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Easy Dutch 2: Recognizable Words by Subject

More Easy Dutch, Recognizable Words: Vocabulary and Pronunciation - Recognizable Verbs: Common Activities

In some fields, many old words survived.

Colors

(De) kleur click to hear ('color') - kleuren click to hear ('colors' - 'to color') - kleurrijk click to hear ('[color-rich] colorful')
When you look at the Dutch words for the common colors, most look somewhat similar - even though the spoken form may be harder to recognize:








rood
click to hear
oranje
click to hear
geel
click to hear
groen
click to hear
blauw
click to hear
wit
click to hear
bruin
click to hear
grijs
click to hear

Only black and purple are very different:



but an old Dutch word for purple looks more familiar: purper click to
  hear
zwart
click to hear
paars
click to hear
See and hear also: more about colors - more about adjectives - flowers

The Article

The definite article ('the') can be either 'de' or 'het' in Dutch. Plurals take 'de' and diminutives (ending in '-je') take 'het' but there are few other good rules. You'll just have to remember which are the 'het' words.
'Het' can also mean 'it,' but that is not used as frequently as in English.
The indefinite article ('a') is 'een' - or phonetically more correct " 'n " - for emphasis you can say 'één' ('one.')
de / het / 't click to hear
de click to hear het click to hear 't click to hear
(the)
een, 'n click to hear (a)
één click to hear (one)
>> >>

The Days of The Week, The Months and The Seasons

(de) dag click to hear 'day' - dagen click to hear 2 'days'
- note the plural vowel change
dagelijks click to hear 2 'daily' (every day)
(de) week click to hear 'week
weken click to hear 2 'weeks'
wekelijks click to hear 2 'weekly'
(de) maand click to hear 'month'
maanden click to hear 'months'
maandelijks click to hear 2 'monthly'
(het) jaar click to hear 'year'
jaren click to hear 'years'
jaarlijks click to hear 2 'yearly'

The days of the week, the months and the seasons also look recognizable. Some say they were adopted in the Middle Ages from the Latin of the Roman Catholic Church, though both in English and Dutch several refer to the old Germanic gods, like Wednesday for chief god Wotan (Dutch: Wodan) - Thursday for god of thunder Thor (Donar) and Friday for Mrs Wotan, Freya.

De dagen van de week click to hear
The days of the week
maandag click to hear
Monday
dinsdag click to hear
Tuesday
woensdag click to hear
Wednesday
donderdag click to hear
Thursday
vrijdag click to hear
Friday
zaterdag click to hear
Saturday
zondag click to hear
Sunday
door de week click to hear [through the week] 'on weekdays' - in 't weekend click to hear 2 'in the weekend'
De maanden van het jaar click to hear
The Months of the Year
januari click to hear
January
februari click to hear
February
maart click to hear
March
april click to hear
April
mei click to hear
May
juni click to hear
June
juli click to hear
July
augustus click to hear
August
september click to hear
September
oktober click to hear
October
november click to hear
November
december click to hear
December
De seizoenen click to hear
The seasons
(de) winter click to hear
Winter
(de) lente click to hear
Spring
- think of: 'Lent'
(de) zomer click to hear
Summer
(de) herfst click to hear
Fall, Autumn
- think of: 'harvest'

Numbers

The numbers are not very different in Dutch and English. Actually, most numbers in the Indo-European languages are recognizable.
0
nul
click to
      hear
1
één
click to
      hear
2
twee
click to
      hear
3
drie
click to
      hear
4
vier
click to
      hear
5
vijf
click to
      hear
6
zes
click to
      hear
7
zeven
click to
      hear
8
acht
click to
      hear
9
negen
click to
      hear
10
tien
click to
      hear
11
elf
click to
      hear
12
twaalf
click to
      hear
13
dertien
click to
      hear
14
veertien
click to
      hear
15
vijftien
click to
      hear
16
zestien
click to
      hear
17
zeventien
click to
      hear
18
achttien
click to
      hear
19
negentien
click to
      hear
20
twintig
click to
      hear
21
éénentwintig
click to
      hear
Note that from 'twenty-one' Dutch says 'éénentwintig' - one-and-twenty.
100
honderd
click to
      hear
200
tweehonderd
click to
      hear
1000
duizend
click to
      hear
1,000,000
miljoen (1.000.000)
click to
      hear 2
1,000,000,000
miljard (1.000.000.000)
click to
      hear
-1
min één
click to
      hear
below zero
onder nul
click to
      hear
Note: 'honderd' for 'one hundred' and 'duizend' for 'one thousand' - Dutch doesn't give that number one like in English.
More Numbers

Time

(de) tijd click to hear 'time' (de) klok click to hear 'clock' (de) wekker click to hear 'alarm clock' - think of: 'to wake' Hoe laat is het? click to hear [how late is it?] 'what is the time?'
(het) uur click to hear 'hour'
uren click to hear 2 'hours'
(het) kwartier click to hear 'quarter, 15 minutes' (de) minuut click to hear 'minuut'
minuten click to hear 2 'minutes'
(de) seconde click to hear 'second'
seconden click to hear 2 'seconds'
see note about use of plurals
[a clock, 3:00]
Drie uur
click to hear
[a clock, 2:30]
Half drie
click to hear
[a clock, 3:30]
Half vier
click to hear
[a clock, 2:45]
Kwart voor drie
click to hear
[a clock, 6:15]
Kwart over zes
click to hear
[a clock, 2:20]
Tien voor half drie /or/
Twintig over twee
click to hear
[a clock, 2:55]
Vijf voor drie
click to hear
[a clock, 3:05]
Vijf over drie
click to hear
[a clock, 11:58]
Twee voor twaalf
click to hear


more time
Do note that Dutch 'half 4' (etc.) means 'half an hour before ...' and NOT 'half past ...' like (British?) English 'half ...'

The Human Body

For the parts of the human body many old words are still in use in both Dutch and English, though the body itself is called (het) lichaam click to hear. Some people say (het) lijf click to hear (think of 'life' and 'to live') but to me it's a bit coarse. 'Body parts' are lichaamsdelen click to hear - see also: medical.

(het) hoofd click to hear head
(het) voorhoofd click to hear 2 forehead, brow
(de) rimpel click to hear 2 wrinkle
(de) wenkbrauw click to hear 2
wenkbrauwen click to hear
eyebrow
eyebrows
(het) oog click to hear eye
(het) oor click to hear ear
(de) neus click to hear nose
(de) mond click to hear mouth
(de) lippen click to hear lips
(de) tanden click to hear (front) teeth
(de) tong click to hear 2 tongue
(de) kin click to hear chin
(de) nek click to hear neck
(de) schouder click to hear shoulder
(de) arm click to hear 2 arm
(de) elleboog click to hear 2 elbow
(de) pols click to hear wrist
think of: 'pulse'
(de) hand click to hear hand
(de) vinger click to hear finger >>
(het) vingertopje click to hear 2 3 fingertip
(de) duim click to hear thumb
(de) nagel click to hear nail
(de) borst click to hear breast
(het) hart click to hear heart
(de) rib click to hear 2 rib
longen click to hear lungs
(de) maag click to hear stomach
(de) lever click to hear liver
(de) navel click to hear 2 navel,
bellybutton

(het) orgaan click to hear 2 organ *
(de) heup click to hear hip
(de) dij click to hear 2 thigh
(de) knie click to hear knee
(de) enkel click to hear ankle
(de) hiel click to hear heel
(de) voet click to hear
voeten click to hear 2
foot
feet
(de) teen click to hear toe

(het) haar click to hear hair
(de) baard click to hear 2 beard
(het) bloed click to hear blood
(het) zweet click to hear 2 sweat
tranen click to hear tears

(de) pijn click to hear 'pain'
(de) kramp click to hear 'cramp(s)'
(de) verlamming click to hear 'paralysis'
think of: 'lame'
(de) verslaving click to hear 'addiction'
think of: 'slave'
kanker click to hear 2 'cancer'
Unrelated
Words
(de) hersenen click to hear the brain (the organ)
hersens click to hear "brains" (intelligence)
(de) zenuw click to hear 'nerve' *
kiezen click to hear back teeth, molars
(de) wang click to hear cheek
(het) gezicht click to hear 2 face
(de) keel click to hear throat
darmen click to hear 2 bowels
nieren click to hear 2 kidneys
(de) rug click to hear back
(de) ruggengraat click to hear backbone
wervels click to hear disks, vertebrae
(de) buik click to hear belly
billen click to hear 2 buttocks
(het) been click to hear
benen click to hear
leg
legs
(de) kuit click to hear 2 calf
(de) ader click to hear 2 vein
(de) slagader click to hear 2 artery

(de) huid click to hear skin

(het) speeksel click to hear 2 saliva
The human (and horse) 'head' is (het) hoofd click to hear, while animals have a (de) kop click to hear. Likewise, humans (and horses) have benen click to hear 2 ('legs' - singular (het) been click to hear) while animals (and tables and chairs) have poten click to hear - singular: (de) poot click to hear (think of: 'paw.')
Some books and websites will try to tell you that (het) been (irregular plural: beenderen) is the Dutch word for 'bone,' but it is really very old-fashioned. In modern Dutch, 'been' is only found as 'bone' in a few compound words like (het) soepbeen click to hear 2 ('soup bone') and (het) beenmerg click to hear 2 3 ('bone marrow.') As you've seen in the lines above, 'been' is the regular Dutch word for 'leg.' The common Dutch word for 'bone' is (het) bot click to hear - plural: botten click to hear Avoid learning-Dutch books and websites written by people who are not native speakers of Dutch.
As you've seen above (de) rug click to hear is your 'back' and (de) ruggengraat click to hear is 'backbone' ((de) graat click to hear is Dutch for 'fish bone') - (de) rugzak click to hear 2 is 'backpack' - think of 'rucksack.'
(De) strot click to hear 2 is a slang word for 'throat.'

The Family

Dutch (de) familie click to hear is the English extended family, all of your relatives. Hij is familie van me click to hear - 'he is a relative [of mine.]'
The nuclear family (mother, father, children) is (het) gezin click to hear more Dutch family.
(de) moeder click to hear mother
(de) vader click to hear father
(de) ouders click to hear parents
(think of: 'elders')
(het) kind click to hear
kinderen click to hear
child
children
(de) dochter click to hear daughter
(de) zoon click to hear son
(de) zus click to hear
(het) zusje click to hear
sister
(de) broer click to hear brother
(de) tante click to hear aunt
(de) nicht click to hear niece; female cousin
(de) neef click to hear nephew; male cousin
(de) grootouders click to hear grandparents
(de) grootmoeder click to hear grandmother
(de) grootvader click to hear grandfather
Unrelated
Words
oom click to hear
uncle
schoonmoeder click to hear
mother-in-law
schoonvader click to hear
father-in-law
schoondochter click to hear
daughter-in-law
schoonzoon click to hear
son-in-law
schoonzusje click to hear
sister-in-law
zwager click to hear
brother-in-law
kleinkinderen click to hear
grandchildren
For in-laws Dutch mostly follows the French model: beau-père, belle-mère etc.

Down on The Farm

(de) koe click to hear
koeien click to hear
cow
cows
(de) os click to hear
ossen click to hear 2
ox
oxen
(het) schaap click to hear
schapen click to hear 2
sheep (1)
sheep (>1)
(de) geit click to hear goat
(de) gans / ganzen click to hear 2 goose/geese
(de) bij click to hear bee
(de) melk click to hear milk
(de) boter click to hear butter
(het) vet click to hear fat, grease
(de) kaas click to hear cheese
(het) leer click to hear leather
(de) wol click to hear wool
(het) ei click to hear
eieren click to hear
egg
eggs
(de) honing click to hear 2 honey
(de) merrie click to hear 2 mare
(het) veulen click to hear foal
(de) kat click to hear cat
(de) rat click to hear 2 rat
(de) muis / muizen click to hear 2 mouse/mice
(de) luis click to hear louse
(de) vlo click to hear 2 flea
(de) teek click to hear tick
(de) wesp click to hear 2 wasp
(het) veld click to hear field
(de) ploeg click to hear plow
(de) trekker click to hear tractor
(het) zaad click to hear seed
(het) graan click to hear 2 cereal, grain
(de) rogge click to hear 2 rye
(het) vlas click to hear 2 flax
(het) gras click to hear 2 grass
(het) hooi click to hear hay
(het) stro click to hear 2 straw
(het) fruit click to hear fruits
(de) groente click to hear vegetables
think: green

(de) markt click to hear market
Changed
Meaning
varken click to hear 2 'pig'
think of: 'pork'
big click to hear 'young pig'
think of: 'pig'
stier click to hear 'bull'
think of: 'steer'
(de) hond click to hear 'dog'
think of: 'hound'
akker click to hear 'agriculture field'
think of: 'acre'
(het) vlees click to hear 'meat'
think of: 'flesh'
(de) haan click to hear 2 rooster
- think of 'hen'
Unrelated
Words
(het) paard click to hear 2 'horse' (het) weiland click to hear 2 'meadow' (de) oogst click to hear 'harvest' (de) kip click to hear chicken
kippen click to hear chickens
(de) boer click to hear farmer (de) boerderij click to hear farm - also: farmhouse (de) landbouw click to hear 2 (3) agriculture
Dutch (het) ros click to hear is related to English 'horse,' but it has come to mean a trusted but aging horse - you could jocularly call your bicycle (het) ijzeren ros click to hear.
See also: food - more food - more agriculture

More Animals

The Dutch general word for 'animal' is (het) dier click to hear (plural: dieren click to hear) - it sounds very much like English 'deer.' My computer's dictionary says the root word of 'deer' meant any four-legged animal. (The Dutch word for our modern 'deer' is (het) hert click to hear - plural: herten click to hear 2.)
The Dutch word for 'mammal' is (het) zoogdier click to hear ('suckling, mothermilk-fed animal.')
The horse-donkey hybrid 'mule' is called (het) muildier click to hear 2 in Dutch.
Like English 'beast,' a wild, violent or ill-behaved animal or person can be called (het) beest click to hear (plural: beesten click to hear 2)
(de) beer click to hear bear
(de) wolf click to hear wolf
(de) vos click to hear fox
(de) haas click to hear hare
(de) mol click to hear 2 mole
(het) rendier click to hear 2 reindeer
(de) olifant click to hear elephant
(de) giraf (Fr.) click to hear 2 giraffe
(de) tijger click to hear tiger
(het) luipaard click to hear leopard
(de) jakhals click to hear 2 jackall
(de) gazelle click to hear 2 gazelle
(het) insekt click to hear insect, bug
(de) vlieg click to hear fly
(de) spin click to hear spider
(de) krekel click to hear 2 cricket click to hear
(de) mot click to hear moth
(de) aap click to hear 2 'monkey' - think of: 'ape' - (de) mensaap click to hear 2 3 'ape, primate.'
A large moth is called (de) nachtvlinder click to hear 2 ('butterfly of the night') - (de) vlinder click to hear is the common butterfly
(de) vis click to hear fish
(de) haring click to hear herring >>
(de) dolfijn click to hear 2 dolphin
(de) walvis click to hear whale
(de) zwaardvis click to hear 2 swordfish
(de) karper click to hear 2 carp
(de) brasem click to hear bream
(de) baars click to hear 2 'bass, perch'
(de) zalm click to hear 2 salmon
mosselen click to hear 2 mussels
(de) zeester click to hear 2 starfish
(de) vogel click to hear 2 plural: vogels click to hear 2 bird/birds - think of: 'fowl'
Onze gevederde vrienden click to hear 2 'our feathered friends' - birds
(de) raaf click to hear
raven click to hear 2
raven
ravens
(de) kraai click to hear 2 crow
(de) havik click to hear 2 hawk
(de) uil click to hear 2 owl
(de) zwaluw click to hear swallow
(de) vink click to hear finch
(de) goudvink click to hear 2 [gold-] bullfinch
(de) nachtegaal click to hear 2 nightingale
(de) leeuwerik click to hear 2 lark
(de) fazant click to hear pheasant
(de) duif click to hear 2 dove, pigeon
(de) koekoek click to hear 2 cuckoo
(de) zwaan click to hear swan
(de) kanarie click to hear 2 canary
(de) parkiet click to hear 2 parakeet
(de) buizerd click to hear 2 buzzard
(de) spreeuw click to hear 2 'starling' - think of: sparrow - (de) sperwer click to hear 2 'sparrowhawk'
Some people in Amsterdam will call any small bird (de) vink click to hear ('finch') - or more likely (het) 'finkie' click to hear 2
The check mark V is sometimes also called vink.
(de) worm click to hear worm
naakte slak click to hear 2
(de) slak click to hear
[naked snail] slug
snail
(de) salamander click to hear salamander
(het) reptiel click to hear 2 reptile
(de) amfibie click to hear 2 amphibian
(de) draak click to hear 2 3 dragon >>
Also see and hear the farm animals in the chapter above, and my general animals pages.

Music

(De) muziek click to hear 2 'music' - (het) geluid click to hear 'sound' - think of 'loud'
The music words are not very old. In both Dutch and English, most are 16th- to 19th-Century loan words from Italian and French. - more music vocabulary
If you don't see a use for these words you of course don't have to memorize them, but looking at the spelling of the Dutch words and listening to the pronunciation is a good exercise.
muziek maken click to hear to make music
spelen click to hear to play
(het) instrument click to hear 2 instrument
(het) muziekinstrument click to hear musical instrument
(de) piano click to hear piano
(de) toetsen click to hear keys (not: lock keys)
think of: 'touch'
(het) pedaal click to hear 2 pedal
(de) elektrische piano click to hear electric piano
(het) orgel click to hear organ *
(de) orgelpijp click to hear 2 organ pipe
(het) elektronisch orgel click to hear 2 3 electronic organ
(de) xylofoon click to hear xylophone
(de) harp click to hear harp
(de) luit click to hear lute
(de) viool click to hear violin
(het) strijkkwartet click to hear string quartet
(de) bas click to hear bass
(de) gitaar click to hear guitar
(de) akoestische gitaar click to hear 2 acoustic guitar
(de) elektrische gitaar click to hear electric guitar
(de) gitaarsolo click to hear guitar solo
(de) mandoline click to hear mandolin
(de) banjo click to hear 2 banjo
(de) fret click to hear fret
blazers click to hear 2 wind instrument
players (blazen
= 'to blow')
(de) fluit click to hear flute
(de) saxofoon click to hear 2 saxophone
(de) klarinet click to hear clarinet
(de) trompet click to hear trumpet
(de) trombone click to hear trombone
(de) tuba click to hear tuba
(de) hobo click to hear oboe
(de) trommel click to hear drum *
(de) triangel click to hear triangle *
(het) orkest click to hear 2 orchestra
(het) koor click to hear choir
zingen click to hear to sing
(de) zangeres click to hear 2 lady singer
(de) zanger click to hear male singer
(de) zang click to hear vocals
(de) sopraan click to hear soprano
(de) alt click to hear 2 alto
tenor click to hear tenor
(de) bas click to hear bass
vals click to hear off-pitch
- think of: false
Barok click to hear Baroque
Klassiek click to hear Classical
Romantisch click to hear Romantic
kamermuziek click to hear 2 chamber music
(de) opera click to hear opera
(de) wals click to hear waltz
(de) mars click to hear march
melodie click to hear melody
(het) thema click to hear theme, figure
(het) ritme click to hear rhythm
(de) metronoom click to hear 2 metronome
(het) akkoord click to hear chord *
stereo click to hear stereo (sound)
(de) echo click to hear 2 echo
(de) tekst click to hear 2 lyrics
think of: text
lyrisch click to hear lyrical
(de) toon click to hear 2 tone
(de) microfoon click to hear microphone
spelen click to hear to play
(de) sessie click to hear session
(de) componist click to hear composer
(de) dirigent click to hear conductor
("director")
(de) sonate click to hear sonata
(de) symfonie click to hear symphony
(het) concert click to hear concert
(de) noot click to hear note *
(de) halve noot click to hear 1/2 note
(de) kwart noot click to hear 1/4 note
(de) achtste noot click to hear 1/8 note
(het) tempo click to hear tempo
(het) octaaf click to hear octave
(de) rust click to hear rest
(de) dynamiek click to hear dynamics
(de) harmonie click to hear harmony
majeur click to hear major
mineur click to hear minor
(het) interval click to hear interval
dominant click to hear dominant
consonant click to hear consonant *
dissonant click to hear dissonant
(de) leidtoon click to hear 2 leading tone
diatonisch click to hear diatonic
chromatisch click to hear chromatic

Ranks in The Military

The ranks in the military (Dutch: rangen click to hear - singular: (de) rang click to hear 2) look so similar they don't need translation, though pronunciation differs.
(de) officier click to hear 2 'officer' - (de) onderofficier click to hear 2 'non-commissioned officer, subaltern' - (het) uniform click to hear
soldaat click to hear
korporaal click to hear 2
sergeant (Fr.) click to hear
luitenant click to hear
kapitein click to hear 2
majoor click to hear 2
kolonel click to hear
generaal click to hear 2
maarschalk click to hear 2
admiraal click to hear 2
Mariniers click to hear 2 'marines' - but: (de) marine click to hear 'navy.' See also: The Military

Trees

The Dutch word for 'tree,' (de) boom click to hear 2 came to mean something like 'pole, stick' in English ('boom mike') - but many tree types are recognizable. See also: trees
(de) eik click to hear oak
(de) beuk click to hear beech
(de) berk click to hear 2 birch
(de) es click to hear 2 ash
(de) els click to hear alder
(de) populier click to hear poplar
(de) linde click to hear linden
(de) wilg click to hear willow
(de) treurwilg click to hear weeping willow
(de) spar click to hear 2 spruce
(de) ceder click to hear cedar
(de) kastanje click to hear chestnut
(de) olm click to hear 2
(de) iep click to hear 2
elm (old-fashioned)
elm (modern)
(de) knoest click to hear knot (in wood)

Not Recognizable: The Sciences

Dutch independence came about at the time of the birth of modern science, and in patriotic language purism the Dutch made up names for the sciences that differ from those in most other European languages.
(de) wetenschap click to hear
(de) wetenschapper click to hear 2
science
scientist
(de) wiskunde click to hear mathematics
(de) natuurkunde click to hear physics
(de) scheikunde click to hear chemistry >>
(de) sterrenkunde click to hear 2 astronomy
(de) plantkunde click to hear botany
(de) geneeskunde click to hear medicine >>
(de) aardrijkskunde click to hear geography
Most of these words are still in common use, only instead of geneeskunde click to hear ('medicine') most people nowadays say medicijnen click to hear 2.

Wordt Vervolgd click to hear To Be Continued >>

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