly, either in your survey, on a map dedicated to this purpose, or on the detailed maps themselves: use compass directions and 'centre'.

    Split Up to Enlarge Details (The United States)
    overview, large states identified(ca 70K)
    the East (ca 70K)
    the Northeast (ca 50K)
When you have a large number of maps an index map may be useful, showing the location of the detailed maps on the overview map.
    Use of Index Map (Africa)
    index map
    Thematic Map
In some maps it's better to split up in subjects: start with an orientation map, carry over some orientation points or the outline to the complete series, then put in the various matters on individual maps. Often it's virtually impossible to cram all the information in just one drawing, sometimes clarity is improved by splitting up. On the other hand, drawing comparisons might get harder.
    Split Up in Orientation and Thematic Map: (Sea Routes to Rotterdam)
    inkprint (ca50K)
    1. orientation (ca60K0
    2. thematic map (ca 60K)
In this same vein I will open a book that has a number of maps on a few areas by an introductory series of maps on that or those areas, showing important features like main cities, rivers etc., and if need be introduces a formalized outline.
    A Series of Orientation Maps: (Holland)
    1. realistic outline and waterways (ca 75K)
    2. formalized map (ca 50K)
    3. provinces (ca 75K)
    4. main cities (ca 65K)

After the area introduction, later maps will be uncluttered, dedicated solely to the subject in hand.
The later, thematic maps have to be in exactly the same outline, of course.

    Infant Mortality, Holland 1841-60
    inkprint (ca 40K)
    braille (ca 65K)
    Average January Temperatures in Holland (°C)
    inkprint (ca 35K)
    braille (ca 40K)

When a graph or a chart is superimposed over a map these are to be separated in a clean map and a clean chart; unless the map is for decoration only, then it may be left out. (You may already have seen this example in the Charts chapter.)

    Produce Auction Sites in Holland, with Volume of Sales
    inkprint (ca 40K)
    locations map (ca 50K)
    line chart (ca 30K)
Threedimensional drawings have to be edited, the following example is split up in two views (on one page).
    Split Up Threedimensional in Two Views
    inkprint (ca 130K)
    Braille (ca 80K)

In drawing a jagged coastline, keep the minimum distance in mind: a number of narrow inlets close together will just be a blur to our readers. It's nice to show a somewhat jagged coastline once, but then its information is spent, our readers had better spend their time on new features.
Islands and peninsula of a somewhat larger size also tend to pose a problem: we cannot discernibly hatch a small outlined area. Like in the map of Holland the south-west corner's largish (Dutch-scale) islands and sea-arms leave no room for other information, so in the map I generally use I have reduced the coastline there to one straight line.
One might also shift information concerning islands that are small in your map to text, like 'Japan is a first-world country'.

It is rather improbable that the blind reader will recognize an area by its form, so it is essential to put the area's name in the title, or add an orientation map. In case names of neighbouring areas are not given in inkprint, add those in your map, so the reader will be given more clues as to an area's location. (You may already have seen this example in an earlier chapter.)

    Add Orientation Map (King Darius' Empire)
    inkprint (ca 10K)
    orientation map: Present-day Countries (ca 80K)
    the historical map (ca 90K)
It's not easy to find text or special items in a hatched area, especially if the hatch is dots; so sometimes what I call counter-highlighting, shading the surroundings of the relevant area, might be useful. (You may already have seen this example in Chapter 5.)
    counter-highlighting (ca 70K)
Another kind of map shows a recommended walk through an exhibition (you may have seen this in an earlier chapter):
    walk through an exhibition (V-shaped arrow) (ca 70K)
- No outlining of hatches, neither in your key
- Areas might be filled up by relevant text also
- Draw borders dashed, being imaginary lines
- Hatch surface water in very thin dots (Autocad: dots, scale 50)

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© 1989, 2002 Marco Schuffelen All rights reserved

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Last modified: Thu May 15 10:36:42 PDT 1989